Concentrations of Selected Heavy metals (Iron, Manganese, Cadmium, Lead, Chromium, and Nickel) in three fish species from Ase River at Kwale, Delta State, Nigeria.

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume VII, Issue III, March 2022 | ISSN 2454–6194

Concentrations of Selected Heavy metals (Iron, Manganese, Cadmium, Lead, Chromium, and Nickel) in three fish species from Ase River at Kwale, Delta State, Nigeria.

1*Okolo Azubuike Jeremiah, 2Ossai Embbey K., 1Emmanuel Ifeanyi V.,3Osuagwu Collins C., 1Usiakpebru, Austin E
1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli
2Department of Chemistry, Delta State University Abraka
3Department of Chemical Engineering, Imo State Polytechnic,Umuagwo Ohaji.

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Abstract
The consumption of fish worldwide has increased speedily in recent years particularly with the awareness of its nutritional and therapeutic benefits. In addition to being important source of protein, fish are enriched with essential minerals, vitamins, and unsaturated fatty acids. However, fish normally accumulate heavy metals from food, water bodies like rivers, lake, stream etc., and sediments and this is a good indicator of heavy metals contamination in water. Concentration of Heavy metal namely Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni were found in dominant fish species in Ase River at Kwale. The heavy metal was analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (iCE 3400 AAS, Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA). It was observed that the relative abundance of the heavy metals was as follows Fe >Mn > Cd>Pb>Cr>Ni. The level of Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb and Cr are higher than WHO Limit for food. High concentration of the heavy metals calls for constant monitoring since the level were found to represent future risk to man who is the consumer. It was revealed that Clarias garepinus (African sharp tooth Catfish) and Channa channa (Snake head fish) accumulated more heavy metals than Tilapia mariae (Tilapia fish).

Keywords Biomagnification, Biomonitoring, Ecosystem, Fish species, Heavy metals, Pollutants.

Introduction
Heavy metal pollution in rivers gives threat to public water supplies and also to consumer of fishery sources [1]. Heavy metals constitute a core group of aquatic pollutants via its bio-accumulative and non-biodegradable properties in food [2]. Human may be contaminated by organic and inorganic pollutants associated to aquatic systems by consumption of contaminated fish and other aquatic foods from this environment [3]. Studies on bioaccumulation of pollutants in fish are important in determining different content of trace metal in fish species from bio-magnifications of food chains, metabolic capability and feeding habits [4]. In order to protect aquatic biota, it is necessary to determine contamination levels of trace elements through chemical biomonitoring and evaluation of biomarkers that represent early indicators of biological effect [5]. Certain fish species may be better bioindicators of specific heavy metal contamination compared to others [6,7].

Two main ways by which heavy metals enter the aquatic food chain are by direct consumption of water and food through the digestive tract and non-dietary routes across permeable membranes such as the muscles and gill [8]. Therefore, levels in fish usually reflect levels found in sediment and water of the particular aquatic environment from which they are sourced and time of exposure [5,9]. Absorption through skin contact, for example from contact with soil, is another potential source of heavy metal contamination [10]. Bioaccumulation of any metal above its threshold level invariably result in stress often leading to irreversible physiological conditions [11]. The objective of this research work was to ascertain concentration of the selected heavy metals (iron, manganese, cadmium, lead and chromium) in fish species from Ase river, Delta state, Nigeria and to verify that fishes in the Ase river are fit for human consumption.

Study Area

The area of study is River Ase in Kwale Southern Nigeria. River Ase is located at approximately on Latitudes 5o 17 and 5o 53 North of the Equator and Longitude 6o17 and 6o 31 East of the Greenwich Meridian [12]. The river is approximately 292 kilometres in length and flows through such settlement as Obekwele Osemele, Iselegu in Delta North Senatorial district to Ivrogbo, Ibredeni, Ase, Kwale and Asaba-Ase in Delta State South Senatorial district.River Ase is a tributary of the Forcados River, the Western branch of River Niger in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria [13].