Determination of the Concentrations of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals and Their Transfer Factor from Soil to Crops/Vegetables in Some Agricultural Soils in Barkin Ladi Area, Plateau State, Nigeria.

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Determination of the Concentrations of Radionuclides and Heavy Metals and Their Transfer Factor from Soil to Crops/Vegetables in Some Agricultural Soils in Barkin Ladi Area, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Ogori B.O.*, Lubis S and Bakji G
Federal College of Education Pankshin Plateau State
*Correspondence author

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2023.8514

IJRISS Call for paper

Received: 29 April 2023; Revised: 15 May 2023; Accepted: 20 May 2023; Published: 20 June 2023

Abstract: Radionuclides and heavy metals exist in every human environment as a result of increasing anthropogenic activities. Their pollution of soil, water, and atmosphere represents a growing environmental problem affecting food quality and human health. The samples of soil used for this study were collected from Foron Bisitchi and Mazat communities of Barkin Ladi Area of Plateau state. The samples were analyzed using Canberra Model 727/727R Lead Shield Gamma ray Spectrometer with NaI(Ti) detector and ED-XFR. The result shows the range of the concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in soils as, 203.56 ± 0.80 to 217.39 ± 0.54 Bq/Kg, 69.39 ±0.16 to 98.07 ± 0.88 Bq/Kg and 69.52 ±0.79 to 97.88 ± 0.67 Bq/Kg respectively. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Zr in the soil ranges from 1,083 – 2,380.00 mg/kg, 1,006.79 – 2,709.00 mg/kg, 235.70 – 707.40 mg/kg, 1,156.00 – 2,288.00 mg/kg, 0.00 – 560.10 mg/kg and 4,440 – 7,770.00 mg/kg respectively. The radionuclides highest TF of 0.99 was recorded in potato while the least with 0.44 was recorded in cabbage. Likewise, the heavy metals recorded the highest TF of 38.57 in spinach with the least as 0.086 also in spinach. The result is found to be higher than the maximum permissible limit except for 40K which is lower. Almost all the TF are greater than 0.5 which is an indication that there is high uptake of the metals by the crops and vegetables. From the result obtained, it is evident that both the soil and the vegetables are polluted with the radionuclides and heavy metals. The soil is therefore not good for agricultural purposes unless the soil undergoes remediation.

Key words: Soil, Heavy Metals, Radionuclides, Transfer-Factor

I. Introduction

Most developing countries depend on Agriculture for their economic development. Many countries in Africa have laid down policies on the provision of sustainable food security. When people have sufficient food to eat, many of the nutrition-related problems are avoided and healthy citizens are available to work for the growth of their economies.
Plants, animals, and humans all grow and develop primarily in soil (Shi et al., 2014). The occurrence of threats to the health of the soil may also be the result of a wide range of human activities like mining, transportation, waste disposal, industrial activities and application of phosphate fertilizer to agricultural soils (Wang et al.,2014: Mokgolele and Likuku 2016).
According to Aleksakhin (2009), radionuclide contaminated soils lose their ability to produce high-quality agricultural crops and are considered degraded. Aleksakhin (2009), also stated that the issues associated with the degradation of radioactively contaminated soils are being considered a distinct kind of chemical contamination with additional, particular characteristics associated with ionizing radiation.