Dual Solution Synthesis of Alloyed Compound Thin Films of CuCdPbS2O4 for Possible Device Applications

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VIII, Issue III, March 2023|ISSN 2454-6194

Dual Solution Synthesis of Alloyed Compound Thin Films of CuCdPbS2O4 for Possible Device Applications

 Joseph Ijeoma Onwuemeka, Ph.D.1*, Okechukwu Kelechi Nwofor, Ph.D.2, and Ngozi Patricia Ebosie, M.Sc.3
1Department of Physics, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. Postal code 460222.
2Department of Physics, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. Postal code 460222.
3Department of Chemistry, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. Postal code 460222.
*Corresponding Author
Received: 23 November 2021; Accepted: 22 Febraury 2022; Published: 08 April 2023

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Abstract: – The need to improve on the basic applications on already existing binary and ternary thin films led to the development of compound material of CuCdPbS2O4 alloyed thin films through the simultaneous combinations of CuS, CdO and PbS thin films derived from their different precursor materials. CuCdPbS2O4 alloyed thin films have been fabricated on 76mm x 26mm x 1mm commercial-quality glass microscopic substrates using dual solution synthesis(DSS) from aqueous solutions of precursor materials of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydrated copper sulphate (CuSO4), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) and thiourea in which aqueous ammonia solution was employed as complexing agent. The samples were annealed at the temperatures, of 100 ᵒC, 150 ᵒC, 200 ᵒC, and 250 ᵒC.
The crystallographic studies were done using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The XRD patterns of CuCdPbS2O4 alloyed thin films of samples A and B have diffraction peaks at 2θ=12.89 ᵒᵒ and 2θ=24.93 ᵒ. The grain sizes of samples A and B are 89.690nm and 62.733nm respectively. The deposited film compound with chemical formula CuCdPbS2O4 has dickite structure with monoclinic crystal system. Sample A, B, C and D have low optical transmittance in the ultraviolet region, high in the visible and high in the near infrared regions of electromagnetic spectrum.
The two samples, have average direct wide band gap of 3.91±0.05eV. The films can be found useful in cold and heat mirror applications, active layer in various types of solar cells, liquid crystal displays, flat panel displays for optoelectronic applications, gas sensor, photovoltaics, photoconductive cells and photo-electrochemical sensing devices.

Keywords: Transmittance, Band Gap, Absorbance, Reflectance, Optical Conductivity, Photovoltaic

I. Introduction

Thin films play important roles in contemporary electronics and optoelectronic applications. In the early days of radio and television transmitting and receiving equipment relied on vacuum tubes, but these have almost been completely replaced in the last four decades by semiconducting materials, including transistors, diodes, integrated circuit and other solid state devices.
Transition metal chalcogenides such as cadmium and copper are important inorganic materials with wide range of potential applications in the magnetic, electronics, catalytic and optical industry [1]. These materials can be divided into two categories: layered materials with Van der wall’s spacing between the layers, which comprise two-third of transition metal chalcogenides and non-layered materials [2]. The transition metal chacogenides (TMC) is a family of compounds with the formula MyXZ, where M is a member of transition metals (V, Nb, Ta,Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Tc, or Re), while X represent a member of chalcogen family (P, S, Se and Te), y and z are integers. They have a variety of potentially useful properties [3,4].
Depending on the transition metal and the chalcogen involved, layered transition metal chalcogenide (LTMC) can have properties ranging from semiconducting to superconducting layered bulk chalcogenide crystal materials and are composed of vertically stacked layers bonded together by weak van dar wal forces, similar to the van dar wal forces in graphite [5]. Owing to strong surface effects, the properties of the materials vary drastically with the number of layers in a sheet. The electrical and optical properties of these compounds can be tuned on demand by reducing or increasing the number of layers [6], which makes them potential candidates for tunable nano-electronics [7].
Copper sulphide is a promising material for optoelectronics and photovoltaics. During the growth of ultrafine functional layers of CuxS, the electronic structure of sulphide is determined primarily by the crystallographic orientation of a substrate and by the method being applied. It can be classified into three groups, namely monosulphide, disulphide and mixed monosulphide. Copper sulphide occurs naturally in nature as a mineral called covellite. It conducts electricity moderately [8]. Both synthetic materials and