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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VIII, Issue II, February 2023|ISSN 2454-6194

Effect of Diabetes Self-Management Education on the Prevention of Diabetic Foot Injuries

Nanda Fitria1*, Novia Rizana1, Sri Andala1, Mursal1, Dalillah Afifah1
1STIKes Muhammadiyah Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia
*Corresponding Author
Received: 10 February 2023; Accepted: 23 February 2023; Published: 24 March 2023

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract – Diabetics are at high risk of developing chronic disease problems such as diabetic foot injuries. Diabetic foot injuries can be prevented if diabetics have good knowledge so that they are able to carry out diabetic foot care. The provision of DSME can facilitate the knowledge and ability of diabetes mellitus clients to carry out self-care. This study aims to analyze the effect of DSME on the prevention of diabetic foot injuries. The method used is a quasi-experiment with one group pre-test post-test design. Data collection uses research instruments in the form of questionnaires. The study sample used was 55 people with a purposive sampling technique. The data analysis technique used is the marginal homoegenity test. The results showed that there was an effect of DSME on the prevention of diabetic foot injuries. It is hoped that the Center for Public Health can make DSME a regular health promotion program to improve the self-care ability of type 2 diabetes mellitus clients while preventing complications from diabetic foot injuries.

Keywords: Diabetes Self-Management, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic Foot Injuries

I. Introduction

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease caused by an increase in blood glucose (blood sugar) levels which can increasingly cause severe damage to the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, eyes and nerves. Generally caused by type 2 diabetes, mellitus occurs in adults, when the patient’s body becomes resistant to insulin or cannot produce enough insulin (World Health Organization, 2020).
According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), 425 million people worldwide have diabetes, with that figure is expected to rise by 48% to 629 million by 2045. Indonesia is the top 10 countries for the number of adults with diabetes; in 2017, it ranked 6th out of the top 10 countries. Indonesia is one of 22 countries in the world with 425 million diabetics; by 2045, that number will rise to 183 million, or the total number of cases of 10 million diabetes in adults (Diabetes Atlas, 2019).
Data from the Aceh Provincial Office based on the results of a survey of Center for Public Health in 23 districts and cities in 2019, there were 30,555 diabetic patients. Meanwhile, in the working area of the Juang Bireuen City Health Center, diabetics in 2021 totaled 517 people. Based on some of these data, it can be concluded that the prevalence and incidence of type II diabetes mellitus continue to increase from year to year, both in developed and developing countries. The number of people with diabetes mellitus, if not handled properly, will cause various kinds of complications.
The complications resulting from diabetes mellitus are varied. According to the World Health Organization, adults with diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk of heart attack and stroke, blindness, and neuropathy (nerve damage) in the legs, which can lead to diabetic leg injuries, infections, and limb amputation (Jones & Harding, 2015). Leg injuries that last for a long period also have a negative impact on the patient’s self-concept, self-esteem, quality of life, physical and emotional health, his or her hope of recovery, and their spiritual level. This shows that handling leg injuries is not enough just to take care of the physical, but also needs attention in handling the psychic, spiritual side, to improve the quality of life of the patient (Akbar et al., 2021).
One aspect that plays an important role in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus is education. Providing intensive education related to reducing the incidence of diabetic foot injuries (Adiewere et al., 2018), educational programs improve foot care scores and reduce foot problems such as neuropathy, foot defects, lesions, ulcers, tinea pedis, and callus degrees (Sharoni et al., 2018).
DSME (Diabetes Self-Management Education) is an ongoing process carried out to facilitate the knowledge, skills, and abilities of clients with diabetes mellitus to carry out self-care. The implementation of DSME consists of 4 sessions; in its implementation, it not only provides counseling but also teaches the skills of promoting foot care. Proper foot care can prevent the occurrence of diabetic foot injuries. The lack of knowledge and awareness of the sufferer causes a lack of diabetic foot injury prevention behavior (Jannah & Uprianingsih, 2020).