Environmental Factors and Urban Malaria Transmission Risk in sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Public Health Policy

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International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume VI, Issue V, May 2019 | ISSN 2321–2705

Environmental Factors and Urban Malaria Transmission Risk in sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Public Health Policy

Okangba, C.C

IJRISS Call for paper

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Benjamin Carson School of Medicine, Babcock University Ilisan-Remo, Ogun-State, Nigeria.

Abstracts: – Malaria remains the most complex and overwhelming health problem in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Malaria not only remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, but it also impedes socioeconomic development, particularly in sub Saharan Africa. The rapid increase in the world’s urban population which has led to uncontrolled and unsustainable exploitation of natural resources and has major implications for the epidemiology of malaria. Sub-Saharan Africa suffers by far the greatest malaria burden worldwide and is currently undergoing a profound demographic change, with a growing proportion of its population moving to urban areas. A review of malaria transmission in sub-Saharan African cities shows the strong likelihood of transmission occurring within these sprawling cities, whatever the size or characteristics of their bio-ecologic environment. Factors affecting malaria transmission are going hand-in-hand with often declining economies might have profound implications for the epidemiology and control of malaria, as the relative disease burden increases among urban dwellers. Urbanisation is generally expected to reduce malaria transmission; however the disease still persists in African cities, in some cases at higher levels than in rural areas. Malaria control in urban environments may be simpler as a result of urbanization and urban malaria is highly focused; however, much of what we know about malaria transmission in rural environments might not hold in the urban area context. Global public health interventions may not be reaching poor and less privileged populations, therefore, there is need to examine the differences in the burden of disease and the coverage and impact of public health interventions among persons with differing socioeconomic status.

Key words: Malaria, sub-Sahara Africa, transmission, urbanization, social and economic status, health