Investigating the Mechanical Properties of Cast Aluminium Rods Reinforced with Wet Filament Winding

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International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume IX, Issue I, January 2022 | ISSN 2321–2705

 Investigating the Mechanical Properties of Cast Aluminium Rods Reinforced with Wet Filament Winding

Stephen J.T.1, Alawode A.J.2, and Adegoke S.O.3

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1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
2Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
(Fomerly of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria)
3Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
(Fomerly of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria)

Abstract- Metal rods and pipes are often reinforced with dry and wet windings of fibre strands on their surfaces. Many research works had been carried out on this. However, this work investigates the impact energy, tensile, compressive and fatigue properties of aluminium rod without fibre winding, and aluminium rods reinforced with wet filaments made of carbon, glass and copper fibres impreginated in epoxy resin. As compared to 4.2 J impact energy displayed by unreinforced rod, rods with carbon, glass and copper windings yielded 4.7, 5.3 and 5.6 J respectively. The respective ultimate tensile strengths are 144.1, 160.8, 155.2 and 227.3 MPa. Thus the corresponding percentage elongations are 10.40, 5.85, 7.55 and 3.95%. However, the corresponding ultimate compressive strengths are 111.3, 112.5, 118.5 and 122.1 MPa. Increase in fatigue stress amplitude was observed to reduce the fatigue life (number of cycles-to-failure, Nf) of the specimens, Fatigue limit of unreinforced specimen increases from 35 to 70, 105 and 175 MPa with carbon, glass and copper windings. And endurance limit correspondingly increase from 105.0 to 105.5, 106.6 and 107.5 cycles-to-failure The findings in this work show that carbon, glass and copper filament windings offer remarkable resistance to impact, tensile compressive and fatigue deformations of the unreinforced rod.

Keywords- Aluminium, mechanical properties, wet filament winding, carbon, glass and copper fibres

I. INTRODUCTION
Aluminium is the most widely used non-ferrous metal for engineering applications due to its unique combination of properties; good corrosion resistance, high strength stiffness to weight ratio, good electrical and thermal conductivities, and prospects of recycling at low energy costs [1-3]. The properties of aluminium are normally improved by addition of alloying elements, manufacturing techniques and heat treatment [4-8]. Aluminium is often strenghtened by reinforcement with particles and fibres via casting (to obtain metal matrix composite) or with windings of resin-impregnated fibre strands (filaments) on its surface.
Many investigations have studied the effects of casting techniques and post-cast heat treatment schedules on cast aluminium alloys in order to improve strengths and provide acceptable ductility [7,9,10,11,12]. Typical heat treatment methods to which aluminium are subjected are solution heat treatment and stress relief annealing.
The results of study conducted by Ayoola et al. [11] on the rate of cooling and solidification of cast aluminium alloy in mould showed that hardness, impact resistance and strength the alloy are influenced by the type of mould used casting. These properties can be improved using mould with high thermal conductivity. Also, Stephen et al. [7] and Isadare et al. [9] showed the heat treatment (stress relief annealing) improved impact strength and ductility of cast aluminium alloy.
In addition, modern requirements for lightweight materials with good corrosion and chemical resistant, and desirable heat, electrical and mechanical properties in construction and structural design which cannot be obtained in a single conventional construction material have created interest in fibre reinforced metal-matrix composites with outstanding combination of desired properties [13]. Experimental studies conducted by Adeosun et al. on 6063 aluminium-steel composite showed that hardness and tensile strength of the aluminium-steel composite depend on the percentage weight of steel dust in aluminium 6063 matrix [5]. Reinforcing aluminium with fibre materials provides higher strength, stiffness and other mechanical characteristics than using common treatment schedules such as grain refinement, solid solution and precipitation hardening. Mitrović et al. showed that hybrid aluminium-zinc alloy matrix composites reinforced with particles of silicon carbide and graphite possesses lower coefficient of friction, better wear resistance, higher hardness and tensile strength than the base aluminium alloy [14].
Carbon fibres are specially used as reinforcing material owing to its light weight, high specific strength and modulus, high thermal and electrical conductivities and low coefficient of thermal expansion [15]. Abhilash and Joseph [16] revealed the production of aluminium matrix-carbon fibre composites with a good wettability and fibre/matrix bonding using squeeze infiltration technique. The density of the developed composites was found lesser than that of the matrix material (2.47 and 2.7 g/cc, respectively) whereas its hardness and impact energy was better than that of matrix aluminium alloy [16].
Mechanical and wear behaviours of aluminium based composites reinforced with quarry dust and silicon carbide using double stir casting was carried out by Alaneme and Bamike [17]. The results of the study showed that ductility and fracture toughness of the composites were noticeably improved, whereas marginal decrease were observed in hardness and wear resistance characteristics of the composites. Furthermore, the results of response of coconut shell ash and E-glass fibre reinforced aluminium hybrid composites to heat treatment (Pinto et al. [18]) showed that micro hardness and tensile strength increase significantly for non-heat treated samples due to increase in percentage weight of glass reinforcement whereas micro hardness of the heat treated specimens is lower that the base material. Wear rate was also found to reduce in both heat treated and non-heat treated samples. Rahman and Shivanand [19] fabricated aluminium alloy (Al 2219) matrix composites with E-glass and flyash particulate as reinforcement through liquid metallurgy technique using stir and permanent mould castings. Evaluation of its mechanical properties revealed that hardness, ultimate tensile and compressive strengths increase with increase in percentage composition of constituent material (especially the E-glass) in Al 2219 matrix.
Also, Subramani and Ganesh [20] produced hybrid low-cost and light-weight A6061/Al2O3/glass fibres/SiCp/B4C composites with better strength, corrosion and wear resistant than the based metal using stir casting technique. Reinforcement increases the strength and reduces the weight of the composites.
Ramchandra and Patel [21] did design and analysis of composite drive shaft for automobile by replacing traditional two-piece steel drive shafts with one-piece automotive hybrid aluminum/composite drive shaft. The shaft was developed with a new manufacturing method which invovles co-curing a carbon fiber epoxy composite layer on the inner surface of an aluminum tube instead of wrapping on the outer surface to prevent the composite layer from being damaged by external impact and absorption of moisture, and to improve the torque capacity.
Composite drive shafts offered advantage of reduced weight, noise and vibration than metals drive shafts [22]. Arun and Vinoth [23] developed hybrid aluminium E glass/epoxy composite drive shaft for an automotive application. The aluminium has a role to transmit the required torque, whereas the E-glass epoxy composite was to increase the bending natural frequency. The drive shaft was designed and produced; glass mat fabrics with epoxy were wounded around aluminium tube (AA6063). The results obtained showed that torsional strength of the composite shaft was 66% higher than that of pure aluminium shaft, whereas a mass reduction of 42% was achieved. However, Khoshravan and Paykani claimed that a full composite drive shaft designed recorded weight reduction of 72% when compare to steel drive shaft [24].