Investigation Enhancement of Solar Still by Analysis Heat Transfer with Fresnel Lens and Phase Change Materials

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Investigation Enhancement of Solar Still by Analysis Heat Transfer with Fresnel Lens and Phase Change Materials

Ameer Abdul-Salam1, Haider Nadhom Azziz2, Abbas Sahi Shareef3
1,2,3Karbala University, Engineering College, Mechanical Engineering Department, Kerbala, Iraq
2 Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Kerbala, Iraq
1,3Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kerbala, Iraq
Received: 05 June 2023; Revised: 30 June 2023; Accepted: 06 July 2023; Published: 28 July 2023


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Abstract: One of the major issues facing the globe today is the lack of access to clean drinking water. Due to causes like population expansion, industrialization, urbanization, etc., water contamination significantly rises. Desalination has occasionally seen the development of a number of innovative methods, while solar distillation is thought to be more cost-effective. In this study, a steps distillation basin slope single basin solar still was used to examine the effect discusses the transformation of salt water into drinkable water by the Fresnel lens. When distillers were used with phase change materials, the temperature increased than it was without phase change materials, by increasing the working hours of the distillers, and thus increased productivity. But when distillers were used with phase change materials and a Fresnel lens, the productivity increased than it was due to the increase in temperature, as well as increased evaporation of water, as well as increased work The distiller works at night due to the presence of phase change materials, and thus the productivity of the distiller increased than it was before the lenses were placed.

The outcomes demonstrate that the employment of Fresnel lenses and phase change materials can successfully transform salt water into drinking water.

Keywords: Fresnel lens, Phase Change Material, Solar Desalination.

I. Introduction

In everyday living, it’s critical to have access to clean water. Due to the rapid population increase and unsustainable consumption rates, the world’s biggest issue this century is the lack of access to clean drinking water [1]. The substantial population expansion in emerging nations, as well as other economic and technological advancements, have all contributed to the rapid rise in global energy consumption [2]. The need for human energy consumption can be met by renewable sources like solar energy. It is available for free from the sun. Additionally, a solar still that converts salt water into fresh water uses solar energy. Solar water generation is a fairly old technique historically. Small-scale desalination is typically accomplished using solar stills. Low maintenance costs and ease of fabrication characterize solar stills. The raw material required to make solar stills is readily available and nearby. It is among the most significant and practical uses of solar energy. However, the productivity of solar desalination utilizing solar stills is low [3]. Fresh water makes up just 3% of the overall water resources. The majority of Frozen fresh water is discovered., in glaciers and ice shets. Only 0.3% of the fresh water in the globe is found in rivers and lakes. The availability of fresh water is also harmed by the growth of industries and the population. As a result, a lot of people lack access to sufficient and affordable quantities of drinkable water. One of the most affordable techniques for removing salt from saline water with the aid of sunshine is solar distillation. This process makes use of a solar still that comprises of a glass cover over a shallow basin. Evaporation results from the sunlight heating the saline water in the basin. Salts, minerals, and the majority of other pollutants are left behind as Water evaporation causes it to rise toward the glass cover. [4-5]. The Fresnel lens was a powerful sun concentrator and was constructed of acrylic plastic. At the ideal lens position angle of 30°, the dirty water vaporized in the minimum amount of time. When compared to a double slope basin, the multi-slope solar basin produces more water [6]. It is not required for the tilt on both sides of the glass to be equal in order to track the maximum amount of solar energy [7]. Under the same environmental conditions, stepped solar still and traditional basin are compared [8]. In this study, a Fresnel lens is used to pre-heat the water, which increases production rate and efficiency in comparison to a typical still.

II. Experimental Setup

The solar still is made of a plate of stainless-steel material, with a thickness of 2 mm, its surface area is 150 cm x 100 cm, and its height is 10 cm. It has been painted with a suitable material of black color. A Fresnel lens has been added to collect solar radiation. A single hole of 1.7 cm in diameter was drilled in each of the left and right sides to enter the salt water and to collect the purified water individually. The (base of the basin) was thermally insulated by glass wool with a thickness of 5 cm completely