Investigation of the Effect of Process Parameters and Kinetics on Sulphuric Acid-Sodium Hydroxide Catalyzed Transesterification of Mango Seed Oil

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume VI, Issue V, May 2021|ISSN 2454-6194

Investigation of the Effect of Process Parameters and Kinetics on Sulphuric Acid-Sodium Hydroxide Catalyzed Transesterification of Mango Seed Oil

Harrison C. Idimogu, J.A. Okeke, R. E. Chukwumalu
Chemical Engineering Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract
Fatty acid ethyl ester synthesized by transesterification reaction of triglycerides with alcohol is a contemporary energy source that has gained the attention of many researchers due to various benefit associated with its usage. This research focused on the production of fatty acid ethyl ester from mango seed oil through transesterification reaction using acid-base catalytic method. It was observed that the maximum reaction rate was obtained at a stirrer speed of 500rpm, catalyst concentration of 1% and ethanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1 after a reaction time of 1 hour. The results showed that the yield of ethyl ester increased with increase in molar ratio up to 6:1 and at a temperature of 65oC for the reaction time of 1 hour, the molar ratio of 6:1 of ethanol/oil is the best condition for transesterification reaction of mango seed to biodiesel fuel. The kinetics of transesterification reaction was also investigated and its parameters showed that the reaction followed a second order with an overall rate constant 3.9 × 10−2 (%wt/wt min ◦C) −1 and a regression value of 0.9504. The activation energy for the reaction was estimated to be 94.23J/mol. The properties of the fatty acid-ethyl ester met the requirement for ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards for biodiesel. This implies that the biodiesel produced from mango seed oil using ethanol, a 100% renewable energy source is of acceptable quality and can be substituted for fossil-based diesel.
Key Words: Mango seed oil, transesterification, kinetics, fatty acid ethyl ester, Sulphuric Acid-Sodium hydroxide.
1.0Introduction
As the current crude reserves are progressively diminishing, clearly the cost of petroleum-based products will continue increasing and their imports will put an expanding trouble on public economies, which will at last give a chance to the development of sustainable power utilization. Among sustainable power assets, biodiesel is getting logically more significant because of its generally basic methods of production [13]. Other renewable source of alternative fuel is bioethanol which have proven to be effective produced from renewable feedstock such as agricultural and forestry residues [5]. Petroleum-based fuels are non-renewable, non-biodegradable and emit toxic gases such as oxides of sulfur, nitrogen and carbon which are the main causes of pollution and global warming. At present, the world depends mainly on petroleum fuels for generating power, transport, agriculture, for domestic uses and industrial activities [6]. The decrease of world petroleum reserves and environmental pollution caused by petroleum- based fuels have necessitated exploring alternative sources of energy.
The production and use of biodiesel have increased notably in many countries around the world using numerous feedstock sources. Unfortunately, it is only emerging in many African countries. Over the past decade, transport fuels utilization in Sub-Saharan Africa has increased at a rate of about 7% per year in line with increased economic activity [14]. This has had a huge economic effect on about thirty-five crude oil-importing countries in Africa.