Modelling and optimization of proximate and anti-nutritional composition of breakfast cereals produced from blends of millet, mungbean and tigernut flour using response surface methodology

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International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume VIII, Issue VIII, August 2021 | ISSN 2321–2705

Modelling and optimization of proximate and anti-nutritional composition of breakfast cereals produced from blends of millet, mungbean and tigernut flour using response surface methodology

Eweama, A.U.*, Nwosu, J.N., Owuamanam, C.I., Obeleagu, S.O
Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo state, Nigeria.

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Abstract: Three components augmented simplex centroid design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to model and optimized the proximate and anti-nutritional composition of breakfast cereals produced from blends of millet, mungbean and tigernut flour. Blends were variously pre-treated, millet by soaking, mungbean by malting and tigernut by defatting. The experimental values were obtained and subjected to regression analysis to generate regression equations. The linear, binary and ternary effects of the blends were generated and graphically expressed on 3-D surface plots. The developed models were validated at p<0.05. Furthermore, optimization of outcomes was selected at desirability of 0.464. The result showed that experimental values for protein; 11.83%, 21.59%, 8.56% respectively for millet, mungbean and tigernut. The regressed values showed good correlation with the predicted values. The optimum blends selected at a desirability of 0.464 were 0.00g millet, 70.36g mungbean, and 29.63g tigernut will give the best breakfast meal. Confirmatory runs were done to ascertain 95% confidence of the optimum values. The three component argumented simplex centroid experimental design of response surface methodology was adequate in modelling and optimization of the parameters: moisture, ash, crude fiber, fat protein, carbohydrate, oxalate, phytate and tannin.

Keywords: Proximate composition, Anti-nutritional composition, Breakfast cereals, Simplex centroid design

I.INTRODUCTION

Nigeria is a country with an abundance of food that can be used for proper nutrition, as well as for the formulation of breakfast cereals. Despite the abundance of foods, there is malnutrition. Malnutrition does not only persist but remains widespread in many developing countries. Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) and micronutrient deficiencies among infants and children have been shown to be directly and individual associated with more than 50% of all childhood morbidity and mortality in the developing world (Standing Committee on Nutrition, 2004). The WHO and UNICEF are very much concerned about this trend. This is due mainly to lack of adequate and good quality formulated foods, poor processing methods and the presence of anti-nutritional factors such as tannin, oxalate, and phytate (Gee & Harold, 2004). The amount of cereal grown in Nigeria is high compared to its utilization. This is due to post harvest losses incurred from cereals, thus there is need to diversify the use of