Optimized Hybrid Photovoltaic Diesel Storage Battery Mini-Grid System for Rural Electrification in Ethiopia

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VIII, Issue III, March 2023|ISSN 2454-6194

Optimized Hybrid Photovoltaic Diesel Storage Battery Mini-Grid System for Rural Electrification in Ethiopia

Amare Gebermedhin Admassu, Dr. Tafese Asrat,  Getie Tesfaye Zelie, Kassahun Kebede Ayele
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Adama science and Technology University (ASTU), Ethiopia
Received: 05 March 2023; Accepted: 10 March 2023; Published: 08 April 2023

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract— Hybrid power systems based on new and renewable energy sources, especially solar PV and Diesel Generator are an effective option to solve the power-supply problem for remote and detached areas from the national grids. Hybrid renewable set-up indicates that various combinations based on the renewable sources could be applied simultaneously to play energy in the form of employed in an off-gird supporting with diesel generator and battery energy storage system as backup systems. In this paper, solar PV/Diesel Generator/battery bank/converter have been simulated and optimized for the rural area of Albasa village among the woreda of Metekel Zone in Benshangul Gumuz region of Ethiopia. Based on the design of hybrid system Primary load demand of the village was 279kWh/day, peak load of 67kW, deferrable energy is about 29kWh/day, and deferrable peak load of 1.9kW with COE $0.010/kWh were involved during optimization of the power system. Well known freeware HOMER and programmable logic controller modeling tool have been used to design optimal off-grid system and energy management system respectively. Solar PV was considered as primary sources to supply electricity directly to the load and to charge battery bank when there were excess energy generation. However, either in peak load times or low generation of primary sources storage battery bank discharged and Diesel Generator could also be used as a source. The load has been suggested for residential loads and deferrable load. During design of this power system set-up, the simulation and optimization was done based on the load demand, climatic data, economics of integrated system components and other parameters in which the total NPC and levelized COE have to be minimized to select economically feasible and technically capable hybrid power system. Furthermore; a programmable logic controller modeling is also modeled to compare the possible potentials available and take a decision. The decision of programmable logic controller modeling is based on the instructional rules written on it.

Keywords— HOMER, programmable logic controller, hybrid system, solar PV, Diesel Generator, Battery bank, primary load, deferrable load, rural electrification.

I. Introduction

Energy is the fuel for growth of a country or generally growth of the world. An increased access to electricity enhances opportunities for industrial development and improves health and education. But currently still about 37% of the world’s population have no access to electricity. Most of rural people depend almost exclusively on biomass for their daily energy need. According to the report of United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the numbers of people suffering from shortage of wood fuel were expected to highly increase in the coming years [1], [2].The Ethiopian Government tried to connect this rural location by using national grid extension for the last two decades. However, still the current electricity access is below 50% and the real connection is less than 14% [2], [3]. Today it is widely accepted that Renewable energy system (RES) have a large potential to contribute to the strengthening and development of national sustainable energy infrastructures in many countries in the world by securing better energy independence through the mobilization of domestic renewable energy resources especially in rural areas [4], [5].

A stand-alone power system (SAPS), also known as remote area power supply (RAPS), is an off-grid electricity system for locations that are not fitted with an electricity distribution system. Typical SAPS include one or more methods of electricity generation, energy storage, and regulation [6], [7], [8]. Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) are becoming popular as stand-alone power systems for providing electricity in remote areas due to advances in renewable energy technologies and subsequent rise in prices of petroleum products. A hybrid energy system, or hybrid power, usually consists of two or more renewable energy sources as well as a backup is used together to provide increased system efficiency as well as greater balance in energy supply [9], [10], [11]. The following Figure 1 shows that the history of Ethiopian electric power generation starting from the beginning until the current situation.