Physicochemical Properties of Gum Arabic Blended with Cassava Starch and Carboxymethyl Cellulose

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International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume IX, Issue V, May 2022 | ISSN 2321–2705

Physicochemical Properties of Gum Arabic Blended with Cassava Starch and Carboxymethyl Cellulose

Kuje O joseph1, Bethrand T Nwufo1, Moses T Langkuk2*, Valentine O Adole3, Akaahimbe A Segun1, Yusuf A Abdullahi1 and Salamatu U Mohammed1
1Chemistry Department, University of Jos, P. M. B 2084, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
2Chemistry Advanced Research Center, Sheda science and technology complex (SHESTCO), P.M.B 186, Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.
3Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe Univeristy, PMB 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
*Corresponding author

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Abstract: In this study the physicochemical properties of gum arabic blended with cassava starch and carboxymethyl cellulose was analyzed. The results obtained showed that blending of gum arabic with cassava starch and carboxymethyl cellulose led to increase in moisture content, pH and ash content, with moisture content and some ash content values lying within WHO/FAO standards of not more than 15% and 2-4% respectively for gums. The results also revealed that blending of gum arabic with carboxymethylcellulose led to increase in viscosity and swelling index while blending with cassava starch led to decrease in viscosity and swelling index. These results suggest that blending of gum arabic with carboxymethyl cellulose and/or cassava starch can be used as modification method to tailor the properties of gum Arabic to specific applications, and as cost cutting measure, as carboxymethyl cellulose and cassava starch are cheaper than gum arabic.

Keywords: Cassava starch, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Food industry, Gum Arabic, Pharmaceutical industry, Modification,

I.INTRODUCTION

Gum Arabic (GA) is a pale to orange brown colour natural organic adhesive (gum) that exudes from the exterior (stems and branches) of Acacia Senegal or Acacia Seyal, one of the closely related species of Acacia, in the form of dry hard nodules. GA is a neutral or slightly acidic complex compound of high molecular weight glycoproteins and polysaccharides and their metal (Ca, K and Mg) salts [1], [2]. Due to the complex composition of GA numerous papers have been published on this subject [3]. The Major polysaccharide is Arabic acid, a polysaccharide that links D-galactose with branches containing L-rhamnose, D-glucuronic acids and L-arabinose. The proteins are essentially classified as arabinogalactanes, rich in hydroxyproline. The chemical composition of GA vary slightly with factors as source, climate, season, age of the tree, etc. [2]. Unlike other vegetable gums, GA dissolves very well in water (up to 50%), resulting to a colorless, tasteless solution which does not interact easily with other chemical compounds [4]. GA is used as a thickener, suspender, emulsifier, stabilizer, flavor carrier, binder and encapsulating material in textile, food, lithography, beverage, dairy and ice cream, plastic, cosmetic, confectionery, pharmaceutical and miscellaneous industries [1], [5], [6].