Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Annona senegalensis from rainforest of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume V, Issue XI, November 2021 | ISSN 2454–6186

Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Annona senegalensis from rainforest of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria

Yakubu, Ameenu, Haruna, Idris, Maidaula, Abdussalam Tijjani
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract: Annona senegalensis belongs to the family Annonaceae which is known to possess wide range of bioactivities. The leaves of A. senegalensis have been traditionally used as stimulant and a pain reliever. This study aims to determine the presence of some of the bioactive molecules in the leaves of this plant, and further investigate the antimicrobial activity of the extract against certain bacteria. The crude methanolic extract of the leaves was tested for phytochemicals, and revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinone and cardiac glycosides, and triterpenoids. The crude methanolic extract was purified using column chromatography techniques. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis of the isolated compounds revealed the presence of C–H, C=O, O–H and C=C functional groups, which are characteristics of the compounds in the secondary metabolites. The antimicrobial screening of the crude methanol extract was carried out on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumonia, using agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial screening showed that the extract was active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. The solvent extract was more effective against Staphylococcus aureus with zones of inhibition of 20mm and 18mm at a concentration of 100mg/ml and 50mg/ml respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the crude extract carried out against the test microorganisms were within the range of 12.5 – 25mg/ml while the minimum bactericidal concentration was within the range of 25 – 50mg/ml. The result from this study justifies the use of the leaves of Annona senegalensis in treatment of microbial diseases.

Keywords: Annona senegalensis, phytochemical, antimicrobial, medicinal plants, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi

I. INTRODUCTION

Medicinal plants have so far been studied by natural scientists, and discovered to possess phytochemical constituents which qualifies their relevance in local and modern therapy. Preliminary screening of phytochemicals is a valuable step in the detection of the bioactive components present in medicinal plants, and subsequently may lead to drug discovery and development. Plants such as vegetables, fruit, spices, medicinal herbs, etc., have been used to cure many diseases since ancient time. Nowadays, the preference of using traditional folk medicine over synthetic drugs is still common in some places, even as the latter is readily available and proves very effective as remedy for many diseases. Quite a number compound has been collected from different plant and studied. The compounds that are majorly secondary metabolites exhibited to variable extent, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticancer, to mention