Proximate, Functional and Pasting Properties of Composite Flours Made from Cassava, Bambara Groundnut and Cashew Kernel

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International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume VI, Issue XI, November 2019 | ISSN 2321–2705

Proximate, Functional and Pasting Properties of Composite Flours Made from Cassava, Bambara Groundnut and Cashew Kernel

Elochukwu, Chinwe.U.1*, Nwosu, Justina N.2, Owuamanam C. I2, Osuji, C. I.2

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1Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra state, Nigeria
2Department of Food Science and Technology. Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author

Abstract: – This study investigated the quality of composite flour from cassava, bambara groundnut and cashew seeds. Cassava was processed using high quality method, bambara groundnut was toasted while cashew nuts was roasted. Composite flours were formulated using design expert software for mixtures. The design matrix revealed fourteen formulations. The proximate composition, pasting properties and functional properties were evaluated as a function of the flour blends. Standard method of analysis was used. Statistical analysis using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique (P ≤ 0.05) showed that there were significant differences in most of the parameters analyzed for the process variables. The range of the proximate compositions determined were: moisture (7.44-9.43%), protein (1.69-24.25 %), crude fat (0.71-32.33 %), crude fibre (0.81-3.48%), total ash (0.42-4.00%), and carbohydrate (30.10-89.04%) and energy (368.82 – 509.23 %). The protein, fat, ash and crude fibre content of the flour blends increased relatively with inclusion of cashew kernel flour whilst the moisture and carbohydrate contents decreased. Bulk densities of composite flour samples ranged from 0.55 – 0.81 g/ml, water absorption capacity (WAC) and Oil absorption capacity (OAC) of composite flours ranged from 99.07 – 150 %, 118.23 – 184.35% respectively. The WAC increased with increasing cassava flour substitution. Peak viscosity (249.01 RVU), trough viscosity (218.17 RVU) and final viscosity (368.33 RVU) were highest at cassava flour substitution. Fortification of tuber flours with leguminous and nut flours will enhance food availability and security.

Keywords: Bambara groundnut, Composite flour, Flour formulation, Pasting properties, Proximate properties.


Composite flour is made by blending or mixing varying proportion of more than one non-wheat flour with or without wheat flour and used for production of leavened or unleavened baked or snack products that are traditionally made from wheat flour and increase the essential nutrients in human diet composite flour (Chandra et al., 2015).