Reduction of Active and Reactive Power Losses on Transmission Lines using SSSC

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VIII, Issue IV, April 2023|ISSN 2454-6194

Reduction of Active and Reactive Power Losses on Transmission Lines using SSSC

J. C. Uzor1, D. C. Oyiogu2, C.O. Ikaraoha3
1Department of Electrical Engineering, Temple Gate Polytechnic Aba, Nigeria
2Department of Electrical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria
3Department of Electrical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria
Received: 24 March 2023; Revised: 07 April 2023; Accepted: 12 April 2023; Published: 01 May 2023

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract: This paper discusses a comprehensive study on reduction of power (active and reactive) losses in transmission lines using a second generation FACTS device, Static Synchronons Series Compensator (SSSC). Modern restructured power systems sometimes operate with heavily loaded lines resulting in power losses and higher voltage deviations, which may lead to mal-operation of power system and eventual collapse of the system. This is mainly due to continuous and uncertain growth in demand for electrical power. The paper presents a methodology to solve the problem of power losses in the Nigerian 28 – bus power system by incorporating Static Synchronons Series Compensator in the network using Newton-Rahson power flow algorithm. Simulation of power flow solution without and with the FACTS device was done using a Matlab software. The results showed that the maximum power (active and reactive) loss in the system without SSSC occurred in the transmission line connecting bus 17 (Jebba) to bus 23(Shiroro) and a 19.32% loss reduction was obtained on the line after the incorporation of the SSSC FACTS device giving a power saving of 80.68%. The total system active and reactive power losses before the application of SSSC was 205.183MW and 1594.683MVAR respectively. However, when the FACTS device was applied at the weak buses the total system active and reactive power losses reduced to 144.571MW and 1136.863MVAR respectively giving a percentage loss reduction in active and reactive power of 29.54% and 28.71% respectively resulting in a power saving of 70.46% and 71.29%. Hence, more power was available in the network when compared to the base case due to the installation of SSSC. Also an improvement in the voltage magnitude at the weak buses and other buses were noticed as they were all maintained at 1.0 PU.

I. Introduction

Background Information

Most bulk electric power is generated, transmitted and consumed in an alternating current (AC) system. Elements of alternating current system produces two kinds of power: real or active power (measured in Watts) and reactive power (measured in Volts Ampere Reactive or Var). Active power accomplishes useful work (eg. Running of motors and lighting of lamps). While reactive power supports the voltage that must be controlled for system reliability.
Utilities are experiencing more losses in the system with the growth of demand. The transformer loads and other power flow regulating devices have their own internal losses but they are smaller fraction of the total transmission system losses. These losses limits the desired transmission line power flows, cost millions and affect the economical operation of the deregulated utility environment.
Considering the utility loss percentage and its other consequences, the reduction of losses in even a small percentage will lead to the achievement of economical operation and better system efficiency[1]. The transmission line impedances generate and absorb reactive power and limits the active power flow. Hence reducing or compensating the transmission line impedances will regulate the reactive power flow and improve the active power flow through the line.
In the Nigerian context, the existing power network infrastructure is aging and very weak hence it is faced with many problems. One of such problems was the inability of the existing transmission lines to wheel more than 4,000 MW of power at its operational problems [2]. Most of the researchers that worked on the existing network recommended that the network be transformed from radial to ring because of the high losses inherent in it and the violation of allowable voltage drop of ±5% of norminal value[3].