Study on the effects of sulphuric acid attack on Normal Concrete Replaced with fine Plastic Wastes

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VIII, Issue III, March 2023|ISSN 2454-6194

Study on the effects of sulphuric acid attack on Normal Concrete Replaced with fine Plastic Wastes

M. M. Aliyu1*, Bishir Kado1, Sikiru Siyanbola Abdulganiyu2
1Department of Civil Engineering, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
2PGDCE Student Department of Civil Engineering, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author
Received: 30 January 2023; Accepted: 14 February 2023; Published: 01 April 2023

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Abstract: – This study investigated the performance of normal-concrete with fine waste plastic particles replacement against sulphuric acid attack by determining the workability, reduction of compressive strengths of cured specimens, and water absorption of waste plastic-concrete when exposed to sulphuric acid (H2SO4). Waste plastic was incorporated as a partial replacement for fine aggregate at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. A total of one hundred and twenty cubes were cast, and they were cured in water for up to 56 days. The first 60 cubes underwent a compressive strength test at 7, 14, 28, and 56 days, whereas the remaining 60 cubes were cured in water for 28 days and later exposed to a 5% solution of sulphuric acid, and then tested for compressive strength at 7, 14, 28, and 56 days. Compressive strength test, water absorption test and Slump test were performed according to BS EN 12350-2 (2009), BS 1881-122 (2011), and BS EN 12350-2 (2009) respectively. According to the test result, the workability (slump) of waste plastic–concrete increases with an increase in waste plastic replacing fine aggregate in the mix. The compressive strength of waste plastic concrete shows an increase in strength with an increase in curing days even at and the incorporation of a higher percentage of waste plastic. The percentage increase of waste plastic in the mix yields more resistance to sulphuric acid. The research has shown a reduction in the weight of concrete with an increase in the percentage of waste plastic and an exposure period, while an increase in water absorption was observed. To increase concrete’s resistance against sulphuric acid attack, it is concluded that an optimum replacement of fine aggregate with waste plastic in concrete production should be limited to 5% replacement.

Key Words: Concrete, Waste Plastics, Sulphuric Acid, Durability, Compressive Strength, Density, Water Absorption

I. Introduction

Concrete is made of mixtures of cementitious material, aggregate (fine and coarse), and water. It is the most frequently used construction material worldwide [1]. Concrete is recognized as the most popular construction material because of its high compressive strength, good fire resistance, and low maintenance cost [2]. Concrete is utilized extensively and plays a critical role in meeting the global need for globalization in infrastructural development. As a result, the increasing demand for concrete has led to significant consumption of fine aggregate, which makes up roughly 30% to 35% of the concrete mix ratio [3]. Material mined every year amounts to between 47 and 59 billion tonnes, with fine aggregate (sand) and coarse aggregate (gravel) accounting for the largest percentage (about 68–85%), as well as the fastest increase in its exploitation rate [4]. This level of exploitation has led to an increase in the cost of concrete production and environmental degradation. The dredging of creeks, riverbeds, and lake basins has resulted in an ecological imbalance, thereby, affecting bio-diversity and the landscape, as well as having socio-economic, cultural, and political consequences [5]. This motivated researchers in the academic and engineering fields to look for a suitable eco-friendly material that can be utilized efficiently in construction activities as a substitute for natural sand and can reduce the cost of producing concrete [6].

In engineering, plastics, which are also called polymers, are materials made of a wide range of organic compounds that can either be synthetic or semi-synthetic and are easily formed into different solid forms. [7]. Therefore, it is possible to trace the development of plastic forming to the methods used to process natural high polymers like amber, lacquer, shellac, horns, tortoiseshell, and tusks. Nigeria is Africa’s largest producer and consumer of plastic [8]. Plastic suitability for numerous uses in a variety of items, comprising wide-ranging features like versatility and resilience, has led to increased manufacturing and use of plastic, surpassing many other man-made substances [9]. Plastics, which are natural organic polymers with a high molecular mass [7], could be recycled and used in the construction industry for reinforcing materials. Combining crushed plastic waste materials with concrete improves the composite material’s mechanical and physical strength [10].