The role of Toxoplasma gondii in Trigger an Autoimmune Disease

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume VI, Issue X, October 2021|ISSN 2454-6194

The role of Toxoplasma gondii in Trigger an Autoimmune Disease

 Qudus Wamidh Jamal1, Thanaa Rasheed Abdulrahman*1, Huda Dhaher Al-Marsomy1, Wasan W. AL-Bassam2
1-Medical College/Al-Nahrain University /Medical Microbiology Department
2-Science College /Baghdad University /Biotechnology Department
*Corresponding authors

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract: Latent Toxoplasmosis is known as world- wide disease or infection caused by an intracellular mandatory protozoan: Toxoplasma gondii which is consider one of the important pathogen that can persist intracellularly lifelong in different tissues in the human body. An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part, the identification of etiological factors which include causation or/and origination of the induction of autoimmune disease has remained obscure despite a very extensive effort to analyze different factors that may be associated with autoimmune disease such as; the molecular structure of the target antigens and effector mechanisms. This review aimed to focus on the relationship between toxoplasmosis and autoimmune disease.

Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Autoimmune Disease

I.INTRODUCTION

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the important Eukaryotic zoonotic opportunistic pathogen with worldwide distribution. Toxoplasma gondii can infect chronically about One-third of the human populations in developed and developing countries. Toxoplasmosis is known to be primarily transmitted via many pathways include; ingesting oocyst-contaminated food or water, utilizing raw or undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, vertical infection through the placenta from mother to fetus, different organ transplantation (liver, kidney ) , and finally blood transfusion through infected donors during the active phase of the infection (1,2,3,4).
Many factors may play an important role in the increasing prevalence of toxoplasmosis in a community such as: geographical conditions or climate; high humidity was found to play an optimal condition for the sporulation and development of T. gondii oocysts, the second important factor depends on the habits of a community (food and health), finally the exposure to toxoplasmosis-associated risk factors by means having continues soil contact or having soil-related jobs (farmer) and eating raw vegetables or raw /undercooked meat at restaurants may increase the risk of acquiring the infection. (3,4,5).
Generally, when healthy individuals get infection with T. gondii are asymptomatic or induce only mild flu-like symptoms. On the other hand in immunocompromised patients T. gondii infections may lead to serious complications