TLC Analysis of Ethanol Extract of Fresh Leaves of Celery (Apium Graveolens L.) Grown In Jos, Nigeria

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume VII, Issue I, January 2022 | ISSN 2454–6194

TLC Analysis of Ethanol Extract of Fresh Leaves of Celery (Apium Graveolens L.) Grown In Jos, Nigeria

Suleman S. Mshelia*1, Chukuka Achuenu2, Esther A. Adelakun2, Shirley O. Yakubu3, Kuje O. Joseph2
1Department of Chemistry, Nigerian Army university Biu, PMB 1500, Biu, Nigeria
2Department of Chemistry, University of Jos, PMB 2084, Jos, Nigeria
3Federal Polytechnic Kaltungo, PMB 009, Kaltungo, Gombe State, Nigeria

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ABSTRACT:
Apium Graveolens L., is a member of the Apiaceae family. Apiaceae is a large family of mostly aromatic flowering plants whose leaf is commonly used as vegetables worldwide. The fresh leaves of Celery (Apium Graveolens L.) were crushed extracted with ethanol by Maceration and Fractionated with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. Thin Layer Chromatographic (TLC) analysis of the fractions of n-hexane and ethyl acetate were performed, important phytochemicals such as flavonoid, terpenoid and naturally occurring phhthalides were identified in the various fractions. The presence of flavonoid was revealed in n-hexane fraction with two spots whose R.f values are (0.82 and 0.58). Terpenoid presence was revealed in n-hexane fraction with two spots whose Rf values are (0.79 and 0.61) and also based on their observed colour change under ultraviolet light probably due to reaction with (vanillin-H2SO4). Phthalide was observed in ethyl acetate fraction with four spots under UV/10% H2SO4 with Rf values of (0.97, 0.67, 0.51 and 0.41). The findings provided the evidence that Apium Graveolens L. is a potent source of some medicinally important phytochemicals and natural products which justifies its use as medicinal plant and food flavourings. This can be further investigated for the isolation and structural analyses of the biological active phytochemical components for medicinal application.

Keywords: Apium Graveolens, Celery plants, Phytochemical screening, Phthalide, Vanillin-H2SO4.

1. INTRODUCTION

Celery is a member of the Apiaceae family. Apiaceae is large family of mostly aromatic flowering plants named after the type of genus Apium. Celery, Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae), is native to Mediterranean regions like Asia, Africa and Europe [1], it’s grown mainly in coastal regions. Celery is widely cultivated in the temperate zones as an important garden crop and the leaves, stalks are relished as a popular vegetable [2].
The plant genus has had a long history of its medicinal uses and Apium graveolens contains variety of bioactive components such as terpenoids phenolic acids, alkaloid, tannins and flavonoids which have numerous biological and pharmacological properties such as hyperglycemic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anticancer, antineurogenesis, anti-platelet, weight lost, natural diuretic, reduce menstrual pain, aid in digestion [3]. The plant can also be liquidized and be taken as a juice for joint and urinary tract inflammations, rheumatoid arthritis, cystitis, or urethritis, for weak conditions and nervous exhaustion [4].
Use of medicinal plants to treat common ailments has been prevalent since ancient times and different parts of the plants were used for public health. This is logically reasonable because the use of natural treatments is cost-effective [5]. Apium graveolens is an important plant with great Ayurvedic medicinal properties. The medicinal properties of celery also include diuretic and sedative activities Ayurvedic physician (Vaidyas) used celery seed to treat people with cold, flu, water retention, poor digestion, various type of arthritis and certain disease of liver and spleen [6]. The methanolic extract of celery seed was found to be effective paracetamol-induced [7] and carbon tetra chloride-induced [8].
Celery (Apium graveolens L., Apiaceae) is a medicinal herb used as food, and also in traditional medicine. It contains aromatic substance in the roots, stem and leaves. The healing properties of celery are due to the essential oils and flavonoid mostly apeginin and apiin [9]. Worthy of note is that celery contains a flavonoid called apigenin, which has been shown to induce death in cancer cells [10]. In fact, celery leaves and stalks are usually eaten alone or incorporated into recipes as many menus across almost every culture in Nigeria. Celery leaves offer nutritional value that can boost our health [5]. Interestingly, the findings in a prior literature suggest that the celery plant grown in Jos, Nigeria, contains phthalides which have been reported to be responsible for the bioactivity of celery plants [11].