Design and Fabrication of Small-Scale Maize Roaster

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International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume IX, Issue II, February 2022 | ISSN 2321–2705

Design and Fabrication of Small-Scale Maize Roaster

Olasupo O. S.1*, Salau, T. A. O.2
1,2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
*Corresponding author

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Abstract: Nigeria local method of maize roasting is prone to high operating stress, uneven roasted maize, high greenhouse effect, low hygienic level and higher time per roast operation, this study was therefore design to explore modern method that can drastically reduce these challenges. From among alternatives considered a 2.976 kg roasted maize in fifteen minutes roasting machine was designed, fabricated using economically available local resources and evaluated. The machine consists majorly electric motor (2.5 rev/min to 3 rev/min) mounted on bearings, selected heating elements (2.07kW calculated based literature standard), transmission and drum shafts, perforated galvanized roasting drum and thermostat (200oC maximum temperature). The machine was tested empty at full chamber volume that took average of 51 minutes and 36 second to reach 200oC from ambient temperature. Other tests carried out helped to establish, the optimum roasting mass for the machine was 2 kg compared to design capacity value of 2.976 kg roasted maize in fifteen minutes. The roasting process was carried out faster with lesser stress, zero greenhouse gasses in a hygienic environment as calculated for.

Keywords: maize, design, roasting machine, food processing.

I. INTRODUCTION

Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the world’s three most important cereal crops, and it is an important source of food, feed, fuel and fibers (Tenaillon and Charcosset, 2011). Maize is a staple cereal after wheat and rice. It is an important source of carbohydrate, protein, iron, vitamin B and minerals for many poor people in the world (Hossain, A (ed.). 2020). It has the widest distribution of all the cereals, and it is primarily grown for its grain as food for human consumption (Tolera et al., 1998). Maize and other cereals are the major source of calories and protein to the diets of humans and livestock, and this is largely due to their adaptability, high yields, ease of harvest and storage, as well as their processing and eating properties (Lafiandra et. al., 2014).
The economic situation in most developing countries has left farmers and processors operating at small scale and under unhygienic environment (Sobowale et. al., 2020). Various roasting machines are developed for miscellaneous roasting purposes for home and industrial purposes. However, the development of roasting machines using locally available materials for the local people has not been researched as much (Deepika Pandey and Ratna Kumari, D. 2020)
Consumption of maize requires pre-treatments such as heat processing, which could confer some nutritional benefits, as well as alter the physicochemical contents and properties of its components (Deosthale, 1982; Siljestromet al., 1986). Roasting is regarded as a key procedure in the preparation of the maize beverage, due to the characteristic flavor produced during the roasting process. Also, Roasting is an important processing method in the food industry because it is use to improve food quality, to extend the shelf life of foods, and to improve the processing efficiency of subsequent treatment