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An Improved Energy-Efficient Device-to-Device Communication in Overlaying Cellular Networks

1FAGBOHUNMI, Griffin Siji,2Uchegbu Chinenye E.
1Department of Computer Engineering Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria
2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria
*Corresponding author
Received: 17 July 2023; Accepted: 20 July 2023; Published: 22 August 2023

Abstract: This purpose of this paper is to design an energy efficient clustering protocol for device-device (D2D) in an overlay cellular networks. The protocol is also aimed at increasing the capacity of the cellular network. In order to achieve this, a clustering algorithm is proposed using a combination of Euclidean distance and the received signal to interference noise ratio for its design. These parameters are combined with Q-learning to define an energy efficient protocol for D2D communication. The protocol Clustering Algorithm for D2D communication using Reinforcement Learning (CADREL) will reduce energy consumption in D2D communication in a co-located antenna system. It also improves the allocation of resources necessary for efficient data transmission as well as reduce the amount of data transmissions by intelligently electing cluster heads (CH) so as to minimize data collisions and enhance the lifetime of the network.  A simulation experiment was conducted in order to compare the protocol with other state of the art clustering protocol using energy efficiency and channel capacity as the metrics. From the simulations carried out, it was observed that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other protocols by 23% and 34% respectively.

IJRISS Call for paper

Keywords:  Overlay, D2D communication co-located antenna system, clustering, cluster head, IoT


D2D communication is an emerging technology that enables direct communication between two devices without the involvement of the Base Station (BS) or the evolved Node (eNB). This technology promises a lot of improvement over the cellular networks because (i) the small distance between D2D devices enables power saving as it doesn’t need the long distance communication with the BS, (ii) reduced signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) because on non-existence of multi-path fading, path-loss and other communication impediments (iii) Improved energy efficiency as communication overhead is greatly reduced, (iv) increased throughput and (v) reduces delay. It can also reduce load on the conventional cellular network when many D2D communication occur without using the resources of the Base station.