Antibiogram of Salmonella Species Obtained from Environmental Samples in Ilishan-Remo Ogun State, Nigeria

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume V, Issue IX, September 2020 | ISSN 2454–6186

 Antibiogram of Salmonella Species Obtained from Environmental Samples in Ilishan-Remo Ogun State, Nigeria

Cajethan Onyebuchi Ezeamagu, Amarachukwu Joyce Anayo
Department of Microbiology, Babcock University, Ilishan, Nigeria

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract: Multi-drug resistance in Salmonella species is becoming a great problem in healthcare institutions resulting in high mortality rate due to its infections. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibiogram of Salmonella species obtained from various environmental samples in Ogun state. Samples (150) comprising faecal droppings of cow, goat, bird and pig as well as pond wastewater were obtained and Salmonella species were isolated using Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar and identified using analytical profile index. The susceptibility of the species was evaluated and interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. Fifty (50) species of Salmonella species were obtained and all (100%) were resistant to ceftazidime, gentamicin, while 92%, 90%, 48%, 46%, and 44% were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefuroxime, cefixime, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin respectively. Multi-drug resistance was noted in Salmonella species to at least three antibiotic classes. The results revealed high prevalence and multi-drug resistant Salmonella species in our environment. Hence measures should be implemented urgently to curb further spread of multidrug resistant Salmonella species in our environment.
Keywords- Foodborne diseases, multi-drug resistance, Salmonella species, API, Antibiotics
I. INTRODUCTION
Salmonella species are Gram-negative, non-spore forming, motile bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae [1]. There are a plethora of Salmonella serovars including S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Choleraesius, S. Newport, S. Infantis and S. Panama with the first two being the most common and have been implicated in human Salmonellosis [2]. The bacterium is known to be pathogenic when ingested and it can lead to different disease forms, for example, gastroenteritis, bacteremia and systemic infections in humans and animals. The reservoirs of this pathogen include poultry meat, eggs, dairy products, fruits, vegetables; pets including dogs, cats, reptiles, turtles and even humans [3]. Once the organism gains entry into the gut of the host following the consumption of contaminated food, the pathogen secretes a protein sopE which triggers immunological responses in the host that leads to the diarrhoeal symptoms. The severity and duration of the resulting gastroenteritis depends on the susceptibility of the host.