Caffeine Consumption among Indonesian Population

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Caffeine Consumption among Indonesian Population

Miftahul Jannah, Sharifah Rauzatul Jannah, Marthoenis
Faculty of Nursing, Syiah Kuala University, Indonesia
DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10719
Received: 22 June 2023; Revised: 10 July 2023; Accepted: 13 July 2023; Published: 15 August 2023

Abstract:
Background: Caffeine is the most commonly used central nervous system stimulant in all age groups. High daily caffeine consumption can affect health. Most caffeine users are unaware of the amount of daily caffeine consumption or the effect of caffeine on the physical and psychological health of its users. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of caffeine addiction in Indonesian society.
Materials and Methods: This study used a Cross-Sectional Study design using an online questionnaire of 345 Indonesians. Data were collected using caffeine consumption questionnaires. The data is analyzed descriptively.
Results: More than half of the study’s respondents were female (53%), had a higher level of higher education (71%), and were employed (71%). The average total caffeine consumption in the community is 234 ±191 mg daily.
Conclusion: Caffeine use in adults is quite high compared to that reported in other countries. The public should be better informed regarding the possible side effects that arise from the use of caffeine.
Key Words: Caffeine Usage, adult, Indonesian

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I. Introduction

Caffeine is a psychoactive substance the most consumed in the world. Caffeine can be found in various beverages such as coffee, tea, cola, and energy drinks, and some supplements, medications, and foods such as chocolate and other foods containing cocoa [1]. Caffeine consumption up to 400 mg daily for healthy adults is not harmful to health [2]. The reasons users consume caffeine-containing products are usually related to caffeine’s stimulant effects, including reducing fatigue, increasing physical energy, feeling more awake, enjoying flavors, socializing, improving mood, and reducing stress [3]. However, most individuals who consume caffeine-containing foods and beverages are unaware of The amount of daily caffeine consumption and the effect of caffeine on the physical and psychological health of users.
Caffeine intake varies across different types of beverages and within different population groups, especially in adults, with it estimated that more than 80% of the adult population in Western countries consume an average of 122-226 mg of caffeine per day [4]. Most adults consume caffeinated beverages derived from coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks [5]. However, coffee is the main source of caffeine in adult drinks in many countries and Indonesia. The International Coffee Organization (ICO) in 2020 shows that coffee consumption in Indonesia is still relatively low, at 3% of the world’s coffee consumption level, or 294 thousand tons out of 10.16 million tons [6]. However, the Indonesian Individual Food Consumption Survey (SKMII) in 2014, ground coffee is the second most powdered drink consumed after tea (25.1%), with the largest amount of consumption, which is 6.0 grams per person per day (from the total powder drinks consumed as much as 8.7 grams per person per day) [7]. This study aims to determine the level of caffeine use in the form of coffee and others in the people of Indonesia.

II. Material and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in early 2023 in Aceh province, Indonesia. The sample was selected conveniently through social media. A total of 345 respondents filled out the questionnaire that we were referring to. The initial questionnaire of the study contained demographic data from respondents, which included: age, gender, education, and employment status. The questionnaire to measure respondents’ caffeine consumption based on caffeine-containing products was assessed using a questionnaire developed by Ágoston et al. (2018), and this questionnaire was also used by Booth et al. (2020). Respondents indicated how much they typically consumed each product per day on an 8-point scale (0 = never, 1 = less than once a week, 2 = several times a week, 3 = one serving per day, 4 = two servings per day, 5 = three servings per day, 6 = four servings per day, 7 = five or more servings per day). Furthermore, the value of caffeine in foods and beverages containing caffeine is based on sources from Mitchell et al. (2014), and the source of this caffeine value is also used by AlAteeq et al. (2021).