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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume IV, Issue I, January 2020 | ISSN 2454–6186

Challenges of Development and Implementation of Individualized Education Programme by Teachers of Learners with Intellectual Disabilities in Kisumu and Nairobi Counties, Kenya

Alice A Olewe-Nyunya, Franciscah I. Wamocho, Joel M. S. Wa Munyi
Department of Special Needs Education, Kenyatta University P. O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract: This was a descriptive study which sought to explore the challenges encountered by teachers of learners with intellectual disabilities in schools and units in Kisumu and Nairobi counties, Kenya. The sampling techniques in this study were purposive sampling and stratified random sampling. The sample size constituted of 9 special schools, 41 units, 9 head teachers and 105 teachers. Mixed methods were used to collect data. The questionnaire and observation schedule. The research instrument used were questionnaires with Likert scale of 1 – 5 (1 – Strongly disagree, 2- disagree, 3 undecided, 4 agree, 5 strongly agree) was used to collect the data after which statistical package for social science (SPSS) software version 22 was used to analyze the data. Quantitative data from the questionnaire with Likert scale was analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis. The major findings of this study were the challenges encountered by teachers in developing and implementing IEP for learners with intellectual disabilities. They included the following:
Lack of adequate teaching aids, absenteeism of learners, lack of cooperation from parents, limited time for meeting of multidisciplinary team, lack of teaches confidence in developing and implementing IEP, lack of administrative support, lack of financial resources for communication and lack of adequate time to implement the IEP. This study recommended that teachers should have adequate teaching aids. They need to be confident in developing and implementing IEP. The cooperation from parents is required and is necessary for proper development and implementation of IEP. More time is needed by teachers in developing and implementing IEP with learners with intellectual disabilities.

Key words: Intellectual disability, Individual Education Programme, development, Implementation, challenges.


A child with intellectual disability requires individualized Education Programme IEP. Individualized Education Programme (IEP) is a written plan of action that specifies an individual progress towards specific educational goals developed and implemented by a team of experts as in [1]