Challenges of using reflective teaching approaches in Civic Education lessons in secondary schools in Lusaka, Zambia

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume V, Issue III, March 2021 | ISSN 2454–6186

Challenges of using reflective teaching approaches in Civic Education lessons in secondary schools in Lusaka, Zambia

Pamela Shimanza* & Gistered Muleya
The University of Zambia, School of Education
Department of LSSE, P.O Box, 32379, Lusaka, ZAMBIA

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Corresponding Author*

Abstract
The teaching and learning of Civic Education helps learners recognize the profound role that the subject plays in society. This study sought to establish the challenges associated with the use of reflective teaching approaches in Civic Education lessons. The study was guided by a qualitative approach and the research strategy used was a descriptive design. Data was collected using a reflective questionnaire and lesson observation checklist. Purposive sampling was used to identify the participants in the study. The participants included 6 deputy head teachers, 6 Civic Education heads of section, 6 social sciences heads of department and 18 Civic Education teachers. Data collected was thematically analysed. The total number of the participants in the study amounted to 36. The findings of the study revealed that time allocation, large numbers in classes, lack of participation from learners were inhibiting the use reflective teaching in Civic Education lessons. This research study is insightful because it adds to the body of knowledge about the challenges of using reflective teaching approaches in civic education lessons. The study concludes that most teachers of Civic Education need to be trained in reflective teaching approaches to improve the teaching and learning of Civic Education.

Key words: Reflective teaching, Civic Education

Introduction
Teaching is a complex profession which requires teachers to question their practices for their own professional development and to increase learner performance (Sifuniso, 2015; Yates and Muchisky, 2003). The teaching of Civic Education introduces learners to the critical dimensions of life of the society by looking at the social, economic, technological and political developments underpinning the society.Reflective teaching in secondary schools is a major concern in many countries of the world (Abkari, 2007), Zambia inclusive. According to Farrell (2001) reflection is defined as a carefully planned set of experiences that foster a sensitivity to ways of looking at and talking about previously unarticulated beliefs concerning teaching. Hoover holds the view that reflection is a systematic practice that can be learned from the past experiences one has had (Farrell, 2001). Therefore, reflective teaching approach is an inquiry-based approach to teaching that involves critical thinking and a personal