Comparism of Biogas Production by Maize and Sorghum Staiks in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State: Implicication for Household Energy Supply

Submission Deadline-29th June May 2024
June 2024 Issue : Publication Fee: 30$ USD Submit Now
Submission Deadline: 20th June 2024
Special Issue of Education: Publication Fee: 30$ USD Submit Now

Comparism of Biogas Production by Maize and Sorghum Staiks in Pankshin Local Government Area of Plateau State: Implication for Household Energy Supply

Dr Duguryil, Ayuba Pewat; Dr Mrs Gotep, Deborah Miri; Mandungs, David Maju; Isa, Joshua Fom; Kwarpo, Irmiya Philemon; Pam, Stephen; Garba, Sa’ad Adamu and Dalokom, Amos Dakyen
Integrated Science Department, Federal College of Education, Pankshin, Plateau State.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2023.8718
Received: 12 July 2023; Accepted: 18 July 2023; Published: 05 August 2023

 

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract: This study was undertaken to compare biogas production by maize and sorghum stalks for house hold energy supply in Pankshin local government area of Plateau state. An experimental research design was used. The experimental procedure included the growth of maize and sorghum stalks for two months (60 days) the stalks were selected and harvested while still succulents. The stalks were washed, cut into pieces using clean knives, pounded into pastes using mortar and pestles. An empty metal bucket with known weight was used, the pastes of each was weight and equal number of each bucket was put inside each digester accordingly from the top. The top was then sealed with super glue and the digesters were each painted with black oil paint. As a result of the size and volume of the digesters, the set up stayed for 14 days and being monitored daily. Findings indicate that for the Maize stalk there was no gas generated in day one as such the Bunsen burner did not burn. It burns for 50 seconds in day two, 1.5 minutes in day three and it rises steadily to 4 minutes in day eight. Then it started dropping to 3.5 minutes in day nine, 2.7 minutes in day ten, then it drops steadily to 0. 00 minute in day fifteen. For the Sorghum Stalk, days one and two no gas was generated as such the Bunsen burner did not burn. It burns for 1 minute in day three, 1.5 minutes in day four, then it rises steadily to 2.2 minutes for days 7 and 8 then to 2 minutes in day 9 then it started falling steadily to 0.00 minute in days 14 and 15. This implies that energy in form of biogas can be generated from maize and sorghum stalks. Exploring this can meet the increasing energy of man. Based on the results it was recommended amongst others the study can also be replicated with other varieties of common grass using standardized digesters. This is because grass is a weed and do not have other economic value like stalks from food crops. It was concluded that energy in form of biogas can be generated from maize and sorghum stalks. Exploring this can meet the increasing energy need of man. It is recommended that; the study can be carried out with the stalk of other crops such as rice, millet, cow pea and others.

I. Introduction

The concept of energy comes from the Greek word energeia meaning “in” or “work”. It first appears in the work of Aristotle in the 4th century B C (Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia, 2015). To Aristotle, energy is needed to do work. Human existence is hinged on energy, be it of any form. Energy is needed for daily human activities for both industrial and domestic uses. Uyigue and Archibong (2009) posit that humans need energy to drive human socio-economic activities and technological development. This probably informed why the world energy needs have continued to increase on a daily basis. That is to say that energy is very crucial to human survival. Okebukola and Akpan (2003) attribute the increase demand for energy to the increase in human activities and demand for alternative sources of energy.
Duguryil (2016) asserts that one of the major sources of energy required for humans is from the food they eat. This food is converted in the body as chemical energy. The energy plants (Maize and Sorghum) get is from the sun light by a process called photosynthesis, where carbohydrate, simple sugar (C6H12O6) is manufactured by using absorbed mineral salts from the soil, which combined with carbon (iv) oxide gas (CO2) from the atmosphere in the green parts of the plants leaves and stems with sun light. Ahmad and El-Mukhta (2007), describe the energy in plants as biomass, which is a form of stored solar energy by the process of photosynthesis in growing plants. That this stored energy is in form of carbohydrate and oil and can be recovered as biofuels e.g., Ethanol, biogas (CH4) and biodiesel. Pia-Maria, Mats and Guido (2013) assert that the biogas can be used to produce heat or electricity or it can be upgraded to transportation fuel.