Influence of Physico-functional Characteristics and Germination Effect on Gelation Property of Flour/Isolates from Two Varieties (DAS & BS) of Nigerian Cultivated Solojo Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp)

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VIII, Issue IV, April 2023|ISSN 2454-6194

Influence of Physico-functional Characteristics and Germination Effect on Gelation Property of Flour/Isolates from Two Varieties (DAS & BS) of Nigerian Cultivated Solojo Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp) 

 Olubamike A. ADEYOJU1, Henry O. CHIBUDIKE2, Bolanle O. OLUWOLE3, Kayode O. ADEBOWALE4 and Chinedum E. CHIBUDIKE5
1Production, Analytical and Laboratory Management, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, F.I.I.R.O., Lagos-Nigeria
2Department of Chemical, Fiber and Environmental Technology, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, Lagos-Nigeria
3Department of Food Technology, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, FIIRO, Lagos-Nigeria
4Department of Chemistry, Industrial Unit, University of Ibadan, Ibadan-Nigeria
5Department of Planning, Technology Transfer and Information Management, Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, Lagos-Nigeria
DOI: https://doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2023.8403
Received: 14 February 2023; Accepted: 16 March 2023; Published: 26 April 2023

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Abstract: Influence of Physico-functional Characteristics and Germination Effect on Gelation Property of the floor and isolates from the two varieties (DAS & BS) of Nigeria cultivated solojo cowpeas were investigated. Results show that germination improved the gelation capacity of the FFDAS as it brought the Least Gelation Concentration (LGC) from 4%w/v to 2%w/v except for 6 h and 72 h germination; likewise, FFBS had its LGC improve with germination from 4%w/v to 2%w/v, except for 6 h. The protein isolates of DAS and BS also had improved LGC with germination, going from 14%w/v to 6%w/v and 16%w/v to 8%w/v respectively. Gelation property of raw (native/ control) and germinated Dark-ash Solojo Cowpea (FFDAS, DFDAS, FFBS and DFBS flours; DAS and BS protein isolate) was influenced by germination and physico-functional characteristics. The four flour samples, FFDAS, DFDAS, FFBS and DFBS as well as the two protein isolates exhibited some variations in gelation property. The protein isolates gave stiff paste instead of regular gel, going from, DAS, 18 – 4% and BS, 18 – 6%. Disparity in gelling properties observed, may be as a result of the proportion of diverse components for example proteins, fat and carbohydrate in the various legume flours. The prevalent charges on the exterior of the proteins, which is affected by pH, causes variation in the balance between the polar and non-polar residues, thereby bringing about differences in gelation.

Keywords: Solojo Cowpea, Under-utilized legumes, essential amino acids, Nutraceuticals, BS, DA, Gelation Property LGC

I. Introduction

Gel is a dispersed system of minimum of two constituents which forms a cohesive structure. It is distinguished by the absence of fluency and flexible deformation. Globular proteins like legume proteins, under definite conditions (such as heating and denaturation), forms gel. Ordinarily, this sort of gel is described as collective dispersion (Barac et al., 2015). Gelation of protein is very crucial in the build-up and approval of several food product. The gel forming technique and gel presentation are majorly regulated by the equilibrum between attracting non-polar interactions and repelling Van der Waals interaction (Chaparro Acuna et al., 2012). The LGC is a quality specification that indicates the lowest quantity of protein required to form gel that doesn’t slip/slide along the walls of test tube when placed up-side-down (Eltayeb et al., 2011). A gel can also be defined as a system of uncoiled molecules cross-linked to produce an assemblage comprising of large quantities of en-captured water (Khalid and Elharadallou, 2013; Raikos et al., 2014). The mechanism of forming gels is dependent upon numerous factors such as, protein quantity, salt concentration, H+ concentration and inter-action with other content. The smaller the Least Gelation Concentration (LGC), the better the gelation capability of the protein (Raikos et al., 2014).