Natural Radioactivity Levels in Some Building Materials and their Radiological Implications in Pankshin, Plateau State, North Central, Nigeria

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) | Volume VI, Issue IV, April 2021|ISSN 2454-6194

Natural Radioactivity Levels in Some Building Materials and their Radiological Implications in Pankshin, Plateau State, North Central, Nigeria

Akila Simdet1, Abdullahi Musa1, Gokir Justin Ali2
1Physics Department, FCE Pankshin P.M.B.1027 Plateau State, Nigeria
2Computer Department, FCE Pankshin P.M.B.1027 Plateau State, Nigeria

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Abstract: – This study aimed to measure the activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in some selected building materials of Pankshin, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria, using a thallium-doped sodium iodide scintillator detector. The activity concentrations range from 86.8089Bq/kg to 158.6369Bq/kg, 53.7883Bq/kg to 229.5046Bq/kg, and 262.8164Bq/kg to 475.3861Bq/kg with average values of 106.3379Bq/kg, 110.1520Bq/kg, and 354.9511Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The activity concentration and average values of 226Ra and 232Th in this study were higher than the world average values of 35 Bq/kg and 30 Bq/kg given by UNSCEAR in 2000. In contrast, 354.9511 Bq/kg was reported as the average value of 40k, which is less than the world’s average of 400Bq/kg. However, the activity concentration of 40K in Dene (Gravel), Kor (Mud Block), and Katambiri (Cement Block) were higher than the recommended world average of 400Bq/kg. As a result, the general public’s risk of developing cancer complications over time in these areas reported to be higher than the world average cannot be overlooked. The Radiation dose and radiation hazard index were calculated for Radium equivalent (Raeq), absorbed Dose rate (Dr), Annual Effective Dose (AED), Annual Gonadal Dose Equivalent (AGDE), Hazard indices (Hex and Hin), Activity Concentration index (I𝛾) and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR).

Keywords: Activity concentration, radiation dose, radiation hazards indices, building materials.

I. INTRODUCTION

All living things need a place to call home. Humans and animals use various shelters to shield themselves from the sun’s rays, hot or cold temperatures, rain, and so on. This enhances human well-being and the will to live. We now spend about 90% of our time indoors, with almost 70% of that time spent at home. We should be mindful that spending a significant amount of time indoors may have a negative impact on our health and well-being. (Whitney Gray & Stephanie Timm, 2019).