Performance Analysis and Optimization of HF Communication Over Bangladesh

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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science (IJRIAS) |Volume VIII, Issue III, March 2023|ISSN 2454-6194

Performance Analysis and Optimization of HF Communication Over Bangladesh

Md Arifuzzaman Pramanik, A. A. M Shah Sadman, Meherab Hossain Mahim, Md Hossam-E-Haider
Department of EECE, Military Institute of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Received: 09 February 2023; Revised: 27 February 2023; Accepted: 03 March 2023; Published: 05 April 2023

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract— Solar activity has a significant impact on the ionosphere, which can lead to adverse effects on the performance of high-frequency (HF) communication systems. Solar discharges cause expanded ionization, resulting in signal propagation that can cause disturbances. During a solar maximum, the ionosphere experiences even more dramatic changes due to the increased solar emissions, such as coronal mass discharges and solar flares. The ionosphere is ionized by solar radiation from the Sun, producing free electrons and ions, which can be measured through Total Electron Content (TEC) observations. TEC observations have become an essential tool for understanding the ionosphere’s structure and variations. The relationship between solar activity and the ionosphere is complex and dynamic, requiring ongoing research and monitoring to improve our understanding and predict potential impacts on high-frequency communication systems. By understanding the effects of solar activity on the ionosphere, we can better mitigate the risks to these systems and ensure their continued operation. This investigation led us to a better analysis of HF communication from the perspective of Bangladesh. Maximum usable frequency (MUF) is taken into the consideration for improving the performance of HF propagation. So that four different locations were used to take data that represents all the major parts of the country. In this context, TEC observations play a critical role in helping us to comprehend the ionosphere’s behavior and the effects of solar activity on it over Bangladesh.

Keywords: High frequency (HF), Total Electron Content (TEC), Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF), Communications Security (COMSEC), Global Ionosphere Maps (GIMs), Modified Single Layer Model (MSLM), Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC)


High-frequency (HF) radio communication is a crucial component of modern communication infrastructure. The range of electromagnetic waves between 3 to 30 MHz is classified as HF [1]. This frequency band is a significant part of the shortwave frequency range and is known as shortwave radio.

HF radio signals are reflected Earth by the ionosphere layer in the atmosphere [2], resulting in “skip” or skywave propagation. This makes it an ideal choice for long-distance communication and is used for intercontinental distances. The Total Electron Content (TEC) is an important factor in describing the propagation of HF signals and is the measurement of whether the signal will be refracted to the ionospheric layer or cross the ionosphere. Frequencies below 3 MHz will not reach the ionosphere, while frequencies above 30 MHz will cross the ionosphere and will not be refracted back [3].