Quality of groundwater from five different locations in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria

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Quality of groundwater from five different locations in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria

1,3Olusegun Samuel Tunde*,2, 3 Fadimu Oladayo Kehinde, 3Olokode Hammed Adeyinka, 3Nwadike Solomon Chukwuka.
1 Department of Chemistry, Lagos State University, Lagos-Nigeria
2Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta-Nigeria
3Department of Pharmacy, School of Health and Applied Sciences, Institut Superieur Bilingue Libre Du Togo (IBLT) University.
*Corresponding author
DOI: https://doi.org/10.51584/IJRIAS.2023.8426
Received: 25 March 2023; Accepted: 30 March 2023; Published: 12 May 2023

Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the quality of groundwater from five different locations in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Fifty borehole water samples were collected and analyzed to ensure safe and continuous consumption by residents in the communities. The investigated physico-chemical parameters include: p H, alkalinity, total hardness, and anions (nitrate, sulphate and chloride). The presence of metals such as Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb, were also determined, using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS).
The highest mean concentrations values for alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, cadmium, chromium, copper, and lead were: 137.5,155.2,129.00,43.10,42.39,2.68,20.980.0167,0.0145,0.42 and 0.016 mg/L respectively. The highest pH was also observed to be 7.34. Of all the measured parameters, two of the five distinct locations did not fall within the WHO/NAFDAC permissible limits. The Results of this research activity have therefore shown that all the water samples fell within the physicochemical standard limits for drinking water, but are not recommended for drinking purposes, as they all contain one or more of the trace elements.

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Keywords: groundwater, heavy metals, physico–chemical, permissible limits, anions.

I. Introduction

Man’s survival and industrial development largely depend on the availability of surface and groundwater, whose quality is defined by the composition of the recharge components, and geological and hydrological variations [1]. Recent reports have shown that groundwater serves as the primary source of potable water for over 200 million urban dwellers, as access to potable water is proven abortive. Hence, groundwater, which is believed to be less susceptible to chemical and microbial contamination, is therefore used for many agricultural, domestic and industrial purposes [2]. Universally, groundwater is regarded as a vital natural resource, which is less polluted, unlike surface water bodies. Moreover, remediation of polluted groundwater is very difficult. It, therefore, is important to control its pollution [3]. Groundwater is also known to contain impurities, whose properties vary with the sources. Plants require trace amounts of metals (essential nutrients, such as copper, zinc, cobalt, iron and manganese) in water for the execution of certain biological processes [4]. However, the increase in population and industrialization has led to high concentrations of these metals in our ecosystem, leading to underground pollution of the groundwater sources [5].

In order to promote the good health of the residents of Lagos metropolis, the quality of groundwater must be frequently monitored. Therefore, this research work is aimed at assessing the quality of water from five locations in Badagry Local Government, Lagos State-Nigeria.

Study Area

Badagry Local Government (BLGA) is situated at the latitude 7°15´ N and 7°0´ N and longitude 5°0´W and 7°0´ W. it is bounded in the west by the Benin republic, east by Ologe lagoon, south by the Atlantic Ocean and north by Ogun State. The environment is made up of grey sandy soil with disperse vegetation mainly comprising coconut, oil palm and Shrubs. Fishing appears to be the major occupation of the people living in the environment. Groundwater in Badagry is highly susceptible to underground pollution due to the predominant sandy soil, which is known for low absorption potentials. As a result of this, foreign toxic chemicals are easily leached down the soil profile into the aquifer, thereby polluting the groundwater.