Review: Synthetic Microbial Consortia in Bioremediation and Biodegradation

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 Review: Synthetic Microbial Consortia in Bioremediation and Biodegradation

 K.S. Adamu1, Y.H. Bichi1, A.Y. Nasiru2, A.M. Babangida3, M.M. Umar1, G. Usman4, R. Muhammad5
1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Science, Bayero University Kano, Kano State Nigeria.
2Department of Microbiology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi state, Nigeria.
3Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University Kano, Kano State, Nigeria.
4Department of Environmental Studies, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
5Department of Chemistry, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi state, Nigeria.
Received: 13 July 2023; Accepted: 18 July 2023; Published: 21 August 2023

Abstract: Since ancient times, we have worked with microbial consortia in a variety of contexts, including wastewater treatment, the production of biogas, additionally to biodegradation and bio cleansing. The great ability of microbial consortiums is, however, a very long way from being completely realized. Last few years have seen a surge in interest in biosynthesis and bioprocessing related to the understanding and use of microbial consortia. It can be difficult to implement complex tasks in a single population. Synthetic consortiums of microorganisms have long utilized in biotechnology procedures like waste management, agricultural farming, and fermentation. Today, microbial consortiums are being engineered for a range of uses by synthetic biologists. The division of collaborative work in consortia is crucial for the breakdown of environmental contaminants that are persistent, cultures need to be resilient to the complicated environment, which often needs several phases. As a result, bioremediation may greatly benefit from the use of synthetic microbial consortiums [1]. The created and improved synthetic microbial community can operate as a culture (seed culture) for ex situ remediation methods including biodegradation in smaller reactors and bio augmentation of in situ bioremediation practices. In order to prevent genetic contamination from environmental microorganisms, the use of designed microbial consortia is currently, to a large degree, restricted in carefully monitored bioprocesses. In this review, an overview of undefined naturally occurring microbial consortia and their application was discussed. We introduced the notion of synthetic microbial consortia, system biology, we discussed Importance of synthetic microbial consortia with relevant examples of how they add value to bio refineries. We did an overview of microbial consortia in biotechnological process, application of microbial consortia in bioremediation and biodegradation was further discussed.

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Keywords: Synthetic Microbial Consortia, Bioremediation, Biodegradation.

I. Introduction

The materials and energy cycle, as well as the ecological balance of the environment, are all maintained by microorganisms [2]. Bioremediation, which is one of the most affordable and secure ways to restore the environment, is being further researched as a result of increasingly sophisticated synthetic environmental toxins [3]. The field of synthetic biology which is an applied discipline that was created in the previous century and uses engineering ideas in the design of system [4]. Synthetic biology goals is to construct and tamper with biologically based components, systems, and technologies to produce novel functionality. Redesigning can also be done with it current biological original systems. The realms of energy, medicine, and environmental research all benefit greatly from synthetic biology. The creation of synthetic microbial consortia, or artificial consortia systems made by co-cultivating or co-growing two or more microorganisms in a particular habitat is a significant emerging field of research in synthetic [5]. Wide-ranging applications of synthetic microbial consortiums show how synthetic biology and microbiology interact. The design, assembly and improvement through optimization of artificial microbial consortium to perform certain roles are made possible by the quick development of synthetic biology.

In a variety of disciplines, including wastewater treatment, the production of biogas, as well as biodegradation and bioremediation, humans have dealt with undefined microbial consortia for millennia [6]. However, microbial consortia’s huge potential is still far from being realized [7]. Biosynthesis and bioprocessing have recently shown a great deal of interest in the study and use of microbial consortia [8].