Statin Use Will Cure Disease? A Review of Statin Safety and Efficacy

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International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume VII, Issue VII, July 2020 | ISSN 2321–2705

Statin Use Will Cure Disease? A Review of Statin Safety and Efficacy

Fathimath Shahban, Dr. Linu Mohan P, Lubana KV, Asha G
Alshifa College of Pharmacy, Kerala, India

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract:- Statins [HMG COA reductase inhibitors] are very much effective in reducing the low density lipoproteins [LDL] cholesterol in patients with risk of coronary artery diseases and cerebrovascular events. Statins competitively inhibit the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase which acts as the catalyst in the cholesterol synthesis pathway (mevalonate pathway). Statins reduce the low density lipoproteins [LDL] cholesterol depends on the strength /dose. A high dose of statin will reduce >50% of LDL cholesterol. Also reduces the atherosclerotic events, leading cause of cardiovascular and cerebro vascular diseases. Apart from the benefits, statin use may show some side effects like myopathy, Rhabdomyolysis, increased transaminase level, new onset diabetes. This article discusses the benefits and safety of statins.

Key words: Statins, Cardiovascular diseases, Primary prevention, Intensity, secondary prevention, Myalgia, Rhabdomyolysis.

I. INTRODUCTION

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in most of the population. The morbidity and mortality associated with the coronary artery disease and dyslipidaemias can be reduced by treating the condition with statins.1 The various clinical trials showed that the benefit of statins is achieved only after 1 to 2 years of its use. The rate of cardiovascular disease among the patients with acute coronary syndrome can be reduced by administering atorvastatin.2The heart protection study showed that simvastatin decreased the total death rate and the rate of all vascular events.3

On analysing the cardiovascular life expectancy model to estimate the benefits of risk factors modification in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease showed that the benefit is more in high risk individuals than the lower risk individuals, younger individuals had more than elderly and men more than that of the women.4,5A randomized controlled trial which demonstrated statin benefits showed that each 1mmol/l (39mg/dl) reduction in LDL cholesterol effects a consistent ~22% reduction in cardiovascular events according to various cardiovascular risk profiles, clinical and demographic characteristics and baseline LDL cholesterol levels.6