The Effects CD4+ Counts and Viral Load on the Distribution and Coinfectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis and Syphilis Infections among HIV Positive Women in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

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International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume VI, Issue VII, July 2019 | ISSN 2321–2705

The Effects CD4+ Counts and Viral Load on the Distribution and Coinfectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis and Syphilis Infections among HIV Positive Women in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

Ezema, James Nnabuike1, Dibua, Maria Esther2

IJRISS Call for paper

1Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria.
2Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Abstract:-

Objective: To investigate the effects of CD4+ and viral loads of HIV on the distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis and Syphylis infections among HIV-positive women in Nsukka, Enugu State.

Study Design: 100 HIV-seropositive women formed the test group while 100 HIV-seronegative women were used as control. Ethical clearance was obtained from the health facilities used. The study was carried out in Nsukka area of Enugu State, Nigeria, comprising urban, semi-urban and rural communities.

Methods: Plasma samples were used in the study. HIV antibodies were detected using the Determine (Alere, Japan) and the Gold (Trinity, Ireland). C. trachomatis and Syphilis antibodies were detected using CT IgG EIA kit (Xema, Russia) and Syphilis Ultra Rapid Test Strip Package Insert, (Global USA) respectively. CD4+ counts were determined by cytometry (CyFlow®). HIV viral loads of the samples were determined using DNA amplification and hybridization protocol. Statistical significance was determined using SPSS 16.0.

Results: Single infection occurred at CD4+ counts less than 500 cells/µl, while pair-wise infection occurred at CD4+ less than 400 cells/µl. Pair-wise infection for the test group was observed at CD4+ count less than 200 cells/µl while that of control occurred at CD4+ less than 400 cells/µl. Similarly, viral loads of the CT-positive samples ranged from 106888 to 645243 copies/ml while those of CT-negative samples in the same test group ranged from 1516 to 500217 copies/ml.

Conclusion: Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) some of which present no immediate symptoms pose great public health challenge. Chlamydia trachomatis/ Syphilis co-infection is a serious health condition in HIV patients. This particular research confirms the reports on Chlamydia epidemiology from other parts of the world and also confirms HIV status as a strong risk factor of the diseases. Incorporation of CT and Syphilis diagnosis and treatment in the management of HIV infection is necessary.

Key words: Chlamydia trachomatis; Syphilis; HIV/AIDS; Women of reproductive age; Risk factors.