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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume V, Issue XI, November 2021 | ISSN 2454–6186

The impact of development control enforcement activities on housing quality in Calabar, Nigeria

 Otop Oquah Otop (Ph.D), Ibok, Akarawak Nduonyikoyo (Ph.D)
Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria

IJRISS Call for paper

bstract: This study assessed the impact of development control enforcement activities on housing quality in Calabar, Nigeria. The Data was collected using 400 copies of questionnaire, using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. The primary sources of data was employed were obtained from direct field measurement using a designed checklist from Cross River State building regulations, 1984 as amended in 1987 and questionnaire survey to determine building code violations, factors, location or spread and level of violations. The hypothesis was formulated and tested using analysis of chi square. The result stated that housing quality does not significantly depend on development control measures. Since the calculated value X2(6.830) is less than the tabulated X2 (18.31), the null hypotheses (H0) was accepted. The findings were that one of the major problems of unregulated development causing serious traffic congestion and flooding.


Development control is one of the most critical environmental issues in sustainable urban planning all over the world. The urban environment in developed and developing countries alike has been made ghettos as a result of poor and inappropriate planning policies vis-a-vis non-compliances with space standards approved design, and ineffective enforcement of building regulations. In Nigeria, development control came into being by the enactment of the Township Improvement Ordinance (TIO) of 1863 which was applied to Lagos colony alone. This Township Improvement Ordinance was aimed at improving public health and sanitation, controlling development and to ensure, the provision of public utilities and facilities. To date, development control has been applied in Nigeria through a series of Acts and laws, for example, the Lagos State Town and Country planning (building plan) regulations of 1986, Lagos State Urban and Regional Planning edict No 2 of 1998, as well as the Urban and Regional Planning Decree No 88 of 1992, by the Federal Government amended as Decree No 18 of 1999. The creation of Cross River State from the Eastern Region in 1967, more attention was paid to physical planning in Calabar which was the capital. Cross River State took the lead in positive land use planning when in early 1970, it embarked on the preparation of development plans (master plan) for Calabar and the major towns including Akamkpa, Ugep, Obubra, Ikom, Ogoja, and Obudu.