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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume VI, Issue VI, June 2022 | ISSN 2454–6186

The State and Separatist Agitations in Nigeria: An Analysis of The Dynamics of The Indigenous People of Biafra (Ipob)

Mezie-Okoye, Charles Chukwurah, Ph.D.
Department of Sociology/Centre for Peace and Security Studies,
Faculty of Social Sciences,
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

IJRISS Call for paper

Abstract: Consequently, this study examined the connection between the separatist actions of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) and their effects on the continuing existence of the Nigerian state. It also studied how the IPOB’s use of provocative language exacerbated ethnic tensions and how the amount of government persecution hindered the IPOB’s separatist objectives in Nigeria. Documentary methodology was employed in the study, and secondary sources and content analysis were allegedly used to collect data. The frustration-aggression theory offered an adequate theoretical foundation for this study’s analysis. This study indicates that the IPOB’s use of provocative language exacerbated ethnic tensions, namely between the Igbo and Hausa tribes. In addition, it was seen that state persecution had minimal impact on their separatist movement and goals. According to the findings of the study, the periodic separatist agitations in Nigeria are the result of the Nigerian government’s insensitivity and failure to provide inclusive and effective leadership. In order to reduce the central government’s excessive concentration of power and responsibilities, the research suggests, among other things, the devolution of authority from the federal government to the component states. In addition, the Nigerian government should initiate a reorientation campaign that promotes a culture of patriotism, responsible leadership, and transparency in government among the public. Based on these findings, the report recommends, among other things, that the Nigerian government eschew the use of force in favour of conversation and other diplomatic strategies.
Keywords: Biafra, colonial rule, ethnicity, failed leadership, IPOB, Separatist agitations.


The history of Nigeria is replete with obstacles stemming from unsolved national concerns pertaining to sensitive national issues such as group marginalisation, income allocation, politicisation of religion, ethnic militancy, terrorism, and corruption. In the South-East, the rise of organisations claiming self-determination and political independence, such as the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), is one of the principal expressions of some of these unsolved issues (Adangor, 2017).
According to Awofeso (2017), separatist agitations and secessionist movements are not wholly new to Nigerian political arena; they have always been a part of Nigerian politics, but their current dimension is not unrelated to the national question. In other words, they continued to act as a