Urban Household Water Insecurity in Ibadan, Nigeria

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International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) | Volume VII, Issue VIII, August 2020 | ISSN 2321–2705

Urban Household Water Insecurity in Ibadan, Nigeria

Samson A. Adejumo (Ph.D)
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Environmental design and Management University of Ibadan

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Abstract: Urban water insecurity is a growing manifestation in Nigeria and some other parts of the world. This paper considered water availability, safety of the major source, accessibility (distance) and water per capita as water security indicators. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to sample 1,069 (5.0%) household heads from 21,391 residential buildings across all residential density areas in six selected Local Government Areas (LGAs) (Ibadan North, Ibadan North-West, Ibadan South-East, Ido, Egbeda and Ona-Ara) in Ibadan. Households’ main sources of water were well (65.8%); borehole (20.1%), water vendor (11.6%) and public pipe-borne water (2.5%). Majority, (75.6%) of the wells available to respondents were sited at distance less than 25 metres (WHO minimum distance recommended) to soak-away pits facilities; 53.8% households usually experienced water shortage in their wells; 62% bought borehole water, 2.4% bought well water while 1.9% bought tap water to mitigate shortage. Also, 13.6% travelled more than 1,000 metres (WHO standard) to obtain potable water; 73.1% had access to less than 20 litres water per capita. Respondents in low (4.1%), medium (5%) and high (12.7%) residential districts assessed available sources of water as bad consequently 78.8% of respondents were not satisfied with the present situation of water, demanding for improved borehole and adequate pipe- bore water. Logistic regression model showed that education level (f=0.793, p<0.05) of the respondents has significant effect on the choice of both well water and water vendors as main source of water consumed. Pearson Chi-square result indicates a significant difference in the respondents’ perception of the quality of main sources of water consumed (χ2 = 546.59, p< 0.001). Household water security was poor in all residential densities. All residential neighborhoods in Ibadan therefore need to be considered in the planning of sustainable urban water supply.

Keywords: Water insecurity, Households, Groundwater pollution, water shortage, Ibadan


Water is essentially a crucial factor for the survival of all living beings and the economic development of a country (Akange, 2016; Sriyalatha, 2016). It is indispensable for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems (Mancosu et al., 2015). It is not only essential in the world economy but is a precondition for human, animal and plant lives, as stability of health and well-being depends on safe and adequate water supply (Ohwu and Abotutu, 2014; Adejumo, 2018). The socio-economic life of man is incomplete without adequate water. Water is an important input to achieving desired outcomes, including health and income.