Volume IX Issue I

Investigating the Mechanical Properties of Cast Aluminium Rods Reinforced with Wet Filament Winding
Stephen J.T., Alawode A.J., and Adegoke S.O. January 2022 – Page No.: 01-07

Metal rods and pipes are often reinforced with dry and wet windings of fibre strands on their surfaces. Many research works had been carried out on this. However, this work investigates the impact energy, tensile, compressive and fatigue properties of aluminium rod without fibre winding, and aluminium rods reinforced with wet filaments made of carbon, glass and copper fibres impreginated in epoxy resin. As compared to 4.2 J impact energy displayed by unreinforced rod, rods with carbon, glass and copper windings yielded 4.7, 5.3 and 5.6 J respectively. The respective ultimate tensile strengths are 144.1, 160.8, 155.2and 227.3 MPa. Thus the corresponding percentage elongations are 10.40, 5.85, 7.55 and 3.95%. However, the corresponding ultimate compressive strengths are 111.3, 112.5, 118.5 and 122.1 MPa. Increase in fatigue stress amplitude was observed to reduce the fatigue life (number of cycles-to-failure, Nf) of the specimens, Fatigue limit of unreinforced specimen increases from 35 to 70, 105 and 175 MPa with carbon, glass and copper windings. And endurance limit correspondingly increase from 105.0 to 105.5, 106.6 and 107.5 cycles-to-failure The findings in this work show that carbon, glass and copper filament windings offer remarkable resistance to impact, tensile compressive and fatigue deformations of the unreinforced rod.

Page(s): 01-07                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 January 2022

 Stephen J.T.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Alawode A.J.
Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
(Fomerly of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria)

 Adegoke S.O.
Department of Petroleum Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
(Fomerly of Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria)

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Stephen J.T., Alawode A.J., and Adegoke S.O., “Investigating the Mechanical Properties of Cast Aluminium Rods Reinforced with Wet Filament Winding” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.01-07 January 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-1/01-07.pdf

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Farmers’ and Traders’ Perceptions on the Incidence and Management of Weevils in Maize Zea Mays Storage in the Tano South Municipality of the Ahafo Region of Ghana
Bismark Oseiand Peter Haruna January 2022 – Page No.: 08-18

This paper assessed farmers’ and traders’ perception in the incidence and management of pests in maize (Zea mays) in in the Tano South municipality of the Ahafo region of Ghana.A sample size of 200 respondents consisting of 150 maize farmers and 50 maize traders, from six communities were used for the study. Semi-structured questionnaires and personal interviews were used in collecting information from the respondents. Data collected were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS version 19). Insects were the number one cause of maize spoilage at storage, mostly weevil infestations. Sitophilus zeamis and S. oryza were the commonly identified weevils in stored maize. Gain lost ranged from 1-5 100 kg bags per farmer anually. Control measures adopted by farmers and traders in managing weevil infestation in storage included the use of chemicals such as Actelic® EC, Baltelic® EC, Attack, Combat, Confidor, Fumigant, Karate and wood ash.

Page(s): 08-18                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 January 2022

 Bismark Oseiand Peter Haruna
Science Department, St. Joseph’s College of Education, Bechem

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Bismark Oseiand Peter Haruna, “Farmers’ and Traders’ Perceptions on the Incidence and Management of Weevils in Maize Zea Mays Storage in the Tano South Municipality of the Ahafo Region of Ghana” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.08-18 January 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-1/08-18.pdf

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Coercive Diplomacy: The India-Pakistan Case
Vaasu Sharma January 2022 – Page No.: 19-25

What are the factors behind successful coercive diplomacy? How Pakistan and India employed coercive diplomacy in attaining leverage, starting from Kargil War till date? How India increasingly resorted to coercive diplomacy against Pakistan especially with the advent of BJP government in 2014? This paper comprehensively deals with these questions by examining the concept of coercive diplomacyand probe the extent of leverage brought by it to the two countries. This paper elucidates the difference between coercion and compellence. Besides, theoretical and conceptual analysis of coercive diplomacy it delves into how India used the coercive diplomacy against Pakistan in different degrees in 5 major conflicts i.e Kargil (1999), Twin Peak Crisis (2001), Mumbai attacks (2008), Uri attacks (2016) and Pulwama terror attacks (2019). In the end, the paper analysis the factors that contributed to the enhanced employment of coercive diplomacy against Pakistan over the years and the crucial role played by US in support of India. Paper also analyse the Indiandilemma in employing coercive diplomacy against Pakistan and how it was overcome. Paper concludes that coercive diplomacy will remain a powerful tool in the arsenal of these nations to extract the desired results.

Page(s): 19-25                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 January 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9101

 Vaasu Sharma

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Vaasu Sharma, “Coercive Diplomacy: The India-Pakistan Case” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.19-25 January 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9101

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A Review of Android operating system security issues
Mohamed Razeed Mohamed Nowfeek January 2022 – Page No.: 26-30

with the growth and development in mobile phone operating systems and hardware technologies now Security issue is an immense challenge. Presently, in the market among all the smart-phone operating systems android has the major share. As the features and powers of such phones increase, their vulnerability also increases and makes them prone towards security threats. Permission -based model used by Android operating system which allows Android applications to access system information, device information, user information and external resources of Smartphone. in Android, application developer has to declare the permissions. For an Android application to be installed successfully, the user must approve certain permissions. These consents are declarations. if the consents are allowed by the user, At the time of installation, the app can access information and resources anytime. Again, Permission need not request. Because of its security vulnerabilities, the Android operating system is prone to a variety of security attacks and vulnerabilities. In this review paper, the author has made a methodical study on why android operating system security is significant, summarizes the security attacks and issues of android operating system, what some of the possible susceptibilities are and what security measures have been implemented currently to ensure security and proposed solution.

Page(s): 26-30                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 January 2022

 Mohamed Razeed Mohamed Nowfeek
Department of Information Technology, ATI-Sammanthurai, Sri Lanka Institute of Advanced Technological Education(SLIATE).

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Mohamed Razeed Mohamed Nowfeek, “A Review of Android operating system security issues” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.26-30 January 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-1/26-30.pdf

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Prevalence and Risk Factors of Teenage Pregnancy in Liberia: Evidence from Demographic Health Survey
Standee P. Weah, Suresh Jungari, Bal Govind Chauhan and Sosanwo Tobi Samson January 2022 – Page No.: 31-38

Introduction:The rate of adolescent pregnancy varies enormously between countries and within countries. Teenage pregnancy is most common in lower-income and less-educated communities. Adolescent pregnancy is a significant public health concern in Liberia, posing an economic and social burden. This study is aimed at finding the prevalence and examining the risk factors of teenage pregnancy in Liberia.
Method:The data for this present study was from the fifth round of Liberia’s Demographic and Health Survey, 2019-2020. The participants included in this study were 1,657 women aged 15 to 19 years. This study used descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression techniques to assess the effects of demographic, socio-economic, and reproductive health indicators on adolescent pregnancy.
Results:The study found that 30.3% of teenage women aged 15 to 19 years had begun childbearing during the survey period. Age (OR = 6.9; p < 0.001), marital status (OR = 5.8; p < 0.001), teenage women living in the south-central region (OR = 1.057; p > 0.001), non-use of contraception (OR = 2.53; p < 0.001), and teenage women who knew contraceptive methods (OR = 2.86; p > 0.001) were all significantly associated with teenage pregnancy in Liberia.
ConclusionTeenage pregnancy is common in Liberia. Lack of education, early marriages and cohabitation, contraceptive non-use, rural location, and early sexual initiation are all factors that contribute to teen pregnancies. To lower the high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy and its consequences, intervention measures promoting contraception use, preventing early sexual initiation, limiting early marriages, and creating family planning clinics, primarily in rural regions, are strongly recommended.

Page(s): 31-38                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 January 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9101

 Standee P. Weah
Master of Public Health, Interdisciplinary School of Public Health, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, India City: Pune, Country: India

 Suresh Jungari
Assistant Professor, Department of Public health & Mortality and Studies, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India. City: Mumbai, Country: India

 Bal Govind Chauhan
Assistant Professor, Population Research Centre, Gokhle Institute of Economics, Pune, India City: Pune, Country: India

 Sosanwo Tobi Samson

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Standee P. Weah, Suresh Jungari, Bal Govind Chauhan and Sosanwo Tobi Samson, “Prevalence and Risk Factors of Teenage Pregnancy in Liberia: Evidence from Demographic Health Survey” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.31-38 January 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9101

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Organochlorine Pesticides in Muscle of Varieties of Frozen Fish in Nigeria
Abata E.O, Ajiboye O. E and Akinwamide A. J January 2022 – Page No.: 39-53

Accumulation of toxic residues in water body affects all the living organism, and may possibly pose a high risk in organism that can accumulate and retain these toxic substances in their body such as the fishes. Fish consumption and demand is high that the local supply in Nigeria don’t meet up, this gap is bridged by frozen fishes which are majorly imported into the country. This study looked into five (5) commonly sold frozen fishes sold in Nigeria, to determine the level of organochlorine pesticide residues in them, which will indicate the kind of water body they are coming from and its potential risk to human life. GC-ECD with GC mass spectrometric (GC/MS) was used in the analysis and a total of fifteen OCPs were detected in all the five fish samples. Hexachlorobenzene, β-HCH, δ-HCH, α-HCH, 𝛾-HCH(lindane) were detected. α-HCH shows the highest wet concentration range of the HCH isomers with 1.10mg/kg in Herring fish sample to 4.00mg/kg in Atlantic mackerel. Endosulfan pesticide residue the highest concentration among all the OCPs quantified with a range of 3.16-4.18mg/kg. 12 OCPs were detected in sample F1 and F5 each and 14 were detected in F2, F3 and F4 each. The DDTs present suggest a possible recent use, which might raise a concern because these fishes are eaten in Nigeria almost every day and thus suggest a keen assessment of imported fishes into Nigeria, because of the bioaccumulation of pesticide residue in fishes thereby extending the effect to human health.

Page(s): 39-53                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 January 2022

 Abata E.O
Chemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

 Ajiboye O. E
Chemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

 Akinwamide A. J
Chemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

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Abata E.O, Ajiboye O. E and Akinwamide A. J, “Organochlorine Pesticides in Muscle of Varieties of Frozen Fish in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.39-53 January 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-1/39-53.pdf

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Coping Strategies to Burnout in Christian Ministry among Catholic Religious Men and Women Working In Rural Areas: A Case of Lodwar Diocese in Turkana County, Kenya
Wambua Pius Muasa (PhD) January 2022 – Page No.: 54-64

Coping with burnout in Christian ministry is critical for mental well-being of Church ministers. Based on the global concern of burnout in Christian ministry among Church ministers, the study aimed to explore the coping strategies used to prevent burnout in Christian Ministry among the Catholic religious men and women working in Lodwar Diocese. The study adopted phenomenological design. Using convenience sampling, a sample size of 16 Catholic religious men and women were included in the study. The qualitative data was collected using Focus Group Discussion Guide. The data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Some of the findings on coping strategies to burnout in Christian ministry among Catholic religious’ men and women were: Role modelling through culture of reading, taking a break from ministryamong others. The study recommends the future studies to conduct a similar study with Protestant clergy and other helping professionals working in Kenyan rural areas which were not part of this study.

Page(s): 54-64                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 January 2022

 Wambua Pius Muasa (PhD)
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, Catholic University of Eastern Africa

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Wambua Pius Muasa (PhD), “Coping Strategies to Burnout in Christian Ministry among Catholic Religious Men and Women Working In Rural Areas: A Case of Lodwar Diocese in Turkana County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.54-64 January 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-1/54-64.pdf

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Disablers to Access to Healthcare services experienced by Learners with Hearing Impairment at Musakanya School in Mpika District, Zambia
Bevin. M. Sichlindi, Habeenzu Mulunda, Albert Chishiba & Francis Simui January 2022 – Page No.: 65-74

This study focused on disablers experienced by learners with Hearing Impairments (LwHI) when accessing health services in Zambia. A qualitative methodology driven by Hermeneutics Phenomenology research design was applied. In addition, a purposive sampling technique was used to enlist Ten LwHI to participate in this study. Participants volunteered to voice their lived experiences and clusters of themes emerged thereafter. Emergent themes from the lived experiences of LwHI included: poor health services and academic performance of LwHI that represent their felt worlds while at Musakanya school. The findings of the study revealed that most of the LwHI health services were unmet due to inaccessibility to better health services caused by poor communication, wrong diagnosis, lack of privacy and confidentiality, discrimination, inadequate medical vocabulary for signs, poor health education, Limited Institutional support staff and Negative attitude. The study also unearthed that LwHI experienced poor health services which resulted in poor academic performance due to absenteeism and prolonged admission at hospitals. Based on the findings of the current study, the researchers provide five (5) recommendations among which include: inclusive policy, communication, mandatory training of sign language to health workers, teachers to offer remedial works and improve on health education.

Page(s): 65-74                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 February 2022

 Bevin. M. Sichlindi
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Habeenzu Mulunda
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Albert Chishiba
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Francis Simui
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

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Bevin. M. Sichlindi, Habeenzu Mulunda, Albert Chishiba & Francis Simui, “Disablers to Access to Healthcare services experienced by Learners with Hearing Impairment at Musakanya School in Mpika District, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.65-74 January 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-1/65-74.pdf

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Estimating the Economic Value of Health Walk on the Accra-Aburi Mountains Walkway in Ghana: An Individual Travel Cost Approach
Ophelia Amo, Wisdom Akpalu, Daniel K. Twerefou, Godfred A. Bokpin January 2022 – Page No.: 75-85

The study evaluates the economic benefits that the Accra-Aburi Mountain walkway in Ghana provides to the health of hikers by employing the Individual Travel Cost Method (ITCM). The underlying principle was to specifically determine the economic value of the Mountain and what determine visits to the site. The tenet of the ITCM is that the travel costs borne by a hiker to get to a recreational centre rely on factors such as the costs of driving and the cost of time sacrificed to travel to the site. The findings reveal the total value that hikers place on the Accra-Aburi Mountain walkway was valued as GH13,654,693($3,034,376.22) in 2018 based on a yearly visitation rate of 145,340 hikers. The results from the generalised poison regression method indicate that travel cost, gender, average income, cardiovascular diseases, family history and blood pressure are the determinants of visitation to the mountain for health walk. We recommend to the government not to substitute the Accra-Aburi Mountains walkway for any other use since hikers valuation of the walkway is GH13,654,693($3,034,376.22) in 2018 which is quite high.

Page(s): 75-85                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 February 2022

 Ophelia Amo
Department of Economics, University of Ghana

 Wisdom Akpalu
Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration

 Daniel K. Twerefou
Department of Economics, University of Ghana

 Godfred A. Bokpin
Department of Finance, University of Ghana Business School

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Ophelia Amo, Wisdom Akpalu, Daniel K. Twerefou, Godfred A. Bokpin, “Estimating the Economic Value of Health Walk on the Accra-Aburi Mountains Walkway in Ghana: An Individual Travel Cost Approach” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.75-85 January 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-1/75-85.pdf

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Impact of Covid-19 on Institutional Operations in Zambian Organisations
Sitali Wamundila, Daniel Siakalima, Lubinda Haabazoka, and Francis Simui January 2022 – Page No.: 86-94

Covid-19 has had a devastating impact on world economies, particularly the poor economies. In this study, a survey was conducted on the impact of Covid-19 on business organisations involving 94 organisations in Zambia. Findings revealed that most organisations implemented the global and national health Covid-19 guidelines that were provided by institutions such as the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Government of the Republic of Zambia through the Ministry of Health. The study also revealed that although the majority of the organisations were impacted by Covid-19, the impact was not uniform as some organisations were severely affected, whilst others were moderately affected; Only 8.5% of the organisations had completely shut down; 21% of the organisations reported that their operations were severely affected by covid-19, while 58.5% of the organisations reported that they were moderately impacted by Covid-19; 8.5% of the other organisations reported that they were not impacted by Covid-19, while 3% reported to have had a positive impact out of the covid-19 situation. These results suggest the availability of a relatively stable operational environment for Zambian organisations despite the on-going challenges posed by Covi-19 globally. The results may thus suggest that the various interventions from the Zambian Government as well as the individual institutions are yielding positive results in terms of mitigating the Covid-19 operational challenges.

Page(s): 86-94                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 February 2022

 Sitali Wamundila
Department of Library and Information Science, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

 Daniel Siakalima
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

 Lubinda Haabazoka
Graduate School of Business, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

 Francis Simui
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

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Sitali Wamundila, Daniel Siakalima, Lubinda Haabazoka, and Francis Simui, “Impact of Covid-19 on Institutional Operations in Zambian Organisations” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.86-94 January 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-1/86-94.pdf

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Epidemiology of typhoid fever among Students and Staff of tertiary Education institution
Abdullahi ML, Mathiebe JM January 2022 – Page No.: 95-107

The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiology of typhoid fever among students and staff of a tertiary Educational institution. The study was conducted at a Tertiary Education Institution in Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, North West Nigeria. It is a tertiary Coeducational institution consisting of students and staff mainly from Northwest Nigeria. Data was collected using a prevalidated modified typhoid and paratyphoid fever questionnaire by considering all possible variables according to information developed on the basis of relevant literature. Four hundred students and 400 staff (all above 18 years) of the polytechnic were drawn using simple random sampling method from a total population of 6222 (sample size calculated using Yamane Method). Quantitative, cross sectional research was conducted to find the determinants of typhoid fever, to also determine whether or not multi-drug resistance to routine antibiotics used in treating typhoid fever exist among the study population, and to develop clinical and public health guidelines for effective management of the disease. The study findings revealed that unsafe drinking water in a form of sachet water is an important vehicle in typhoid fever transmission among the study population. Self-medication and poor vaccination coverage were likely found to be the factors responsible for Multi-Drug Resistance in study samples that show resistance. However, no association was found between the two study groups. At the end of the study, the researcher, with the help of Panel of experts, developed clinical and public health guidelines using Delphi’s technique for effective management of typhoid fever within the study setting.

Page(s): 95-107                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 February 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9103

 Abdullahi ML
The University of South Africa (UNISA), South Africa

 Mathiebe JM
The University of South Africa (UNISA), South Africa

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Abdullahi ML, Mathiebe JM, “Epidemiology of typhoid fever among Students and Staff of tertiary Education institution” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.95-107 January 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9103

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An Assessment on the Physiochemical and Microbiological Parameters in Selected Sachet Water Sold for Consumption in Old Road Gaye Town Community Montserrado, County
Franklin Gonpue January 2022 – Page No.: 108-124

The study assessed the physicochemical and microbiological parameters in five selected sachet water brands that are sold for consumption in the Gaye Town Old Zoo community. The study is significant because the quality of drinking water plays a vital role in the health aspect of all human beings. An experimental design was employed to achieve the goal of the research. The population of the research was 150 and the sample size was 75. The key findings of the research are: The Copper contents in the samples of the five selected brands of sachet water were above the stipulated WHO, (2012) water quality standards for drinking water. The concentrations of Cadmium, Chloride, Iron, Fluoride, pH, Turbidity and Total Hardness in the samples of the five different brands of sachet water met the stipulated standards for drinking water. The concentrations of Nitrite contents in three of the five brands met the stipulated standards for drinking water and the remaining two brands’ concentrations of Nitrite contents were above the stipulated standards. The concentrations of Lead contents in one of the five brands were above the stipulated standards for drinking water. There were no bacteria present in three of the five sachet water brands. However, the presence of E.coli and Fecal Coliform was detected in the remaining two brands of sachet water. To conclude, none of the sachet water brands in the study area met all the parameters of the water quality standards for drinking water for both the Physiochemical and Microbiological parameters in relation to the World Health Organization (2012) drinking water quality standards and the Liberia Water Quality Standards (1987). It is recommended that; sachet water producers should have their water tested regularly especially in areas where fertilizers are commonly used where latrines (pit holes) are prevalent.

Page(s): 108-124                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 February 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9104

 Franklin Gonpue

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Franklin Gonpue , “An Assessment on the Physiochemical and Microbiological Parameters in Selected Sachet Water Sold for Consumption in Old Road Gaye Town Community Montserrado, County” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.108-124 January 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9104

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Development of a Generic Aircraft aintenance Management Database for Zambia Air Force
Joana Bwalya Chemba and Isaac N. Simate January 2022 – Page No.: 125-137

The aviation industry is one of the most strictly regulated industries in the world. National and international aviation regulating authorities stipulate a number of requirements for both civil and military aviation establishments. One of the areas these regulations apply to is aircraft maintenance information management. With the evident technological advancement, the aviation regulators allow the use of electronic databases in aircraft maintenance. This study was aimed at developing a generic aircraft maintenance management database for Zambia Air Force (ZAF). The results of the baseline study conducted at one aircraft maintenance unit showed that the majority (86%) of respondents use a paper based aircraft maintenance information database. According to the respondents, the lack of skills, inadequate computers and security are the reasons for the continued use of a paper-based system. Additionally, the main challenges faced using this information database based on the results are time-consuming, misplaced documents and some information is not documented. A database was developed using Microsoft Access based on the reviewed aviation regulations with regard to maintenance information records. The database has attributes of managing aircraft information, personnel information as well as material, spares and equipment information. Furthermore, the implementation results show that the database can address the challenges currently faced with the paper based system and aid maintenance managers with (1) decision making (2) maintenance planning and execution (3) spares inventory management.

Page(s): 125-137                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 February 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9105

 Joana Bwalya Chemba
Department of Agricultural Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

 Isaac N. Simate
Department of Agricultural Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

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Joana Bwalya Chemba and Isaac N. Simate , “Development of a Generic Aircraft aintenance Management Database for Zambia Air Force” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.125-137 January 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9105

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Government Expenditure and Performance of Selected Macroeconomic Variables in Nigeria (1981 – 2018)
Nnamocha, P.N. (PhD), Anyanwu, Austin Chinenye (PhD) January 2022 – Page No.: 138-150

This research work studied government expenditure and performance of selected macroeconomic variables (RGDP, Unemployment rate and Inflation Rate) in Nigeria from 1981 to 2018. The study made use of annual data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin (2018 edition). Three models were formulated using government expenditure which was disaggregated into two components; government capital expenditure and government recurrent expenditure as independent variables for each of the selected macroeconomic variables, while economic growth (proxied by RGDP), inflation rate and unemployment rate were the dependent variables in each of the three models. Error Correction model was used in analysing the data. The findings showed that government capital expenditure had positive impact on economic growth (proxied by RGDP), and negative impact on inflation rate and unemployment rate. On the other hand, government recurrent expenditure had positive relationship with economic growth, unemployment and inflation rate. The study concluded that government expenditure has a significant relationship with the selected macro-economic growth variables i.e. real GDP, unemployment rate and inflation rate in Nigeria. Based on these findings, the study recommended that government capital expenditure being the engine of industrial development should be increased in order to build up or increase the productive capacity in the country.

Page(s): 138-150                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 February 2022

 Nnamocha, P.N. (PhD)
Dept of Economics, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

 Anyanwu, Austin Chinenye (PhD)
President/CEO, Gulftek Microfinance Cooperative Society Ltd, Owerri, Nigeria

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[39] Onoh (2007): Dimensions of Nigeria’s Monetary and Fiscal Policies – Domestic and External. Aba: Astra Meridian Publishers.
[40] Perotti, R. (2004), “Estimating the Effects of Fiscal Policy in OECD Countries”, IGIER, Università Bocconi, Working Paper, No. 276, Milano.
[41] Peter, G. A. (2015).Effects of public expenditure on selected macroeconomic variables in Nigeria; 1986-2012. An unpublished thesis submitted to Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
[42] Pyraee, K., Keshavarz, G. R. H. and Mofrad, M. A. P. (2010). “The Effect of Public Expenditure Shocks on Macroeconomic Variables in a Real Business Cycle Model, Case Study of Iran” School of Doctoral Studies (European Union) Journal.
[43] Richard A. Musgrave, (1969) Fiscal Systems, Yale University Press, New Haven 1969, pp. 72 – 74.
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[45] Suleman, D. et al. (2009), An Empirical Investigation between Money Supply Government Expenditure, Output & Prices: the Pakistan Evidence. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences Issue 17: 60-68
[46] Taiwo, M. and Abayomi, T. (2011) Government Expenditure and Economic Development: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria, European Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 3, No.9.
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Nnamocha, P.N. (PhD), Anyanwu, Austin Chinenye (PhD) , “Government Expenditure and Performance of Selected Macroeconomic Variables in Nigeria (1981 – 2018)” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.138-150 January 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-1/138-150.pdf

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Enhanced Child Abuse Information Management System-The Nigeria Context
Ndubuisi Henry Odikwa, Ukabuiro, Ikenna, Akwaraonwu, Bright January 2022 – Page No.: 151-157

The Child Abuse Information Management System is a research designed to create a platform where issues related to child abuse complaints will be domicile and attended to by human right activists and law enforcement agents in Nigeria as result of rising cases in child abuse. The computerized system will keep tracks of all the suspicious incidents of child abuse by generating reports, aid law enforcement agency based on numerous details deposited on the platform. For this implementation of this design, a lot of web related technology like CSS, XAMP, MYSQL were used as the back end and PHP programming language in the front end. Implementing this computerized system will play a crucial role in child welfare. The management system and data collection tools will meet with the Federal reporting requirements, it will also serve the information needs of an organizations, help inform management decisions and support caseworkers’ interactions with children and families. After the creation and testing of this system, it proved a much easier, faster and efficient way for victims or observers to make reports about their previous or on going abuses.

Page(s): 151-157                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 February 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9106

 Nnamocha, P.N. (PhD)
Department of Computer Science, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria

 Ukabuiro, Ikenna
Department of Computer Science, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria

 Akwaraonwu, Bright
Department of Computer Science, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Abia State, Nigeria

[1] Aber, J.L., and Cicchetti, D (2014) The socio-emotional development of maltreated children: An empirical and theoretical analysis. Pp. 147-205 in H. Fitzgerald, B. Lester, and M. Yogman (eds.) Theory and Research in Behavioral Pediatrics Vol. II. New York: Plenum Press.
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Ndubuisi Henry Odikwa, Ukabuiro, Ikenna, Akwaraonwu, Bright , “Enhanced Child Abuse Information Management System-The Nigeria Context” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.151-157 January 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9106

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Automated Primary Health Care Delivery System- The Nigeria Context
Ndubuisi Henry Odikwa, Onwubiko, Davidson, Akwaraonwu, Bright January 2022 – Page No.: 158-163

Nigeria as a country has a peculiar problem in health care delivery, ranging from disbursement of drugs to the various health centers, prompt payment of health workers salaries and promotions to cumbersome nature of patients seen the medical practitioners to attend to them. This paper focused on the design of primary health care delivery system in Nigeria. The design is made to accommodate both the patients and physicians quests to have a platform where communications are enhanced for effective administration of health care. The automated system is designed with visual sharp programming language and MYSQL that is conveniently accessible to both patients and physicians. The paper also focused on the tracking of drugs from the point of collection to the distribution chain to all the primary health care facilities by using a tracker so to prevent diversion of drugs. The automated system proved to be robust as it carters for the needs of the society in providing affordable, timeless and efficient delivery of health care to the patients.

Page(s): 158-163                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 February 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9107

 Ndubuisi Henry Odikwa
Department of Computer Science, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria

 Onwubiko, Davidson
Department of Computer Science, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria

 Akwaraonwu, Bright
Department of Computer Science, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Abia State, Nigeria

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Ndubuisi Henry Odikwa, Onwubiko, Davidson, Akwaraonwu, Bright , “Automated Primary Health Care Delivery System- The Nigeria Context” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.158-163 January 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9107

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Application of Adjacent Categories and Continuation Ratio Logit Models in Determining Factors Influencing Malnutrition in Children Living in the Eastern Part of Freetown, Sierra Leone
Regina Baby Sesay, Sheku Seppeh January 2022 – Page No.: 164-175

Malnutrition in children under five years of age remains a problem in many part of the world especially in Africa of which Sierra Leone is not an exception. In Sierra Leone, the magnitude of stunting, underweight and wasting in children less than five years increases tremendously in the rural areas, especially in the raining season. Child growth is nationally and internationally recognized as a principal indicator of the nutritional and health status of the populations of a country. Therefore, identifying the main factors associated with childhood malnutrition can help to inform and advice both Government and other national health agencies to implement policies that will help to alleviate or minimize the incidence in the country. No research have been conducted especially after the 5 years Sierra Leone rebel war, to particularly investigate the factors influencing malnutrition in under-five children living in this part of the country. This research work, therefore, aimed to identify the main factors influencing malnutrition in under-five children living in the eastern part of the capital city of Sierra Leone. A random sampling method was used to collect 500 observations from the study area. An ordinal logistic regression modelling techniques that involved the proportional odds; the non-proportional odds adjacent categories and the non-proportional odds forward continuation ratio logit models were used in the empirical analysis. Statistical tests showed that, the non-proportional odds adjacent category model outperformed both the proportional odds and the non-proportional odds continuation ratio models. Based on the empirical evidence, the mother’s age, the family income level and the number of post-natal hospital visits were the main factors influencing the malnutrition status of the under-five children living the study area. The child’s age and the child’s feeding status were also found to be significant determinants of under-five children malnutrition status. Malnutrition increases in under-five children from younger mothers, as compared to under-five children from older mothers. The more frequent, the number of post-natal hospital visit, the lower the malnutrition status of the under-five children. Similarly, increase in family income will reduce the incidence of malnutrition in under-five children. Also, malnutrition increases in older children as compared to younger children. Finally, the higher the quality and frequency of child’s feed, the lower the incidence of malnutrition in under-five children.

Page(s): 164-175                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 February 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9101

 Regina Baby Sesay
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, School of Technology, Njala University, Njala, Sierra Leone

 Sheku Seppeh
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, School of Technology, Njala University, Njala, Sierra Leone

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Regina Baby Sesay, Sheku Seppeh , “Application of Adjacent Categories and Continuation Ratio Logit Models in Determining Factors Influencing Malnutrition in Children Living in the Eastern Part of Freetown, Sierra Leone” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 1, pp.164-175 January 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9101

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