Volume IX Issue II

Challenges associated with the Teaching of Civic Education in Social Studies Lessons in Schools in Masaiti district: A Hermeneutic Perspective
Setwin Mutau Mufalo, Gistered Muleya, Francis Simui February 2022 – Page No.: 01-08

The article explores challenges associated with the teaching of Civic Education in Social Studies lessons at junior secondary school. An interpretive study was conducted which employed hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The sample size for the study was 12 comprising 2 females and 10 males drawn from the Ministry of Education district office and selected primary and secondary schools. All the participants were selected using homogenous purposive sampling. The data that was generated through semi structured interviews, observation schedules and document analysis was thematically analysed. The study established that there were many challenges associated with the teaching of Civic Education through Social Studies lessons. Some of them were shortage of qualified Civic Education teachers, a dearth of teaching/learning materials such as textbooks and computers. Also, substandard textbooks, shortage of desks, inadequate contact time and low literacy levels among learners among others. Based on the above highlighted challenges, the study recommended that Ministry of Education should employ adequate qualified Civic Education teachers. It was also recommended that Ministry of Education should allocate adequate funds to schools for the procurement of teaching/learning materials as well as enhancing field studies in order for learners to supplement on theories learnt in the classroom environment. Further, it was recommended that Ministry of Education should build and procure more school infrastructure.

Page(s): 01-08                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 February 2022

 Setwin Mutau Mufalo
Mishikishi Secondary School, Masaiti, Zambia

 Gistered Muleya
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

 Francis Simui
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

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Setwin Mutau Mufalo, Gistered Muleya, Francis Simui, “Challenges associated with the Teaching of Civic Education in Social Studies Lessons in Schools in Masaiti district: A Hermeneutic Perspective” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.01-08 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-2/01-08.pdf

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Impact of COVID-19 on Human Resource Management Functions in Zambian Organisations
Sitali Wamundila, Daniel Siakalima, Jessie Nkhowani, Best Musondela and Francis Simui February 2022 – Page No.: 08-17

The impact of Covid-19 pandemic has been devastating on the global economy, national economies, institutions and indeed organisational operations. One of the key organisational operations that has been impacted by Covid-19 is human resource management (HRM). The impact of Covid-19 on HRM in organisations has been reported to have covered all the key functional areas of human resources practice ranging from the governance of HRM practice to workplace environment. This development has influenced the world of work profoundly. This study conducted on the impact of Covid-19 on HRM functions in Zambian organisations has revealed the continued negative impact of Covid-19 on organisational operations. However, the results of the study indicate that while all the HRM functions that were investigated namely: Organisation Design and Development; People Resourcing; Performance Management; Training and Development; Reward Management and Employee Relations reported to have been impacted, only two functions namely Training and Development and Performance Management reported significant negative impact having scored 77% and 48% respectively. The rest of the functions namely: Organisation Design and Development; People Resourcing; Reward Management and Employee Relations scored 35% and below, scores that indicate some relative stability in the operations of the functions. These results suggest the availability of a relatively stable operational environment of HRM functions in Zambian organisations and that the role of HRM function in the organisations has remained stable despite the on-going challenges posed by Covid-19. The prevalence of such an operational environment is critical for business operational continuity amidst the Covid-19 pandemic.

Page(s): 09-18                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 February 2022

 Sitali Wamundila
Department of Library and Information Science, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

 Daniel Siakalima
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

 Jessie Nkhowani
Graduate School of Business, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

 Best Musondela
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

 Francis Simui
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

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Sitali Wamundila, Daniel Siakalima, Jessie Nkhowani, Best Musondela and Francis Simui, “Impact of COVID-19 on Human Resource Management Functions in Zambian Organisations” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.09-18 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-2/09-18.pdf

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Effect of Ethanoic Leaf Extracts of Carica Papaya and New Bouldia Laevis on Lipid Profile of Diabetic Wistar Rats
Njoku-Oji, Njideka Nancy; Ifegwu, Njoku Oji; Igbonaju, Marvelous; Okwuonu, Ifeoma Frances; Chukwukaeme, Chidinma Winifred; Mmaju, Chidinma Ifeyinwa; Okonudo, Peter Osezele February 2022 – Page No.: 19-25

Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the ethanolic leaf extracts of Carica papaya (C. papaya) and Newbouldia laevis (N. laevis) on the lipid profile of alloxan-induced Wistar rats.
Methodology: Forty (40) male wistar rats weighing 130-150g were procured and acclimatized for two weeks, after which they were divided into eight (8) groups of five (5) rats each, and were housed in cages. The groups were designated as groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. Groups B – H were induced with diabetes using alloxan. Group A served as the control group and received only distilled water; group B diabetic received only distilled water only, while groups C – H diabetic received 400mg/kg of C. papaya, 600mg/kg of C. papaya, 400mg/kg of N. laevis, 600mg/kg of N. laevis, 200mg/kg of C. papaya + 200mg/kg of N. laevis and 300mg/kg of C. papaya + 300mg/kg of N. laevis respectively for 21 days through oral route with the aid of oral gastric tube. On the 22nd day, the animals were sacrificed by chloroform inhalation, and blood samples were obtained through cardiac puncture for lipid profile parameters’ assays. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 25 and (P<0.05) was considered significant.
Result: There was significant increase in the plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL) with a decrease in plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) of the animals in group B when compared with the control group. These effects were ameliorated in Groups C – H that received the variable doses of the ethanolic leaf extracts C. papaya and N. laevis with more positive effects on the groups that received the combined ethanolic leaf extracts.
Conclusion: The leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis have ameliorative effects on the lipid profile alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats.

Page(s): 19-25                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 February 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9201

 Njoku-Oji, Njideka Nancy
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

 Ifegwu, Njoku Oji
Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria

 Igbonaju, Marvelous
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

 Okwuonu, Ifeoma Frances
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

 Chukwukaeme, Chidinma Winifred
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

 Mmaju, Chidinma Ifeyinwa
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

 Okonudo, Peter Osezele
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

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Njoku-Oji, Njideka Nancy; Ifegwu, Njoku Oji; Igbonaju, Marvelous; Okwuonu, Ifeoma Frances; Chukwukaeme, Chidinma Winifred; Mmaju, Chidinma Ifeyinwa; Okonudo, Peter Osezele, “Effect of Ethanoic Leaf Extracts of Carica Papaya and New Bouldia Laevis on Lipid Profile of Diabetic Wistar Rats” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.19-25 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9201

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External Debt and Macroeconomic Performance in Nigeria, 1981–2019
Nnamocha, P. N. (PhD), Anyanwu, Austin Chinenye (PhD), Evbie Johnson February 2022 – Page No.: 26-36

This research studied external debt and macro-economic performance in Nigeria from 1981 to 2019. The macro-economic performance indicators employed were Real Gross Domestic Product, and Inflation rate while external debt stock was the explanatory variable. The study employed the cointegration and Vector Error Correction Model as the main analytical tool. The findings revealed that a significant positive relationship existed between external debt stock and inflation ratein Nigeria while external debt stock decreased Real GDP. The study also found that shocks to external debt stock decreased real GDP initially but grew subsequently at a slow pace. The external debt stock contributed to the macro-economy in the VEC model was very minimal as they contributed less than 20%. The study concluded that Nigeria’s external debt had negatively affected the macro-economy and also, external debt stock increased inflation rate thus indicating a serious strain in the macro-economy occasioned by continued debts without a corresponding debt servicing. Thus, we recommended that the government can utilize external debt to decrease the rate of inflation through government focus on productive sectors and channeling of public investments to the real sector. Also, Nigeria should focus more on the real sector which is the productive sector of the economy so as to create a long term external debt service plan and ease the strain on exchange rate and the macro-economy

Page(s): 26-36                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 March 2022

 Nnamocha, P. N. (PhD)
Dept of Economics, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria

 Anyanwu, Austin Chinenye (PhD)
Gulftek Microfinance Cooperative Society Ltd, Owerri, Nigeria

 Evbie Johnson
Dept of Economics, College of Education, Warri, Nigeria

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Nnamocha, P. N. (PhD), Anyanwu, Austin Chinenye (PhD), Evbie Johnson, “External Debt and Macroeconomic Performance in Nigeria, 1981–2019” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.26-36 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-2/26-36.pdf

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Analysis of Factors Affecting Financial Performance of Property and Real Estate Companies Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange
Yuliah, Leni Triana, Rina Nopianti February 2022 – Page No.: 37-42

An study into the financial performance of property and real estate firms that are publicly traded on the Indonesian Stock Exchange from 2016 to 2020 was conducted. There have been a number of previous financial performance studies. In order to re-examine the theory of financial performance, additional study is required. A total of 52 property and real estate companies participated in the survey. Purposive sampling was used to collect data from 29 sample companies over a five-year period (2016-2020), resulting in 145 observations. The information for this study came from a list of firms that could be found on the website of the Indonesian Stock Exchange. The data is analyzed through the use of multiple regression analysis. Following the traditional assumption test, multiple regression analysis and hypothesis testing are performed, respectively. Financial performance is influenced by a number of factors, including capital structure, firm size, and total asset turnover. The capital structure has a significant negative impact on the financial success of a company. The size of a company has minimal impact on its financial performance, but the overall amount of assets it has does.

Page(s): 37-42                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 March 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9202

Management Department, Bina Bangsa University

 Leni Triana
Management Department, Bina Bangsa University

 Rina Nopianti
Accounting Department, Bina Bangsa University

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[19] Sugiarto, Metodologi Penelitian Bisnis. In Yeskha (Ed.), Metodologi Penelitian Bisnis. 2017.

Yuliah, Leni Triana, Rina Nopianti, “Analysis of Factors Affecting Financial Performance of Property and Real Estate Companies Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.37-42 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9202

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Design and Fabrication of Small-Scale Maize Roaster
Olasupo O. S., Salau, T. A. O. February 2022 – Page No.: 43-52

Nigeria local method of maize roasting is prone to high operating stress, uneven roasted maize, high greenhouse effect, low hygienic level and higher time per roast operation, this study was therefore design to explore modern method that can drastically reduce these challenges. From among alternatives considered a 2.976 kg roasted maize in fifteen minutes roasting machine was designed, fabricated using economically available local resources and evaluated. The machine consists majorly electric motor (2.5 rev/min to 3 rev/min) mounted on bearings, selected heating elements (2.07kW calculated based literature standard), transmission and drum shafts, perforated galvanized roasting drum and thermostat (200oC maximum temperature). The machine was tested empty at full chamber volume that took average of 51 minutes and 36 second to reach 200oC from ambient temperature. Other tests carried out helped to establish, the optimum roasting mass for the machine was 2 kg compared to design capacity value of 2.976 kg roasted maize in fifteen minutes. The roasting process was carried out faster with lesser stress, zero greenhouse gasses in a hygienic environment as calculated for.

Page(s): 43-52                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 March 2022

 Olasupo O. S.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

 Salau, T. A. O.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

[1] O. Atere, et. al. “Modelling the Performance of a Roasting Machine.” American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), vol. 9(8), 2020, pp. 75-82.
[2] Awopetu O. O., Aderibigbe A. F. (2017). Development of a manually operated multi-purpose roasting machine. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 20(1): 1-7, 2017; Article no. BJAST.31679
[3] Choi, Y. and Okos, M. R. (1986). Effects of temperature and composition on the thermal properties of food. In Food Engineering and Process Applications, Vol. 1. “Transport Phenomena.” M. Le Maguer and P.Jelen, eds., 93–101. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London
[4] Deepika Pandey and Ratna Kumari, D. 2020. Testing of an Improved Maize Roaster for Street Vendors. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 9(04): 1040-1044.doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.904.123
[5] Deosthale YG (1982). Food processing and nutritive value of legumes. In H. C. Srivastava (Ed.), Pulse production, constraints and opportunities (pp. 377–388). New Delhi, India: Oxford/IBH Publishing Co.
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[7] Hall, A.S.; Holowenko, A.R.; and Laughlin, H.G. 1988. Theory and problems of machine design. Shaum’s Outline Series, S.I. (metric) ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA. pp. 113-4.
[8] Hossain, A (ed.). 2020, Maize – Production and Use, IntechOpen, London. 10.5772/intechopen.82912
[9] Ilori Titus Adeyinka, Raji Abuduganiyu Olayinka, Adejumo AkinfoyeOyime, Kilanko Oluwaseun. Development and Performance Evaluation of a Maize Roaster. International Journal of Science, Technology and Society. Vol. 2, No. 5, 2014, pp. 161-164.doi: 10.11648/j.ijsts.20140205.19
[10] Khurmi R. S. and Gupta J. K. (2005). A Textbook of Machine Design, First Multicolor Edition.
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[13] Omenna Emmanuel Chukwuma, Olanipekun Oyeyoyin Taiwo, Udouso Victory Boniface. Effect of the Traditional Cooking Methods (Boiling and Roasting) on the Nutritional Profile of Quality Protein Maize. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2016, pp. 34-40. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20160402.124
[14] Siljestrom M., Westerlund E., Bjorck I., Holm J., Asp N. G., Theander O. (1986). The effects of various thermal processes on dietary fiber and starch content of whole grain wheat and white flour. Journal of Cereal Science; 4(4): 315 – 323.
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[17] Tolera A, Sundstøl F, Said AN (1998). The effect of stage of maturity on yield and quality of maize grain and stover. Animal Feed Science and Technology 75: 157 – 168.

Olasupo O. S., Salau, T. A. O., “Design and Fabrication of Small-Scale Maize Roaster” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.43-52 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-2/43-52.pdf

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Effectiveness of Monetary Policy in Controlling Inflation in Nigeria
Ogunjinmi Olusola.O. February 2022 – Page No.: 53-58

This paper investigated the effectiveness of monetary policy in controlling inflation in Nigeria using secondary annual data spanning from 1981 to 2019. Specifically, the paper examines if there exist any form of relationship between monetary policy and inflation in Nigeria. Money Supply, Treasury Bills Rate, Monetary Policy Rate and Exchange Rate were the variables used in the study to check inflation. The paper employed Johansen cointegration method to check for the long run relationship between the variables. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) was adopted because of its property of Best Linear Unbiased Estimator. The Johansen co- integration test revealed the existence of long-run relationship between the variables. However, the empirical result of the OLS test showed that monetary policy rate, money supply and treasury bill rates exert influence on inflation in Nigeria. While exchange rate depreciation leads to inflationary growth. This result is consistent with the prediction of economic theory. The study therefore concluded that money supply, treasury bills rate, monetary policy and exchange rate had influence on inflation within the period under consideration and recommends that monetary authority should put in place schemes to make them more effective perhaps by offering competitive rates and the nation Nigeria shift from being a consumption driven (import) economy to production based (export) economy for the impacts of these policies to achieve desired results.

Page(s): 53-58                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 March 2022

 Ogunjinmi Olusola.O.
Institute of Youth Studies, Tangaza University College, Catholic University of Eastern Africa

[1] AbiolaAdeolaKumapayi, Joseph Ufuoma Nana, Bright OnoriodeOhwofasa (2012) “Impact of Inflation on Monetary Policy and Economic Development in Nigerian, 1980- 2010. Evidence from Empirical Data” Asian Journal of Empirical Research Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 28-39
[2] G. Ahiabor(2013). The Effects of Monetary Policy on Inflation in Ghana. Developing Country Studies, 3(12),82-89.
[3] A.Asuquo, (2012). Inflation accounting and control through monetary policy measures in Nigeria: Multi-regression analysis (1973-2010). IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 1(2),53-62.
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[5] O.F. Anowor, & G.C. Okorie(2016). A reassessment of the impact of monetarypolicy on economic growth: Study of Nigeria. International Journal of Developing and Emerging Economies, 4(1),82-90
[6] H.A.Ajie and S.G. Nenbee (2010). Monetary Policy and Stock Prices in Nigeria, 1980- 2008: An Econometric Analysis. The International Journal Series on Tropical Issues, 11(2):183 194,July.
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[10] A.Bakare(2011).Anempiricalstudyofthedeterminantsofmoneysupplygrowthandits effects on inflation rate in Nigeria. Journal Of Research In International Business And Management, 1(5),124-129.
[11] G. E. Bassey& E. B. Essien (2014). Inflation Targeting framework for Monetary Policy in Nigeria: Issues, Problems and Prospects. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development (JESD) Vol. 5, No. 8, pp. 88 –101
[12] M.F. Bryan, S.G. Cecchetti and G. O’Sullivan (2002) “Asset Prices in theMeasurement of Inflation”. NBER working paper, 8700
[13] C. O. Chinaemerem&L. E. Akujuobi(2012). Inflation Targeting and Monetary Policy Instruments: Evidence from Nigeria and Ghana. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review.Vol. 1, No.11, pp. 52 – 81
[14] O. P.Chimobi and U. C. Uche (2010). Money, Price and Output: A Causality Test for Nigeria. American Journal of Scientific Research, 8,78-87

Ogunjinmi Olusola.O., “Effectiveness of Monetary Policy in Controlling Inflation in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.53-58 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-2/53-58.pdf

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Times of COVID-19 Pandemic and its Impact: Rethinking the Public Sector Practices in Zimbabwe
Zvimekria Clive Mukushwa, Enock Chikohora February 2022 – Page No.: 59-66

The public sector is widely recognised as one of the strategic providers of goods and services to ameliorate public welfare. Besides this, the public sector also formulates and implements macro-socio-economic policies to create a predictable, consistent and transparent investment climate. However, the advent of COVID-19 pandemic abruptly in late 2019 in China has undoubtedly reconfigured the traditional working landscape of the public sector internationally. Zimbabwe is no exception. One ponders how Zimbabwe weathered to this magnitude global catastrophe to be ahead of the curve and stay operational since its traditional practice were almost made redundant. There is still paucity of literature on COVID-19 pandemic and public sector governance. Hence, this paper assessed the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and government regulations to the public sector practices in Zimbabwe. It also evaluated the efficacy of COVID-19 preventative measures in suppressing the virus. This paper was largely qualitative study hinged on document analytic approach and snap survey. This paper argued that for public sector institutions to cope with the ‘new normal’, they should strategically rethink its philosophy of public sector practices. Analysis of recent literature that show that this global threat has unprecedentedly forced the government to trim its workforce to work physically and deferment of development projects as well as caused deaths of critical expertise and loss of revenue, among others. Debatably, the advent of COVID-19 pandemic is a wake-up call for Zimbabwe to learn some critical lessons and insights to capitalise on new opportunities presented to modernise its practice. Even though innovative digital strategies were adopted minimally, this paper further recommends that the public sector institutions should strengthen the espousal of contemporary digital systems sustainably to stay afloat in hard times of this crisis and post-COVID-19 bane.

Page(s): 59-66                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 March 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9203

 Zvimekria Clive Mukushwa
Ph.D candidate in Local Governance Studies, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe

 Enock Chikohora
Lecturer: Department of Peace, Leadership and Conflict Resolution, Zimbabwe Open University, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

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[3] Betchoo, N.K. (2016). Public Sector Management: A Millennium Insight (1st ed). Cyrus Jones, Graduate Hopkins University: USA. 6-122.
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[6] Chagonda, (2020, 12 April). Zimbabwe’s Shattered Economy poses a serious challenge to fighting COVID-19. The Conversation. Retrieved from: www.theconversation.com.
[7] Chirisa, I & Mundau, L. (2020). The Impact and Implications of COVID-19: Reflections on Zimbabwean society. Social Sciences and Humanities Open. 4 (1). Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2021.10083.
[8] Committee for the Coordination of Statistical Activities. (2020). How COVID-19 is Changing the World: A Statistical Perspective. Retrieved from: https://nd/.handle.net/10986/33773.
[9] Constitution of Zimbabwe (No.20). Act 2013.
[10] Cordin, J & Strauss, A. (2006). Basic of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[11] Curristine, T., Lonti, Z & Joumard, I. (2007). Improving Public Sector Efficiency: Challenges and Opportunities. OCED Journal on Budgeting. 7 (1), 1-42.
[12] Government Actuary’s Department. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 on Public Sector Insurance: Survey Results. 3-10.
[13] Hindson, J. (2020). COVID-19; faecal-oral transmission? Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 17. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1038/s41575-020.0295-7.
[14] Hood, C. (1991). “A Public Management of all seasons”. Public Administration. 69 (1), 3-19.
[15] Jan-Erik, L. (2000). The Public Sector: Concepts, Models and Approaches. (3rd ed). Sage Publications.
[16] Kumbuka, D. (2021, 22 January). Only 10 % Zimbabwe government staff working in offices amid COVID-19 surge. BusinessDay. Retrieved from: www.businessday.co.za.
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[18] Li, G. (2021). Nikkei COVID-19 Recovery Index. Retrieved from: www.asia.nikkei.com.
[19] Lowy Institute. (2021). COVID-19 Performance Index: Decongesting Pandemic Response. Retrieved from: www.interactive.lowyinstitute.org.
[20] Masiyiwa, G. (2021). Scarred by COVID Battle, Health Workers Lack Support. Global Press Journal. Retrieved from: https://globalpressjournal.com.
[21] Mazzussato, M & Kattel, R. (2020). COVID-19 and Public Sector Capacity. IPP. Working Paper. UCL Institute for Innovation and Public Purpose. 1-19. Retrieved from: https//www.ucl.ac.uk/Bartlett/public/wp2020-12.
[22] Molens, D. M., Taubenberger, J. K and Fauci, A. S. (2009). The Persistent legacy of the 1918 influenza virus. N. Engl. J. Med. 361, 225-229.
[23] Ministry of Health and Child Care. (2021). COVID-19 Updates. Retrieved from: www.mohcc.gov.zw.
[24] Mukushwa, Z. C., Mapuva, J and Mutema, E. P. (2021). The Practice of Participatory Budgeting during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Zimbabwe’s Local Government Sector: A Case of Chitungwiza Municipality. The African Review. 24, 1-24. doi: 10.1163/1821889X-12340057.
[25] Mutizwa, M., Buhle, F., Burt, J & Souza, B. (2020). Education in times of COVID-19: Looking for Silver Linings in Southern Africa. Education Responses. Southern African Journal of Environment Education. 36, 1-16. doi.10.4314/sajeez.36.17.
[26] Nyomsi, C., Yatta., F Pozhidaez, D., Kiwala, L., Ndugwa, R., Beguy, D., Mwaniki, D., Lalande, C., Crispi, G., Kamiya, M., Gambo, M., Poournaris, M., Zulu, J & Ghebru, Y. (2020). COVID-19 in African Cities: Impacts, Responses and Policies. UN-HABITAT, UNCDF, UCLG-Africa and UNECA. 4-29.
[27] Palrao, T., Rodrigues, R.T & Estervao, J.V. (2021). The Role of the Public Sector in the Aftermath of COVID-19 Pandemic crisis: The Case Portuguese events’ industry. Journal of Convention and Event Tourism. Doi.1080/15470148.2021.1904077.
[28] Parry, L. J., Asenbaum, H and Ecran, S. A. (2020). Democracy in Flux: A Systematic view on the Impact of COVID-19. Emerald Publishing Limited. 1-9. Retrieved from: https://www.emerald.com/insight/1750-6166.htm.
[29] Popa, F. (2017). Public Sector: Concepts, Elements, Implications in Economic and Social Life Studies and Scientific Researches, Economies Edition. 25, 49-56.
[30] Save the Children. (2020). Save the Children: Outbreak could cause millions of children to suffer for years to come. Retrieved from: https://www.savethechildren.org/us/about/media-ed-news/2020-press-releases/outbreak-could-cause-years-tochildren-sufferingforchildren.
[31] Stephens, Z. (2021). List of Countries without Coronavirus. Retrieved from: www.korgogroup.com.
[32] Therkilden, O. (2001). Efficiency, Accountability and Implementation: Public Sector Reform in East and Southern Africa. Democracy, Governance and Human Rights Programme Paper Number 3. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 1-54.
[33] Gwata-Charamba, R. G. (2020, 6 March). Zimbabwe: Setting Up the Public Sector for Improved performance. The Herald News. Retrieved from: www.africa.com.
[34] The Institute of Internal Auditors. (2011). Supplementary Guidance: Public Sector Definition. Global. 3-6.
[35] Tsiko, S. (2018). Fall Armyworm infests 150 000ha of Zimbabwe maize. The Herald News. Retrieved from: https://www.herald.co.zw.
[36] Umakanthan, S., Sahu, P., Ranade, A. V., Bukelo, M. M., Rao, J. S., Abrahao-Machado, L. F., Dahal, S., Kumar, H and Dhananjaya, K. V. (2020). Origin. Transmission, diagnosis and management of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Postgrad Med J. 96, 753-758.
[37] UK Parliament. (2021). Public Service: Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Lords Library. Parliament UK. Retrieved from. www.lordslibrary.parliament.uk.
[38] United Nations. (2020). Immediate Socio-Economic Response to COVID-19 in Zimbabwe: A Framework for Intergrated Policy Analysis and Support. United Nations of Zimbabwe.
[39] Xinhua. (2020, 11 August). Medical workers make up to 10 percent of Zimbabwe’s confirmed cases. Xinhuanet News. Retrieved from: www.xihuanet.com.
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[41] Xu, J., Zhao, S., Teng, T et al. (2020). Systematic comparison of two animal-to-human transmitted human coronaviruses: SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2. Viruses. 12. E244.
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Zvimekria Clive Mukushwa, Enock Chikohora, “Times of COVID-19 Pandemic and its Impact: Rethinking the Public Sector Practices in Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.59-66 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9203

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Teaching Skills Required by Pre-Service Teachers for Enhancing Teaching and Learning of Basic Science and Technology in Bosso Local Government, Niger State
Hassan, A. M., Akinduro, I. R., Mohammed, K. A. & Ogunmilade, J. O. February 2022 – Page No.: 67-72

The study was carried out to determine teaching skills required by pre-service teachers to enhance teaching and learning of basic technology in Bosso local government Minna, Niger state. Two research questions guided the study while two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted survey research design. The population for the study was 40 pre-service teachers of basic science and technology. There was no sampling because of the manageable size of the population. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. Three experts validated the instrument. Mean and standard deviation were employed to analyze data for answering research questions while t-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The finding of the study revealed that Selection instructional content of a lesson, Select available human and material resources need for planning a lesson, Construct a lesson plan, Select methods and techniques for teaching a lesson, are the Instructional planning skills required by technology education student to enhance teaching and learning of Basic Science and Technology subject. Provide safety poster in the laboratory to encourage correct safety habit in sequence and logical order, Arrange benches and machines properly to facilitate learning are the Teaching methodological skills required by pre-service teachers for enhancing the implementations of Basic Science and Technology subject. Evaluating students affective domain, Assessing students psychomotor performance, Construct reliable test to evaluate students progress, Assessing the effectiveness of the teaching strategy, Making record about students academic ability, Provide records about students moral character and personality are the Instructional evaluation skills required by pre-service teachers for enhancing the implementations of Basic Science and Technology subject. It was recommended that pre-service teachers of basic science and technology should be retrained based on areas of needs identified in the study and relevant facilities for effective implementation of the Basic Science and Technology should be provided by government and other enabling bodies among others.

Page(s): 67-72                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 February 2022

 Hassan, A. M.
Department of Industrial and Technology Education Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

 Akinduro, I. R.
Department of Vocational and Technical Education Ajasin University Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

 Mohammed, K. A.
Department of Building Technology Niger State Polytechnic, Zungeru, Nigeria

 Ogunmilade, J. O.
Department of Vocational and Technical Education Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

[1] Aina, O. (2014). The relevance of skill training in technical colleges to the emergence of industrial growth in Nigeria. A paper presented at the Convention of National Associationof Principals of Technical College in Nigeria ANPTECON
[2] Babalola, O.E. (2012). Developing and nurturing a productive reading culture among primary school pupils in Ondo West Local Government Area of Ondo state, Nigeria. Unpublished B.A. (Ed) project, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo.
[3] Bilbao, P.P., Lucido, P.I., Iringan, T.C., & Javier, R.B. (2012). Curriculum development. Quezon City, Philippines: Lorimar Publishing, Inc.
[4] European Parliament, (2008). European Parliament resolution of 23 September 2008 on improving quality of teacher education, (2008/2068(INI)). Retrieved September 20, 2020 from https://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-
[5] Federal Ministry of Education (2010). National policy on education. Lagos: Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).
[6] Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013). National policy on education (Revised). Lagos; Federal Ministry of Education Press.
[7] Gedzune, G. (2015). Awakening pre-service teachers to children’s social exclusion in the classroom. Discourse and Communication for Sustainable Education, 6, 95-109.
[8] Iris, L. R. (2020). Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceived Level of Teaching Skills. Journal of Education in Black Sea Region, 6(1), 97-114
[9] Nduanya, M. O. (2010). Report submitted to the Anambra state Ministry of education on Rationalization of Teacher Education programmes. Pg7, 30 -41.
[10] Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) (2012). 9 years basic education curriculum (Basic Science and Technologyfor junior secondary 1- 3). Federal Ministry of Education, Abuja.
[11] Okeke, C. C. (2014). Provision for the pre – vocational subjects at the jss level in Anambra State. problem and strategies. In Ehiametalor, E.T. (ed). Implemtation of the National Policy on Education, NERA. 69 -74.
[12] Olaitan, S. O. (2013). Understanding curriculum. Nsukka: Ndudim Publishers.
[13] Salandanan, G.G. (2012). Teaching and the teacher. Quezon City, Philippines: National Book Store.
[14] Zeichner, K. (2002). Beyond traditional structures of student teaching. Teacher Education Quarterly, 29 (2), 59- 64.

Hassan, A. M., Akinduro, I. R., Mohammed, K. A. & Ogunmilade, J. O., “Teaching Skills Required by Pre-Service Teachers for Enhancing Teaching and Learning of Basic Science and Technology in Bosso Local Government, Niger State” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.67-72 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-2/67-72.pdf

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Bank Competition, Concentration and Economic Growth: A Panel Analysis of Selected Banks in the Nigeria Banking Industry
Okowa, Ezaal, Vincent, Moses Owede February 2022 – Page No.: 73-83

The role of financial development in the growth and development of developing economies have constituted a popular discourse among development and financial economist. Two key issues of interest in the discussion of financial are competition and concentration in the banking industry as key predictors of growth in every economy. This study therefore investigated the effect of concentration and competition in the Nigerian banking industry on economic growth with focus on the big-8 banks in Nigeria. Moreover, the implementation of the consolidation policy of the Central Bank of Nigeria in the year 2005 informed the choice of period (i.e., 2005-2019) selected for this study. While a positive concentration-growth nexus was found in the study, the study could not establish a positive competition-growth nexus in the Nigerian economy for the period under review. The increase in capital base as required by the consolidation policy has accounted for the level of concentration in the banking industry; and this has made it easier for banks to contribute significantly to the growth of the economy. Imperfect competition in the banking industry on the other hand has led to higher costs of loans that detain firms from new investments, thus slowing down the firms’ expansions and productivity growth.

Page(s): 73-83                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 March 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9204

 Okowa, Ezaal
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 Vincent, Moses Owede
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

[1] Ajie, H.A., Ezi, C.T., Akekere, J., & Ewubari, D.B. (2006). Financial institutions market and contemporary issues. Port Harcourt: Pearl Publishers.
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Okowa, Ezaal, Vincent, Moses Owede, “Bank Competition, Concentration and Economic Growth: A Panel Analysis of Selected Banks in the Nigeria Banking Industry” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.73-83 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9204

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‘Financial Inclusion-Income Inequality’ Nexus in Nigeria: Evidence from Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS) Modeling Approach
Okowa, Ezaal, Vincent, Moses Owede February 2022 – Page No.: 84-94

High level of exclusion from the financial system could be a consequence of low level of financial development evident in such economy. Low financial access and access to financial services/products is a one of the contributory factors to the level of income generated by households and businesses and by extension the level of income inequality in such economy. To examine the “Financial Inclusion-Income Inequality” nexus in Nigeria, this paper specifies income inequality in Nigeria as a function of deposit money banks’ loans to SMEs, banks’ credit to the private sector, number of bank branches, and broad money supply-to-GDP ratio. The data used in this study are annual time series data from 1992 to 2018. Specifically, data on financial access (measured by having a number of commercial banks branches and broad money supply-to-GDP); and access to financial services and products (measured by deposit money banks’ loans to SMEs and deposit money banks’ credit to the private sector) were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin. Data on level of inequality (measured by the Gini index) was collected from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). The unit root tests (i.e., ADF and PP) shows that the time series are non-stationary until after first differencing. To empirically analyze the impact of financial inclusion on inclusive growth, the Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS) econometric technique was employed. The results show that the coefficients of financial access variables are significantly different from zero. That is, the improvement in the financial access component of financial inclusion will prove to be more effective in reducing the income inequality gap in Nigeria. This may not be unrelated to the reality on ground as it affects the cost of credit and the stringent requirements often included as pre-condition for granting of loans and supply of credits by deposit money banks and other business financing institutions. This paper therefore recommends policy that increases awareness among citizens on the importance of owning and maintaining a bank account; and establishment of more branches in the rural areas to serve the high and growing rural population.

Page(s): 84-94                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 March 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9205

 Okowa, Ezaal, Vincent
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

 Moses Owede
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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Okowa, Ezaal, Vincent, Moses Owede, “‘Financial Inclusion-Income Inequality’ Nexus in Nigeria: Evidence from Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS) Modeling Approach” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.84-94 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9205

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Smoking as a Major Risk for Elderly Hypertension in The Covid-19 pandemic: A case-control Study
Cucu Herawati, Septi Wulandari, Suzana Indragiri, Nuniek Tri Wahyuni, Dewi Mutiah, Didik Sumanto February 2022 – Page No.: 95-100

Introduction: Hypertension is a non-communicable disease that is an important public health problem in the world because its prevalence continues to increase and is the third biggest risk of premature death. Lifestyle is the most important risk factor that can cause hypertension, including physical activity, diet, smoking behavior, rest patterns. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of lifestyle on the incidence of hypertension in the elderly during the Covid-19 pandemic era.
Materials and Methods: The research design uses a quantitative case-control design approach. A sample of 88 respondents consisted of 48 cases and 40 controls. Sampling method using accidental sampling technique, the instrument used is a questionnaire, data collection method using interviews, data analysis using chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression.
Result: The results showed that there was a significant effect between physical activity (p-value 0.047), diet (p-value 0.012), smoking behavior with the incidence of hypertension (p-value 0.001), and there was no effect of rest patterns with the incidence of hypertension (p-value 0.001). p-value 0.334). Multivariate analysis found that smoking was the most influential factor with the incidence of hypertension (OR=6,647), meaning that respondents who had smoking behavior had a 7 times greater risk of suffering from hypertension than respondents who did not smoke.
Conclusion: There is a significant influence between physical activity, diet, and smoking behavior with the incidence of hypertension and there is no effect of rest patterns with the incidence of hypertension. Smoking behavior is the most influential factor in the incidence of hypertension.

Page(s): 95-100                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 March 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9206

 Cucu Herawati
Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Cirebon, Cirebon, Indonesia

 Septi Wulandari
Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Cirebon, Cirebon, Indonesia

 Suzana Indragiri
Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Cirebon, Cirebon, Indonesia

 Nuniek Tri Wahyuni
Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Cirebon, Cirebon, Indonesia

 Dewi Mutiah
Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Cirebon, Cirebon, Indonesia

 Didik Sumanto
Department of Epidemiology, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, Indonesia

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Cucu Herawati, Septi Wulandari, Suzana Indragiri, Nuniek Tri Wahyuni, Dewi Mutiah, Didik Sumanto , “Smoking as a Major Risk for Elderly Hypertension in The Covid-19 pandemic: A case-control Study” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.95-100 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9206

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Influence of Patriarchal Culture and Early marriage on Learner Academic Progression of Public Secondary School Students in Lagdera Sub-County, Kenya
Phyllice Barasa February 2022 – Page No.: 101-105

Education is an important priority for any country and it remains a very basic right that every child needs to get since it plays an outstanding role in the development of any country. However, academic progression in public secondary schools especially in the North Eastern parts of Kenya has consistently remained low over the years despite subsidized education. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of patriarchal culture and early marriageon learner academic progression in public secondary schools in Lagdera sub county in Garissa County in Kenya. The study embraced a descriptive survey research design. Purposive sampling was used to sample 301 respondents. Data was collected by use of questionnaires. The expected findings of this study may be significant by providing greater insight to the administrators and managers of schools into the factors that contribute to low academic progression among secondary school students in Lagdera sub county and also may serve as a reference point for education administrators to raise awareness and concern among parents teachers and students in partnership to solve the problem of dropout thus helping the ministry of education to reduce education resource wastage by monitoring learner progression at all levels.

Page(s): 101-105                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 March 2022

 Phyllice Barasa
Moi University, Kenya

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Phyllice Barasa , “Influence of Patriarchal Culture and Early marriage on Learner Academic Progression of Public Secondary School Students in Lagdera Sub-County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.101-105 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-2/101-105.pdf

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Environmental Disaster, Risky and Food Insecurity in Nigeria
Ubani Princewill, Chikagbum Wocha and Iyowuna Jonah February 2022 – Page No.: 106-112

The recent research evaluates regional and household food insecurities experiences on human persuaded or induced hazard with potentials for replication in other sub communities of the country and further afield in Africa. The research underpinned on theoretical framework to explain the severity and natural surrogates inducing food insecurity and considerable approaches for realization of sustainable food security. Primary and secondary data sources were employed. Whereas the former sources include structural questionnaire and interview surveys, the later sources comprises of relevant literature such as books, journals and conference report etc. The gathered dataset was collated and analysed using statistical percentage and regression. The findings established that climatic induced hazard such as extreme temperature, flooding, drought, riverbank erosion and high wind served as an agent of disaster and triggers food insecurity in the regions or six (6) geopolitical zones of Nigeria owing to what they offer to the environment and human settlement. The research later pointed that vigorous relationship exists between food insecurity and depression problem of many households heads at significant score of (P>0.05).

Page(s): 106-112                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 March 2022

 Ubani Princewill
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic Bori Nigeria

 Chikagbum Wocha
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic Bori Nigeria

 Iyowuna Jonah
Department of Surveying and Geomatics, Rivers State University Port Harcourt Nigeria

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Ubani Princewill, Chikagbum Wocha and Iyowuna Jonah , “Environmental Disaster, Risky and Food Insecurity in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.106-112 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-2/106-112.pdf

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Experimental Investigation of piled raft foundation on Cohesionless Soil
Aruna T, K.V.S.B Raju, Swathi Gowda February 2022 – Page No.: 113-118

The combination of piles and raft foundation is known as piled raft foundation. Piled raft foundations have proven to be more cost-effective and capable of meeting safe bearing capacity and serviceability norms in the case of high-rise buildings on cohesionless soil. The behavior of a stacked raft foundation is influenced by the piles, raft, and soil. The stacked raft system’s bearing capacity is improved and settlement is minimized when the ground beneath the raft foundation bears the burden of supporting the applied loads. The piled raft foundation minimizes total settlement and improves bearing capacity more than the raft foundation.

When isolated footings cover more than 70% of the building area under a superstructure, raft foundations are used, and the present study focuses on the vertical load bearing capability of piled raft foundation systems on cohesionless soil for concentric loading. The use of strategically positioned piles increases the load capacity of the raft while reducing differential settlement. The present study sheds some light on the use of piles as raft foundation settlement reducers, as well as the behavior of a piled raft in sand. A series of small-scale model experiments were carried out. The present investigation studies by varying pile length and alignment on the ultimate load of piled raft foundation. The results indicate that for a 10mm raft thickness, installing 4 piles, 6 piles, and 9 piles by varying L/D ratios of 5,10,15,20 carries significant load. In this present work for a 50mm length of pile, and the value of load improvement ratio increases by 36 percent, 60 percent, and 68 percent, respectively, when compared to plain raft.

Page(s): 113-118                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 March 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9207

 Aruna T
Research scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, UVCE -Bengaluru

 K.V.S.B Raju
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, UVCE-Bengaluru

 Swathi Gowda
ME student, Department of Civil Engineering, UVCE-Bengaluru

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Aruna T, K.V.S.B Raju, Swathi Gowda, “Experimental Investigation of piled raft foundation on Cohesionless Soil” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.113-118 February 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9207

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Effect of Ensiling Period on the Proximate Composition and Hydrogen Cyanide Content of Ensiled Wet Cassava Peels Meal
Emenike H.I., Emenalom O.O., Ogbuewu I.P, Aladi N.O and Okehie N.U. February 2022 – Page No.: 119-122

Cassava peel is an agro-waste product produced in the processing of whole cassava roots into different food and industrial products in Nigeria. The use of cassava peel as feed for non- ruminant animals is limited by its high crude fibre and hydrocyanic acid contents but low protein content. To improve its nutritional potential as energy source, an experiment was conducted to examine the effect of ensiling periods on the proximate compositions and hydrogen cyanide contents of wet cassava peel meals. Wet cassava peels were ground into meal using an attrition mill and divided into 4 batches. The first batch was sundried immediately after grinding while the second, third and fourth batches were sundried after ensiling in black polythene bags kept under room temperature for 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. Ensiling significantly (p<0.05) increased the dry matter contents of the meals with the 14 days ensiled meal having the highest value. The un-ensiled and 7days ensiled samples had similar and significantly (p<0-05) higher crude protein values than the 14 and 21 days ensiled samples. The 21 days ensiled sample had lowest crude protein (3.36%) and ether extract (4.44%) values but highest crude fibre (17.10%), ash (20.19%) and NFE (54.09%) values that were significantly(p<0.05) different from other treatment groups. The 14days ensiled sample had the highest calculated ME (2466.86kcal/kg) value that differed significantly (p<0.05) from the other treatment groups. HCN concentration was lowest (p<0.05) in the 21 days ensiled sample (0.20mg/kg). It is concluded that the period of ensiling wet cassava peels meal affected its proximate compositions and HCN contents, and that ensiling for 14 days resulted in higher DM, fat and energy values and should be encouraged.

Page(s): 119-122                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 March 2022

 Emenike H.I.
Advanced Unmanned Aerial Vehicle laboratory Uburu. Ebony State, Nigeria

 Emenalom O.O.
Federal University of Technology Owerri Imo State. P.M. B 1526 Owerri, Nigeria

 Ogbuewu I.P
Federal University of Technology Owerri Imo State. P.M. B 1526 Owerri, Nigeria

 Aladi N.O
Federal University of Technology Owerri Imo State. P.M. B 1526 Owerri, Nigeria

 Okehie N.U.
Federal University of Technology Owerri Imo State. P.M. B 1526 Owerri, Nigeria

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Emenike H.I., Emenalom O.O., Ogbuewu I.P, Aladi N.O and Okehie N.U. , “Effect of Ensiling Period on the Proximate Composition and Hydrogen Cyanide Content of Ensiled Wet Cassava Peels Meal” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 2, pp.119-122 February 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-2/119-122.pdf

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