Volume IX Issue III

Study of respiratory disorders at a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka during lockdown
Regina Baby Sesay, Sheku Seppeh March 2022 – Page No.: 01-03

COVID-19 is a rapidly spreading new viral infection causing an unprecedented global pandemic. Sudden lockdowns and curfews imposed throughout countries and continents have caused a significant impact on global health systems. As the scientific community focused its attention on the pandemic, the prevalence and patterns of other medical illness including respiratory illnesses went largely neglected. This study was designed to determine the pattern of respiratory disorders at Teaching Hospital Batticaloa, Sri Lanka during the lockdown period, specifically looking at the prevalence of age, gender, place of admission and pattern of respiratory disorders among admitted patients with respiratory conditions. It was a cross sectional descriptive study done retrospectively among all the patients with non-COVID related respiratory illnesses admitted to medical wards and intensive care units (ICU) of Teaching Hospital Batticaloa, Sri Lanka during a one month period of first lockdown (11.03.2020 to 10.04.2020) due to COVID-19. They were compared with the patients of respiratory illnesses admitted one month (11.02.2020 to 10.03.2020) prior to the lockdown. Our study revealed 215 admissions before the lockdown and 86 admissions during lockdown with respiratory diseases. Total number of admission before lockdown was 2340 and during the lockdown this number reduced to 1376. Age distribution demonstrated that the highest number of patients (about 25%) admitted with respiratory illnesses during both study periods was within the age of 61-70 years. Gender distribution confirmed that male admissions were higher before lockdown (58%) and female admissions were slightly higher during lockdown (51%). The study showed that inward admission was 212 and 78 before and during lockdown and ICU admission was 3 and 8 before and during lockdown respectively. Further analysis revealed ICU admissions had increased and ward admission has been reduced during lockdown. Most common respiratory disorders among admitted patients before and during lockdown were lower respiratory tract infections, exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and exacerbation of asthma. Therefore these three diseases were analysed separately. It showed there was a significant reduction of these three cases during lock down. These findings were closely related to the available data from other countries. In conclusion, the number of admissions to the hospitals with respiratory disorders during COVID-19 lockdown was significantly reduced. Exacerbations of asthma and COPD and lower respiratory tract infections were the common disorders during lockdown even though there was less number of patients. More females within the age group of 61-70 years were admitted. Interestingly a higher number of admissions to the ICU were noted during lockdown. We assume that less exposure to allergens and triggering factors during lockdown and wearing face masks and practicing good healthy hygienic measures may contribute to the reduction in number. Moreover late presentation with more severe disease status may be contributing for higher ICU admissions. However, these assumptions and explanations need further studies to prove.

Page(s): 01-03                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 March 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9301

 Mayurathan Pakkiyaretnam
Faculty of Health-Care sciences, Eastern University Sri Lanka, Teaching Hospital Batticaloa, Sri Lanka

 Vaithehi Rajeevan Francis
Faculty of Health-Care sciences, Eastern University Sri Lanka, Teaching Hospital Batticaloa, Sri Lanka

 George Rajeevan Francis
Faculty of Health-Care sciences, Eastern University Sri Lanka, Teaching Hospital Batticaloa, Sri Lanka

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Regina Baby Sesay, Sheku Seppeh , “Study of respiratory disorders at a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka during lockdown” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.01-03 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9301

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Assessment of Radiation Dose Levels in Tiles Used for Decoration in Bungoma County, Kenya
John Simiyu Nalianya, Michael Nakitare Waswa, Francis Maingi and Conrad Khisa Wanyama March 2022 – Page No.: 04-07

The natural radioactive content of tiles used in Bungoma County, Kenya was assessed using gamma ray spectroscopy in this study. The amounts of certain radioisotopes found in 20 samples of decoration tiles used in Bungoma County, Kenya were estimated using a NaI(Tl) detector. The average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K for the tiles were determined to be 11±0.55, 109±5.85, and 1574±78.7Bq/kg respectively. Radiological hazard indices such as absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity, external Hazard Index (Hex), internal Hazard Index (Hin), Indoor and outdoor Annual Effective Dose (mSv/y), were determined as 140±7.03 nGyh-1; 288±14.44 Bq/kg, 0.7±0.03 mSv/y, 0.8±0.04 mSv/y; 0.5±0.02mSv/y; and 0.3±0.01mSv/yrespectively. The mean radium equivalent obtained in this investigation was lower than the worldwide reference value of 370 Bq/kg. Hence, use of tiles for decoration in Bungoma County, Kenya has minimal health threat to the population.

Page(s): 04-07                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 March 2022

 John Simiyu Nalianya
Department of Science, Technology and Engineering, Kibabii University, P.O BOX 1699-50200, Bungoma, Kenya.

 Michael Nakitare Waswa
Department of Science, Technology and Engineering, Kibabii University, P.O BOX 1699-50200, Bungoma, Kenya.

 Francis Maingi
Department of Science, Technology and Engineering, Kibabii University, P.O BOX 1699-50200, Bungoma, Kenya.

 Conrad Khisa Wanyama
Department of Science, Technology and Engineering, Kibabii University, P.O BOX 1699-50200, Bungoma, Kenya.

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John Simiyu Nalianya, Michael Nakitare Waswa, Francis Maingi and Conrad Khisa Wanyama, “Assessment of Radiation Dose Levels in Tiles Used for Decoration in Bungoma County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.04-07 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-3/04-07.pdf

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Checklist of Ethno-Medico-Botanical Trees in Igbariam Campus of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University (COOU), Anambra State, Nigeria
Kelechi G. Ibeh and Michael J. Nworji March 2022 – Page No.: 08-15

The inventory of tree species and their enthno-medico-botanical information was carried out to document species richness and provide the first comprehensive checklist of trees in Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam campus, Anambra State, Nigeria. The checklist presents the species in botanical and local names, families, origin, habit and their ecological status. Results showed that 45 trees species of ethnomedicinal values with a total frequency of 695 belonging to 40 genera in 25 families were identified and documented to cure about 50 health disorders. Elaeis guineensis had the highest occurrence and Fabaceae family recorded the highest number of species (5) while 16 families were found to have 1 species each. Leaf had the highest frequency (31.93%) in plants part used for medicinal purposes while whole plant, fruit water/juice, wood and shell were the least (0.84%). Sixty per cent (60%) of all the species are exotic while (40%) are indigenous to Nigeria and West Africa. One species (Delonix regia) according to IUCN redlist is vulnerable. University management should intensify efforts towards planting more trees and protection of the existing ones. Avenue planting, establishment of botanical gardens and tree plantations within the area is highly recommended.

Page(s): 08-15                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 March 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9302

 Kelechi G. Ibeh
Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam
Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

 Michael J. Nworji
Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam
Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

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Kelechi G. Ibeh and Michael J. Nworji, “Checklist of Ethno-Medico-Botanical Trees in Igbariam Campus of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University (COOU), Anambra State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.08-15 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9302

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Sign Language Interpreters and Self Efficacy as Predictors of Academic Achievement of Students with Hearing Impairment in Biology in Oyo State, Nigeria
Dr. Dorcas Omolara Oyawole, Dr. Olugbenga O. Isaiah March 2022 – Page No.: 16-21

The study examined sign language interpreters and self-efficacy as predictors of achievement of students with hearing impairment in biology. Survey design of correlation type was adopted for the study. The population comprised all schools with students with hearing impairments in Senior Secondary Schools in Oyo State, Nigeria. 224 students with hearing impairment were drawn from seven schools that offered biology in West Africa Senior Secondary School Certificate Examinations. A purposive sampling technique was used to select students with hearing impairment from the schools. Students’ Inventory on Instructional Supports (SIIS) and Students’ Self Efficacy Formative Questionnaire Scale (SSEFQS) were used to collect data. The face and content validity of the instruments were ascertained. The reliability coefficient Of Students’ Inventory on Instructional Supports (SIIS) was determined using Cronbach Alpha and it was found to be reliable at 0.77 while the students’ self- efficacy scale was determined using Cronbach Alpha and it was found to be 0.78. Based on the findings, it was recommended that teachers should provide opportunities in class and support to students with hearing impairments to enable them participate in the teaching and learning processes in a bid to create better teacher-students’ interactions and enhance learners’ academic achievement in Biology. Students should improve on their ability to complete a task successfully. School principals should organize sign language workshops and seminars to improve academic achievement of students with hearing impairment in Biology among others.

Page(s): 16-21                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 March 2022

 Dr. Dorcas Omolara Oyawole
Biology Department, Federal College of Education special Oyo, Nigeria

 Dr. Olugbenga O. Isaiah
Department of Special Education, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

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Dr. Dorcas Omolara Oyawole, Dr. Olugbenga O. Isaiah, “Sign Language Interpreters and Self Efficacy as Predictors of Academic Achievement of Students with Hearing Impairment in Biology in Oyo State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.16-21 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-3/16-21.pdf

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Factors Influencing the Adoption of Automated Data Collection Technologies by Building Contractors in Kenya
Victor Maina, Stephen Diang’a March 2022 – Page No.: 22-28

Despite the fact that automated data collection (ADC) technologies come with new avenues of opportunities to reckon with that can be relevant for establishment of effective and efficient management approaches, studies indicate that construction industry has lagged behind in adopting and implementing these technologies. In the Kenyan construction industry, the current application of the information communication technology (ICT) platforms is on the conventional technologies like cameras, Smart phones & tablets applications and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). However the use of more advanced ICT platforms like Global positioning systems (GPS) and wireless sensor networks remains highly unexploited in the construction industry. This paper seeks to establish factors which affect the adoption of automated data collection technologies by building contractors in Kenya. A Descriptive research survey design was used and structured questionnaires issued. The target population in this study comprised of Building works contractors in categories National Construction Authority (NCA) 1 to NCA3 operating within Nairobi County. Stratified systematic sampling was then used to draw the sample size from the population of 300 with a return of response rate of 63%. The study concluded that: the level of adoption of automated data collection (ADC) technologies by local building contractors in Kenya is significantly influenced by the cost of technology, availability of technology, management commitment, size of the firm and human resource capacity. The study recommends that construction firms should have competent planning and strategy teams to deal with innovation adoption. There is also the need for the government to improve the information communication technology infrastructure and through bodies like NCA introduce training programs on an industry level on the emerging technologies that can be applied in the construction sector.

Page(s): 22-28                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 March 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9303

 Victor Maina
Department of Construction Management, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya

 Stephen Diang’a
Department of Construction Management, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya

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Victor Maina, Stephen Diang’a, “Factors Influencing the Adoption of Automated Data Collection Technologies by Building Contractors in Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.22-28 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9303

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Comparative effects of poultry manures and mycorrhiza on growth parameters and yields of Peanut (Arachis hypogea (L.)) in a Sudano-Sahelian area of Cameroun (Yagoua, Far-North region)
Wang-Bara Bertrand, Danra Djackba Dieudonné, Ahmed Hamana, David Amedep, Housseini Djida Jacques March 2022 – Page No.: 29-36

The use of poultry manure as organic amendment and mycorrhiza inoculation to increase plants productivities is increasing. This study was carried out at the SVRA of Yagoua, Far-North of Cameroon. The main objective was to examine the efficiency of mycorrhiza and poultry manure on peanut plant growth and yield. Treatments were: mycorrhiza (20g) and poultry manure (50g) and a control without any substrate. The experimental design was a completely randomized blocks with 3 repetitions. The evaluated parameters were: the germination rate, the plants growth parameters and yield.
Findings in general revealed that, the application of mycorrhiza and poultry manure affected almost all variables observed on growth and yield of peanut. The germination rate was important in amended plots compared to the nonamended control plots. Plants were higher in amended plots compared to control. Moreover, all the amendments increased the numbers of leaves, pods and ramification per plants. Statistical analysis showed that all treatments significantly affected leaves, pods and ramification number per plants at some stage of the peanut plants development (P<0.05). However, only treatments with mycorrhiza significantly increased seeds weight (p<0.05).

Page(s): 29-36                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 April 2022

 Wang-Bara Bertrand
Polyvalente Station of Agricultural Research, Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD) B.P: 415 Garoua, Cameroon.
University of Dschang, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, B.P: 222, Dschang (Cameroon).

 Danra Djackba Dieudonné
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Maroua, Cameroon

 Ahmed Hamana
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Ngaoundéré, Cameroon

 David Amedep
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Ngaoundéré, Cameroon

 Housseini Djida Jacques
Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), Multipurpose Station of Agricultural Research of Garoua, Cameroon

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Wang-Bara Bertrand, Danra Djackba Dieudonné, Ahmed Hamana, David Amedep, Housseini Djida Jacques, “Comparative effects of poultry manures and mycorrhiza on growth parameters and yields of Peanut (Arachis hypogea (L.)) in a Sudano-Sahelian area of Cameroun (Yagoua, Far-North region)” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.29-36 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9202

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Combined Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Carica Papaya and Newbouldia Laevis on Hematological Parameters and Sperm Quality of Alloxan-Induced Rats
Ifegwu Njoku Oji, Agbai Johnson Ukwa, Njoku-Oji Njideka Nancy, Elem Chambelin Jamike, Aligwekwe Athanasius Ugochukwu, Ohaeri Esther Adaukwu March 2022 – Page No.: 37-46

Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanolic leaf extracts of C. papaya and N. laevis on hematological parameters and sperm quality of alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats. Methodology: Forty male rats weighing 130-180g were procured, acclimatized for two weeks, after which, were divided into eight groups of five rats each, and were housed in cages. The groups were designated as groups A – H. Group A served as the control group and received distilled water only. Groups B – H were induced with diabetes using alloxan. Group B did not receive any treatment, while the groups C – H received 400mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 600mg/kg of C. papaya leaf extract, 400mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 600mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract, 200mg/kg of C. papaya + 200mg/kg of N. laevis, and 300mg/kg of C. papaya + 300mg/kg of N. laevis leaf extract respectively for 21 days orally with oral gastric tube. On the 22nd day, the animals were sacrificed via chloroform inhalation and blood samples were collected through ocular puncture for hematological analyses, and epididymis were collected for sperm quality study. All data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. Result: The levels of WBC, RBC, HGB, PCV, sperm motility and sperm count were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in group B (48.0 ± 2.25) (28.0 ± 2.25) (24.0 ± 1.87) and (50.86 ± 3.18), and D (44.0 ± 3.39) (30.0 ± 2.92) (26.0 ± 2.0) and (42.44 ± 2.17) (for sperm motility and count) when compared to group A (71.0 ± 2.25) (15.0 ± 1.58) (14.0 ± 1.87) and (68.74 ± 2.30), and significantly (P<0.05) increased in groups F (89.0 ± 1.0) (6.0 ± 1.0) (5.0 ± 0.01) and (82.74 ± 3.19), G (91.0 ± 3.30) (5.0 ± 2.81) (4.0 ± 1.8) and (88.78 ± 2.50), and H (88.0 ± 1.60) (7.0 ± 0.80) (5.0 ± 0.01) and (80.92 ± 0.26) ( for sperm motility and count), groups D, F, G and H (for WBC, HGB, PCV) and groups DEFGH (for RBC) when compared to the control group A. However, there was no significant difference on the levels of WBC, RBC, HGB, and PCV, sperm motility and sperm count for groups C and E when compared with the control group A. Conclusion: C. papaya and N. laevis leaf extracts have ameliorating effects on diabetes and increased serum levels of hematological parameters and sperm quality. The ameliorating effects of the combined doses to the diabetic rats were better at lower dosages than when the individual leaf extracts were administered

Page(s): 37-46                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 April 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9304

 Ifegwu Njoku Oji
Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria.

 Agbai Johnson Ukwa
Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria.

 Njoku-Oji Njideka Nancy
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria.

 Elem Chambelin Jamike
Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria.

 Aligwekwe Athanasius Ugochukwu
Department of Anatomy, Madonna University, Elele Campus, Nigeria.

 Ohaeri Esther Adaukwu
Department of Biochemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria.

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Ifegwu Njoku Oji, Agbai Johnson Ukwa, Njoku-Oji Njideka Nancy, Elem Chambelin Jamike, Aligwekwe Athanasius Ugochukwu, Ohaeri Esther Adaukwu, “Combined Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Carica Papaya and Newbouldia Laevis on Hematological Parameters and Sperm Quality of Alloxan-Induced Rats” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.37-46 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9304

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Influence of Level of Satisfaction on Academic Performance of learners’ in Inclusive Primary School Settings in Western Kenya
Hesborn M. Chonge and Musima S. Mulambula March 2022 – Page No.: 47-53

The government of Kenya has been committed to provision of relevant and quality education for all its citizenry including children with disabilities. Despite this relentless efforts, poor academic performance has consistently been registered in inclusive schools with higher population of those with physical disabilities, thus necessitating the need to explore if pupil’s satisfaction with inclusive primary school settings determines their academic performance. To achieve this objective, the study employed a convergent parallel mixed method design in five inclusive schools for pupils with physical disability. Data was generated from among 52 pupils with physical disability and 73 regular pupils who were purposively selected in inclusive schools for the pupils with physical disability. Data was collected through questionnaires which were analysed using percentages, means and chi square. The findings of the study among others revealed low academic performance in inclusive schools and ambivalence in terms of the level of satisfaction of the pupils with physical disability.

Page(s): 47-53                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 March 2022

 Hesborn M. Chonge
University of Nairobi, Kenya

 Musima S. Mulambula
University of Nairobi, Kenya

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Hesborn M. Chonge and Musima S. Mulambula, “Influence of Level of Satisfaction on Academic Performance of learners’ in Inclusive Primary School Settings in Western Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.47-53 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-3/47-53.pdf

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The Ukraine Crisis: What it means for India?
Esha Banerji March 2022 – Page No.: 54-58

Russia-Ukraine: The Historical Background
Ukraine, a descendant of Ancient Rus , a part of the Russian empire for centuries and later, the USSR, was the second-most powerful Soviet republic after Russia, and was crucial strategically, economically and culturally. Russian President, Vladimir Putin, noted that Russians and Ukrainians were one people – a single whole.
Following the disintegration of USSR in 1991, Ukraine gained independence and has worked towards shedding all its Russian legacy and forged close ties with the West whereas Russia has sought to keep it’s newly formed neighbor within its sphere of influence.
Tensions between the two countries escalated during the Euromaidan movement, a protest in the capital city of Ukraine, Kiev in November 2013 against Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych’s decision to reject a deal for greater economic integration with the European Union.

Page(s): 54-58                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 April 2022

 Esha Banerji

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[6] Chadwick, Lauren. 2022. “Ukraine Crisis: Why Now? What’s the History? What Are Putin’s Motivations?” Euronews. January 27, 2022. https://www.euronews.com/2022/01/27/russia-ukraine-border-crisis-explained-why-now-what-s-the-history-what-are-putin-s-motivat.
[7] Cohen, Saul. 2005. “The Eurasian Convergence Zone: Gateway or Shatterbelt?” Eurasian Geography and Economics 46 (1): 1–22. https://doi.org/10.2747/1538-7216.46.1.1.
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[10] ET CONTRIBUTORS. 2022. “View: India Must Maintain a Consistent Presence in Central Asia.” Economic Times. January 29, 2022. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/view-exploring-new-opportunities-in-the-india-central-asia-partnership/articleshow/89198538.cms.
[11] Hillmer, Norman, and Philippe Lagassé, eds. 2018. Justin Trudeau and Canadian Foreign Policy. 1st ed. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
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[14] Kabir, E. R. 2021. “Explained: Why Russian Troops Are on Ukraine Border, and Why West Is Concerned.” The Indian Express, December 11, 2021. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-russia-ukraine-border-tension-may-lead-to-broader-conflict-7659613/.
[15] Kirby, Paul. 2022. “Is Russia Preparing to Invade Ukraine? And Other Questions.” BBC News, January 26, 2022. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-56720589.
[16] Kramar, Iryna. 2018. “Ukraine-India Cooperation. Why Ukraine Is Considered to Be an Attractive Educational Platform for Indian Students?” In International Conference on Ongoing Research in Management and IT. Vol. Human resource management, Financial management & marketing management. ASM Group of Institutes, Pune, India.
[17] Kundu, Nivedita Das. n.d. “The Russia-Ukraine Gas Dispute.” Idsa.In. Accessed January 29, 2022. https://idsa.in/idsastrategiccomments/TheRussiaUkraineGasDispute_NDKundu_130106.
[18] Madan, Tanvi. 2022a. “Why India Needs to Pay Attention Russian Military Build-up in Ukraine,” January 22, 2022. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/russia-military-build-up-ukraine-india-7734303/.
[19] Mearsheimer, John J. n.d. “Why the Ukraine Crisis Is the West’s Fault.” Mearsheimer.Com. Accessed March 8, 2022. https://www.mearsheimer.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Why-the-Ukraine-Crisis-Is.pdf.
[20] Mukutadze, Giga. n.d. “India as Emerging Global Power – Hurdles and Opportunities to Lead.” Https://Www.Researchgate.Net/. Accessed March 3, 2022. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Giga-Mukutadze/publication/357525013_INTERNATIONAL_BLACK_SEA_UNIVERSITY_FACULTY_of_Social-Sciences_Humanities_and_Education_International_Relations_PROGRAM_India_as_Emerging_Global_Power_-Hurdles_and_Opportunities_to_Lead/links/61d24edcda5d105e551660b5/INTERNATIONAL-BLACK-SEA-UNIVERSITY-FACULTY-of-Social-Sciences-Humanities-and-Education-International-Relations-PROGRAM-India-as-Emerging-Global-Power-Hurdles-and-Opportunities-to-Lead.pdf.
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[25] Roth, Andrew. 2021. “Russia Issues List of Demands It Says Must Be Met to Lower Tensions in Europe.” The Guardian, December 17, 2021. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/dec/17/russia-issues-list-demands-tensions-europe-ukraine-nato.
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[38] Wang, Wan. 2015. “Impact of Western Sanctions on Russia in the Ukraine Crisis.” Heinonline.Org. 2015. https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/jpola8&div=20&id=&page=.

Esha Banerji, “The Ukraine Crisis: What it means for India?” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.54-58 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-3/54-58.pdf

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Landscaping Tribal Culture: Towards A Cultural Landscape Approach in North-East India
Dr. Samhita Chaudhuri March 2022 – Page No.: 59-63

North-east India, being the home of numerous indigenous groups of people, always plays a point of attraction for anthropologists and social scientists all over the world. The land with magnificent natural beauty and cultural heritage also form an ideal destination for a large number of tourists every year. As any natural landscape, when modified by culture group, forms a particular cultural landscape; thus North-east India provides a special type of cultural landscape if we look through the lenses of cultures and traditions of numerous indigenous people of this region. The human-nature interaction gets a new vista in this part of India. The present paper deals with some facts regarding human and nature relationships which take part among various groups of tribal people in ecological setting of North-east India to formulate a cultural landscape approach based on these human-nature interactions.

Page(s): 59-63                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 March 2022

 Dr. Samhita Chaudhuri
Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Bijoy Krishna Girls’ College, Howrah, India

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Dr. Samhita Chaudhuri, “Landscaping Tribal Culture: Towards A Cultural Landscape Approach in North-East India” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.59-63 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-3/59-63.pdf

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Contribution of Advertisement in Construction of Identity
Dr. Susmita Bhattacharyya March 2022 – Page No.: 64-68

construction is a gradual process of unfolding of potentialities of self. Entire process is akin to socialization from the functional perspective. It is none the less important to mention that in today’s world media play the most prominent role in formation of identity. Advertisement is situated within a system of visual representation. Moreover, in every aspect advertisement has given some sort of messages. It would include the process of identity construction in its fold. Actually identity is constructed through the process of response of events, interactions, relationships and even situations. The role of advertisement is note worthy in this matter. Actually advertisement negotiates an identity. Impact of advertisements varies from one individual to another with respect to different interpretations. Traditional homogenous identity turns into heterogeneous through the intervention of ad world. Scope of uniqueness in identity increases the chance of presence of multiple directionalities. Now consumerism becomes the buzz word. In this information society identity is defined in consumerist term. Hence advertisement acts as a bridge through which a complete identity begins to maturate.

Page(s): 64-68                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 April 2022

 Dr. Susmita Bhattacharyya
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Calcutta, India

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Dr. Susmita Bhattacharyya, “Contribution of Advertisement in Construction of Identity” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.64-68 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-3/64-68.pdf

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Effect of 5Es with Teaching Aids on Academic Performance of Upper Primary School Pupils in Mathematics Non-Routine Problems
Frank Owusu, Augustina Adu, Dennis Offei Kwakye March 2022 – Page No.: 69-74

The study aimed to determine the effect of 5Es with teaching aids on the academic performance of Junior High school students in mathematics non-routine problems. A sample of 48 students was randomly selected from Asawinso Methodist Upper primary school. Quasi-experimental non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design research design was adopted for the study. A pre-test was employed to assess the academic ability equivalence and homogeneity of the two groups, while post-testing was used to examine the effect of the 5Es inquiry model with instructional aids on the performance of pupils in mathematics non-routine problems. An independent sample t-test was employed to compare the values between the experimental and control groups to evaluate the data at an alpha level of 0.05. In addition, the effects 5Es inquiry-based approach on students’ mathematics non-routine problems was assessed based on gender. The results indicated that pupils taught using 5Es with teaching aids outperformed their counterparts taught using lecture method with teaching aids. Also, the results indicated that female learners perform better than male learners in mathematics non-routine problems. It is therefore recommended that when teaching pupils mathematics non-routine problems, 5Es supported with teaching aids should be adopted. A Teacher Made Test (TMT) was used to assess pupils’ knowledge on non-routine problems in mathematics.

Page(s): 69-74                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 April 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9305

 Frank Owusu
Department of Mathematics and ICT, St. Loui College of Education, Kumasi, Ashanti Region, Ghana Nigeria.

 Augustina Adu
Department of Mathematics and ICT, St. Loui College of Education, Kumasi, Ashanti Region, Ghana

 Dennis Offei Kwakye
Department of Mathematics and ICT Education, C. K. Tedam University of Technology and Applied Sciences, Navrongo, Upper West Region, Ghana

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Frank Owusu, Augustina Adu, Dennis Offei Kwakye, “Effect of 5Es with Teaching Aids on Academic Performance of Upper Primary School Pupils in Mathematics Non-Routine Problems” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.69-74 March 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9305

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Exploration of Attitude of Mainstream Teachers in the Provision of Special Education: A Case Study of Chibote Girls Secondary School in Kitwe District, Zambia
Munshya Mushingwa, Gistered Muleya & Francis Simui March 2022 – Page No.: 69-77

In this study, we explored attitudes of mainstream teachers in the provision of special education at Chibote girls’ special unit Kitwe district, Zambia. A qualitative research methodology with a case study design were applied to elicit evidence among teachers and learners with Hearing Impairments (HI). Emergent findings indicated that mainstream teachers at Chibote Girls secondary school have a negative attitude towards the provision of special education. Factors responsible for this negative attitude included lack adequate classroom space, lack of sign language interpreters, HI learners do not pass examinations among others. The research has also established that HI learners attending mainstream classes are free to interact with some mainstream teachers while they find it difficult to interact with other unfriendly teachers. Thus, it was recommended that District Education Board Secretary to ensure that all schools embrace mainstream education in the district, School administration to ensure that they provide spacious rooms to adequately cater for both normal and SEN learners in mainstream classes.

Page(s): 69-77                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 April 2022

 Munshya Mushingwa
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Gistered Muleya
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

 Francis Simui
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia

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Munshya Mushingwa, Gistered Muleya & Francis Simui , “Exploration of Attitude of Mainstream Teachers in the Provision of Special Education: A Case Study of Chibote Girls Secondary School in Kitwe District, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.69-77 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-3/69-77.pdf

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Management of Community Learning Center Program at the Center of Al Ishlah Community Learning Activities Central Jakarta, Indonesia
Durotul Yatimah, Eliana Sari, Karnadi, Adman March 2022 – Page No.: 78-87

This study aims to find out how to (1) planning; (2) organizing the program; (3) the implementation of the program; and evaluation of the program at Jakarta Pusat This study with a qualitative approach and case study. Based on the results of the study are discussed further found: (1) the management of early childhood programs (PAUD) tendency of good because the management of the program has been effective and efficient with respect to Plan Daily Work (RKH), Weekly Work Plan (RKM), Work Plan and Work Program Semester annual; (2) management of Functional Literacy Education (KF), Educational Equality, Courses and Skills and the TBM, it was limited at the time of submission of the proposal and has not made efforts to manage the programs that are innovative, creative, and thorough; (3) only in the form of coaching overseer monitoring with only motivating, coaching has not been oriented to the development of CLC programs. (4) CLC is expected to be more innovative which oriented to the development of the program and the program not only depend on government aid alone.

Page(s): 78-87                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 April 2022

 Durotul Yatimah
Community Education Study Program, Postgraduate Program – State University of Jakarta

 Eliana Sari
Education Management Study Program, Postgraduate Program – State University of Jakarta

Community Education Study Program, Postgraduate Program – State University of Jakarta

Education Management Study Program, Postgraduate Program – University of Education Indonesia

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Durotul Yatimah, Eliana Sari, Karnadi, Adman , “Management of Community Learning Center Program at the Center of Al Ishlah Community Learning Activities Central Jakarta, Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.78-87 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-3/78-87.pdf

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Gender analysis of the hive product value chain in Benin
Vodounou G. Kéty, Attanasso Marie-Odile, Sossou K. Benoît, Akanro Raoul and Dossou Justin March 2022 – Page No.: 88-100

The purpose of this study is to identify the role of gender throughout the hive product value chain in Benin. The data is collected through a socio-economic survey. A total of 430 beekeepers, including 43 women, were surveyed using the snowball method. Macro, meso and micro level analyses of the said chain were carried out followed by a SWOT analysis. Data processing was done with Excel 2016, SPSS, and ARCGIS 10.1 software. The results of the study indicated that women beekeepers intervene more at the level of honey extraction with a participation rate of about half and a participation rate of less than 20% in the other links of the chain. While the men occupy more remunerative segments as the marketing, the production, the harvest of the honey as well as the manufacture of the wax. Three types of beekeeping groups were identified: men’s, women’s and mixed groups.

Page(s): 88-100                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 April 2022

 Vodounou G. Kéty
Doctoral School of Agricultural and Water Sciences, National University of Agriculture of Kétou/ Benin
Laboratory of Population Dynamics and Sustainable Development / Beninese Center for Scientific Research and Innovation

 Attanasso Marie-Odile
Laboratory of Population Dynamics and Sustainable Development / Beninese Center for Scientific Research and Innovation

 Sossou K. Benoît
Laboratory of Population Dynamics and Sustainable Development / Beninese Center for Scientific Research and Innovation

 Akanro Raoul
Laboratory of Population Dynamics and Sustainable Development / Beninese Center for Scientific Research and Innovation

 Dossou Justin
Laboratory of Population Dynamics and Sustainable Development / Beninese Center for Scientific Research and Innovation

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Vodounou G. Kéty, Attanasso Marie-Odile, Sossou K. Benoît, Akanro Raoul and Dossou Justin , “Gender analysis of the hive product value chain in Benin” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.88-100 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-3/88-100.pdf

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The Politico-Economic Reformation of Political Parties and its Effects on the Democratic Process in Cameroon: Challenges and Opportunities
Pada Bodianga Valery March 2022 – Page No.: 101-113

The leading controversial idea that instigated us to study and research on the existing interaction between social mobilisations and politico-economic reforms that gave birth to political parties in Cameroon is as a result of it promotion and recommendation as a solution to politico-economic crisis by neoliberals. The logic here being an ushering of a double cornice into the Cameroonian political scene, obliging them to follow the same path in what Michel DOBRY calls “democratic and capitalist transition” or what Jennifer WIDNER calls “economic change and political liberalisation” into a case at hand like the Cameroonian political landscape confronted with managerial crisis and having proceeded with a centralised governing policy since her independence in the 1960s. Political parties are the life wire on which democracy thrives. Whether dictators or communist political systems, all political leaders want to identify with the democratic system of government in this 21th century. This article seeks to find answerers to the question on the usefulness of political parties in Cameroon and whether after more than two decades of democratic politics in Cameroon, parties have fulfilled the goals for which they were created? What has been the different political and economic reform that has help political parties have an impact on the democratic process of the Country? The use of a dualistic research model reveals that the relationship between social mobilisation and economic reforms (liberalisation) in Cameroon’s politics is characterised by what Arnold WOLFERS calls in his analytic and conceptual model “discord and collaboration”/ “antagonism and harmony”. The revelation concluding our findings settles on both compatibility and tensions between political and economic reforms of political parties. Hence, the expected political transformation and social relief is compromised and cannot be entirely guaranteed.

Page(s): 101-113                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 April 2022

 Pada Bodianga Valery
Assistant Lecturer, Faculty of Law and Political Science
University of Bamenda

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[26] Nyamnjoh, Francis (2002), Cameroon: Over twelve years of cosmetic democracy, News from the Nordic Africa Institute, no. 3.
[27] Paul NTUNGWE NDUE (2007), Civil society, A conceptual framework; in Revue Africaine D’Etude Politiques et Strategiques N0. 4, University of Yaounde II.
[28] Peter Waller (1992), L’aide à la démocratie et aux droits de l’homme, ENTWICKLUNG and ZUSAMMEN arbeit, N° 8.
[29] Raymond BOUDON (1986) Les methodes en sociologie, Paris, PUF.
[30] Richard JEFFRIES (June 1984) Moins d’Etats et plus de marchés», politique africaine N° 14. Robert DAHL (1985), A preface to economic democracy, Berkeley, University of California Press.
[31] Roskin, G. Michael (2006), Political Science, An Introduction, New Jersey, Prentice Hall.
[32] Rustow, Dankwart A. (April 1970) Transitions to democracy: Toward a dynamic model, Comparative Politics, no. 2.
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[34] Wiseman, J., (1996), The new struggle for democracy, Aldershot, England: Avebury.
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Pada Bodianga Valery, “The Politico-Economic Reformation of Political Parties and its Effects on the Democratic Process in Cameroon: Challenges and Opportunities” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.101-113 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-3/101-113.pdf

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Behavioral study of piled raft foundation on cohesionless soil for eccentricity
Dr. K.V.S.B Raju, Aruna T, Swathi Gowda March 2022 – Page No.: 114-119

The performance of piled raft foundation on sand is analyzed with reference to its bearing capacity and settlement. This paper presents an experimental study of the effectiveness of using piles on the behavior of an eccentrically loaded raft. The parameters that varied are the piles arrangements, piles length and load eccentricity. The improvement in the bearing capacity is represented by a non dimensional parameter called the load improvement ratio (LIR). The results of the tests show that the inclusion of piles at an eccentricity reduces the bearing capacity and also it decreases significantly as the eccentricity also increases leads to a reduction in raft settlement and tilts. However, the efficiency of the piled raft system depends on the load eccentricity ratio and pile arrangement. Based on the test results, the influence of different parameters is presented and discussed. However, the efficiency of the piled raft system depends on the load eccentricity ratio and pile arrangement. Raft foundations are often subjected to eccentric inclined loading because of the influence of lateral loads cause as a result of high wind and seismic actions and that may result in tilt of the structures particularly in case of high rise buildings. Using the settlement reducing piles beneath the raft in such cases may increase the soundness of the structure and may reduce the tilt of the raft. However, the piled raft subjected to eccentric and inclined loads has not been fully studied. Most of the research work was done on parametric numerical study for uniformly distributed load or concentrated column loads on piled raft. So that the study is necessary to gain more understanding of behavior of piled raft foundation for eccentric inclined load over cohesive soil/layered cohesive soil mass that creates overturning of the structure, which is commonly found in practice.

Page(s): 114-119                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 April 2022

 Dr. K.V.S.B Raju
Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, UVCE-Bengaluru

 Aruna T
Research scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, UVCE -Bengaloru

 Swathi Gowda
ME student, Department of Civil Engineering, UVCE-Bengaluru

[1] Sven kabbenhoft et al., (2014): Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings in Cohesionless Soil Subject to Eccentric and Inclined Loads. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000332. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
[2] Ganesh R et al., (2016): Bearing Capacity of Shallow Strip Foundations in Sand under Eccentric and Oblique Loads. International Journal of geomechanics 17(4):06016028 DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000799. © 2016.
[3] George G et al., (1983): Ultimate Pile Capacity For Eccentric Inclined Load.J Geotech. Engineering., 1983, 109(3): 408-423.
[4] Mustafa EL Sawwaf et al., (2010): Experimental Study of Eccentrically Loaded raft With Connected and Unconnected Short piles. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering ASCE,DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GT:1943-5606.0000341
[5] Jaymin D ,S A Vasantha and C H Solanki{2016): An experimental study of eccentrically loaded piled raft.
International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. Volume 10,2016-Issue 1

Dr. K.V.S.B Raju, Aruna T, Swathi Gowda, “Behavioral study of piled raft foundation on cohesionless soil for eccentricity” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.114-119 March 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-3/114-119.pdf

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Carlson’s Positive Aesthetics
Kent B. Olson June 2022 – Page No.: 120-122

We all know that the protection of the environment is a good thing. With global warming, these concerns are past the point of being trivial. Can there be an argument via the sciences to get more people involved? Can there be one based upon an instrumentalist view? This would be quite a feat. Canadian-born philosopher Allen Carlson tries to do just that with his view of positive aesthetics. This is the view that the environment is worth protecting because it is beautiful. More particularly, since it does have instrumental value, it is beautiful and we should protect it. In this paper, I shall endorse the idea that not all natural phenomena are beautiful. Also the argument commits the is/ought fallacy. Perhaps activists should seek more aid from the arts and sciences from philosophy itself, rather than from the cold deductive logical calculus.

Page(s): 120-122                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 April 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9306

 Kent B. Olson
Graduate Student, Doctor of Philosophy in Philosophy, Silenus University of the Sciences and Literature
Member Oxford Philsoc, OUDCE

[1] Brady, E. (1998). Environmental Aesthetics. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 56, No. 2, pp. 139-147.
[2] Barrett, N. (2011). Allen Carlson and Sheila Lincott (eds): Nature, Aesthetics, and Environmentalism: From Beauty to Duty. J Agric Environmental Ethics 24:659-668 DOI 10.1007/s10806-10-9258-2.
[3] Budd, M. (2002). The Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature. Oxford University Press.
[4] Carlson, A. (1981). Nature, Aesthetic Judgement and Objectivity. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. Vol 40. No 1 (Autumn, 1981), pp. 15-27.
[5] Carlson, A. (2018). Environmental Aesthetics, Ethics, and Ecoaesthetics the Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 76:4 Fall 2018.
[6] Carroll, N. (2010). Beyond Aesthetics: Philosophical Essays. Cambridge University Press.
[7] Janaway, C. (2020). Beauty in Nature Beauty in Art. Viewed October 23rd, 2020:
[8] Hettinger, N. (2020). Noel Carroll, “On Being Moved by Nature: Between Religion and Natural History” (1993). Viewed October, 23, 2020
[9] Hume, D. (1839). A Treatise of Human Nature, Selby-Bigge, L. and Nidditch, P. (eds), Oxford, Clarendon Press (this edition 1978).
[10] Open University. (2020). The Argument for Positive Aesthetics. Retrieved from: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1616302&section=4
[11] Open University. (2020). The Arousal Method. Retrieved from
[12] https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1616300&section=2
[13] Scrouton, R. (2009). Beauty. Oxford University Press.
[14] Thompson, J. (1995). Aesthetics and the Value of Nature. Environmental Ethics. 17 (3):291-305.
[15] Walton, K. (1970). Categories of Art, Philosophical Review, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 334–67.

Kent B. Olson, “Carlson’s Positive Aesthetics” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 3, pp.120-122 June 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.9306

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