Volume IX Issue XI

Web-Based Marketing Information System Design as One of the Multi-Channel Marketing Strategies on Ship Design Services Business
Aini Oktaviani, I Gusti Ayu Sri Deviyanti November 2022 – Page No.: 01-05

Technology has made great progress every year. For example, information and communication technology. Thanks to the development of information and communication technology, marketing methods that were previously traditional and conventional have now been integrated into the digital world. Many businesses use internet technology to sell and promote their products. Handa Ship Design & Drawing business which is a business in the field of ship design services, plans to market their business online in the hope that this business can be known by many people. Based on the existing background, a web-based marketing information system was created as one of the applications of multichannel marketing strategies for the business. The development of information systems in this study was carried out using the system development life cycle method with a waterfall model approach. System modelling is described using context diagrams, data flow diagrams, and ER diagrams. This information system was built using PHP programming language and MySQL for the database. The final result of this research is a website that can be used by business owners to introduce their business and as a place of communication between customers and business owners.

Page(s): 01-05                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 November 2022

 Aini Oktaviani
Faculty of Engineering, WR Supratman University Surabaya, Indonesia

 I Gusti Ayu Sri Deviyanti
Faculty of Engineering, WR Supratman University Surabaya, Indonesia

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[3] Jayanti, Iriani, (2014). Payroll Information System at CV. Blumbang Sejati Pacitan. Journal Speed-Sentra Research Engineering And Education – Volume 6 NO 3 – 2014 – ijns.org.
[4] Marimin, Tanjung, H. & Prabowo, H. (2006). Human Resource Management Information System. Jakarta: Grasindo.
[5] Rerung, R.R., 2018. Basic Web Programming. Deepublish.
[6] Simanungkalit, J.H.U.P. and Si, S., 2006. Basic Concepts of Information Systems. Sofwan, Akhmad.
[7] Sulthoni, S., 2015. Web-based E-Commerce Information System for Marketing Agricultural Products of Kluwan Village (Doctoral dissertation, College of Electronics and Computer Semarang).
[8] Sutabri, T., 2012. The concept of information systems. Andi Publisher.
[9] Wahid, A. A. (2020). Analysis of the Waterfall Method for Information System Development. J. Sciences Inform. and Manaj. STMIK, no. November, 1-5.
[10] Yanto, (2016). Database Management Using MySQL. Yogyakarta: Deepublish, February 2016 ISBN 978-602-401-204-5.

Aini Oktaviani, I Gusti Ayu Sri Deviyanti, “Web-Based Marketing Information System Design as One of the Multi-Channel Marketing Strategies on Ship Design Services Business ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 11, pp.01-05 November 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-11/01-05.pdf

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Model for Tree Volume Estimation, Determination of Root- Shoot Relationship and Biomass Production of Annona glabra
P. G. Dikwaththa, D. T. Jayawardana, and D. Pindeniya November 2022 – Page No.: 06-12

Annona glabra is a widely spreading invasive species which reduces biodiversity in ecosystems. The volume prediction of the tree is imortant for better preventive measures. The objectives of the study were to construct a volume prediction model, determination of the root and shoot ratio and field measures of A. glabra. Random sampling was used in Thalangama tank to collect the data from two age classes of 7 years and 12 years. Total biomass was estimated using fresh weight and dry weight of destructive tree samples. Mean total tree biomass estimated for 7 years and 12 years are 6.98 kg per tree (±0.42) and 7.59 kg per tree (±0.40) respectively. Root: shoot ratio for 7 years and 12 years are 1: 2.6 and 1: 2.4 respectively. Model for predicting tree age and tree volume estimated by regression analysis and the best fit models were selected based on R2 value. The models were construted of Age = (-2.527) + (1.525 Ht) for prediction of age of tree and V = (-0.014) + 5.494 BA + 0.002 Ht for prediction of individual height of tree of A. glabra. The introduced models of A. glabra would provide better calculation of volume stock and helps in better management practises of wetland ecosystems.

Page(s): 06-12                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 December 2022

 P. G. Dikwaththa
Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

 D. T. Jayawardana
Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

 D. Pindeniya
Wetland Management Division, Sri Lanka Land Reclamation and Development Corporation, Sri Lanka

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P. G. Dikwaththa, D. T. Jayawardana, and D. Pindeniya, “Model for Tree Volume Estimation, Determination of Root- Shoot Relationship and Biomass Production of Annona glabra ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 11, pp.06-12 November 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-11/06-12.pdf

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Physical Development and Challenges of Spontaneous Waterfronts in Port Harcourt Metropolis Nigeria
Amakiri-whyte Belema Henry, Chikagbum Wocha, Neebee Bonny November 2022 – Page No.: 13-17

The development of spontaneous waterfronts has profound and positive effect on its local destination and neighbouring communities, as it brings physical, social and economic advancement. This research evaluates developmental sustainability and encounters of spontaneous waterfronts in Port Harcourt metropolis Nigeria. The objectives of this study are to determine the challenges of spontaneous waterfront communities, analyse and justify developmental stride for spontaneous waterfronts and assess how development of unplanned waterfront improve existing land uses and declines penury. The research method or approach adopted includes in-depth field work, environmental observation, questionnaire administration, interviews, collection and processing of the field data. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse all the data obtained for the study and the findings revealed that government, total clearance approach, loss of social justice, land ownership, heritage, /culture, poor environmental and social justice are the development challenges of spontaneous waterfront. The community members observed that 51% and 97% expected physical development of spontaneous waterfront through physical planning approaches as in contradiction to 5% experimented populace who pointed observations and expectant to that influence. Though, the considered implication value of 126. 45 revealed an advanced scientific value greater than the desk value of 3.84. The recommendation moored that government and built environment stakeholders must provide enabling environment to enhance development and sustainability of spontaneous waterfronts.

Page(s): 13-17                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 December 2022

 Amakiri-whyte Belema Henry
Department of Architecture Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic Bori Nigeria

 Chikagbum Wocha
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic Bori Nigeria

 Neebee Bonny
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ken Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic Bori Nigeria

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Amakiri-whyte Belema Henry, Chikagbum Wocha, Neebee Bonny, “Physical Development and Challenges of Spontaneous Waterfronts in Port Harcourt Metropolis Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 11, pp.13-17 November 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-11/13-17.pdf

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Human Developmental Vices
Joyzy Pius Egunjobi, Ph.D., Dr.AD., M.Ed., M.Th November 2022 – Page No.: 18-23

As human beings develop physically, cognitively, emotionally, morally, technologically, and spiritually, so they develop vices which are moral depravity, moral fault, and/or a habitual trivial shortcoming. These vices such as biting, fornication, lying, gluttony, greed, jealousy, stealing etc. develop at different developmental milestones of a nature-nurture interaction and as early as from infancy from underlying normal behaviors. It is theorized that if the behaviors that may lead to vices are well managed, they may become virtues. However, if one skips these developments in early childhood, it might catch up with one in adulthood where the struggle to overcome the vice may become sterner. This theory of human developmental vices may be important in understanding human negative behaviors and in promoting healthy parenting as well as understanding the individual differences inherent in each child response style as it interplays between nature and nurture. Researchers are challenged to empirically investigate this theory

Page(s): 18-23                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 December 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.91101

 Joyzy Pius Egunjobi, Ph.D., Dr.AD., M.Ed., M.Th
Psycho-Spiritual Institute of Lux Terra Leadership Foundation, an Affiliate of the Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya.

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Joyzy Pius Egunjobi, Ph.D., Dr.AD., M.Ed., M.Th, “Human Developmental Vices ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 11, pp.18-23 November 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.91101

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Curriculum Deficiency Syndrome: An Impediment to Holistic Basic Science Education in The Western Region of Ghana
James Hinson, Habib Bipembi, Collins Oppong Arthur November 2022 – Page No.: 24-33

This study examines basic science teachers’ classroom professional practices and how it influences learners’ understanding of basic scientific concepts. The study also examines factors that militate against effective science professional teacher practices in handling the new standard based curriculum in science as well as factors which aggravate Curriculum Deficiency Syndrome (CDS) and what basic science teachers can do to improve the situation. The study employed the descriptive survey design using stratified random sampling in selecting two strata consisting 12 Junior High school teachers(K-12) and 60 upper primary science teachers (K-9) drawn from three districts in the western regions of Ghana. A questionnaire and an interview guide were the main instruments used in collecting data for the study. To ensure validity and reliability of the instruments employed in this study, the instruments were pilot tested at Zion cluster of schools in Takoradi. Experts from the Science Education Department of Holy Child College of Education proof read the items. Some of the items were reframed while a number of items measuring the same constructs were properly aligned. Items whose specificity could not be properly aligned with the constructs being measured were deleted. Analysis of data revealed that classroom professional practices of basic school science teachers fall short of the curricula expectations. Teachers could not plan remedial instructions for learners with CDS. This is because the 3-day crush national training held prior to the implementation of the new curriculum could not equip basic science teachers with the skills expected in teaching the new curriculum. Time constraints, large class size, inadequate in-service training and lack of flexibility on the daily schedules in the basic schools prevented science teachers from making the desired impact during instructions. Teachers resorted to teaching basic science concepts in abstract due to unavailability of science resources. The study recommends basic science teachers develop a plan to assist learners experiencing curriculum deficiency syndrome to overcome their challenges in the teaching and learning of basic science. The study also recommends action research, in-service training, exposure to current innovative pedagogies (flipped class teaching, concept mapping, and augmented multimedia) and access to science resources to enable basic science teachers help reverse this trend

Page(s): 24-33                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 December 2022

 James Hinson
Department of science education, Holy Child College of Education, Ghana

 Habib Bipembi
Department of mathematics and ICT education, Holy Child College of Education, Ghana

 Collins Oppong Arthur
Department of science education, holy Child College of education, Ghana

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James Hinson, Habib Bipembi, Collins Oppong Arthur, “Curriculum Deficiency Syndrome: An Impediment to Holistic Basic Science Education in The Western Region of Ghana ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 11, pp.24-33 November 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-11/24-33.pdf

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The Economic, Environmental and Safety impacts of COVID-19 pandemic and the coping strategies for the petroleum industry
Franklin Okoro, Nwamaka Linda Okoli, Mary Frank-Okoro, Ambrose Onne Okpu, Cynthia Ehialeta November 2022 – Page No.: 34-39

This study assessed the economic, environmental and safety impacts of COVID-19 pandemic and coping strategies for the petroleum industry using the descriptive survey design approach. Eighty (80) oil companies that operate in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, constituted the population of the study. Random sampling method was applied in choosing the sample for assessment and in getting the respondents to answer the questionnaire. The random sample size was derived utilizing Yamane Taro’s statistical technique to arrive at a sample size of 70. The study made use of questionnaires of both structured and semi-structured nature. Data from the answered questionnaires were analyzed both qualitatively using percentages. From the findings, the environmental impacts identified were both negative and positive. The result revealed that the safety impacts of COVID-19 pandemic across selected petroleum companies in Port Harcourt are in two (2) folds (positive and negative). The positive impacts included: improved air quality, reduction in water pollution, drop in Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, reduction in noise pollutions. Whereas the negative impacts identified were clogging in water ways, increased land filling and environmental pollutants worldwide. The Positive Safety Impacts are increased level of awareness of threat to health globally and increased level of safety measures practiced. The Negative Safety Impacts include increased risk of getting infections and increased risk of disease transmission from one person to another. From the results, the economic impact felt was a reduction in the barrel price of oil. Finally, the result revealed that some of the possible coping strategies are Rigid travel policies permitting essential duties workers only should be formulated and implemented for the short period of time and reduction of working days for offshore staff.

Page(s): 34-39                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 December 2022

  Franklin Okoro
Clean Script Group, Nigeria

  Nwamaka Linda Okoli

  Mary Frank-Okoro

  Ambrose Onne Okpu

  Cynthia Ehialeta

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Franklin Okoro, Nwamaka Linda Okoli, Mary Frank-Okoro, Ambrose Onne Okpu, Cynthia Ehialeta , “The Economic, Environmental and Safety impacts of COVID-19 pandemic and the coping strategies for the petroleum industry ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 11, pp.34-39 November 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-11/34-39.pdf

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Effectiveness of Credit Appraisal on management Non-Performing Loans in Kenyan Commercial Banks
Eunice Macrean Atieno, Caroline Ayuma, Christine Ngari November 2022 – Page No.: 40-45

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of credit appraisal on management of Non-Performing Loans in Kenyan Commercial Banks. The specific objectives were to determine the effect of borrower’s income, credit rating, credit history and collateral issued on the management of non-performing loans recorded in corporate, business and personal sections of Kenyan Commercial Banks. The study was guided by the Theory of Information Asymmetry and Credit Scorecard Theories. An explanatory research design was adopted, using simple random and stratified sampling techniques in the collection of data. Data was collected from a sample size of 222 credit officers working in 41 commercial Banks in Kenya by use of self-administered questionnaires. Cronbach alpha and factor analysis were applied to test the reliability and validity of the research instruments respectively. A multiple regression model using SPSS (version 23) was used to analyze the obtained data and test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that credit appraisal (ꞵ= .302) had a positive and significant effect on the management of Non-performing Loans. Based on the new findings, the management of commercial banks and policymakers should develop effective credit appraisal strategies, policies and techniques that make borrowing affordable hence attracting credit-worthy borrowers to the banks.

Page(s): 40-45                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 December 2022

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2022.91102

 Eunice Macrean Atieno
Business Management Department, School of Business and Management Science, University of Eldoret, Kenya

 Caroline Ayuma
Business Management Department, School of Business and Management Science, University of Eldoret, Kenya

 Christine Ngari
Business Management Department, School of Business and Management Science, University of Eldoret, Kenya

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Eunice Macrean Atieno, Caroline Ayuma, Christine Ngari, “Effectiveness of Credit Appraisal on management Non-Performing Loans in Kenyan Commercial Banks ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 11, pp.40-45 November 2022 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2022.91102

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Influence of Internet Advertising Features on Online Shopping Habits Among Undergraduate Students in South-East Nigerian Universities
Ifesinachi Anyaegbunam Ayogu, Joseph Oluchukwu Wogu November 2022 – Page No.: 46-64

This study investigated the influence of internet advertising features on online shopping habits among undergraduate students in South-East Nigerian Universities. Internet advertisers are at risk of missing marketing opportunities by relying on insufficient knowledge about advertising features that work. Thus, a comprehensive knowledge of internet advertising features will be beneficial to internet advertisers and online retail stores, hence the need for this study. The major objective of this study was to investigate internet advertising features that influence online shopping habits. Uses and Gratification and Technological Determinism theories were used to explain the study. The survey research design was employed with the questionnaire as the instrument for data collection. The population of the study was registered university undergraduate students in South East Nigerian Universities for the 2017/2018 academic year. A sample size of 500 was selected. Findings from the study revealed that 97 percent of the respondents strongly agreed that internet advertising features of sales promotion “price discount, premiums, discount offers, bonus pack, shop now, apply now and limited offer” motivate them to shop online. Further findings from the study revealed that 58 percent of the respondents strongly agreed that internet advertising features of auto playing video ads with sound was a challenge associated with internet advertising. Other findings from the study revealed that 64.6 percent of the respondents accepted that they derived gratification from internet advertising features of information and entertainment. From the findings of the study, it is recommended that online retail stores and internet advertiser should provide information about prices of products or service being advertised on the internet. Sales promotion are effective internet advertising features and should be incorporated by internet advertisers in their ad campaign.

Page(s): 46-64                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 December 2022

 Ifesinachi Anyaegbunam Ayogu
Department of Mass Communication, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

 Caroline Ayuma
Department of Mass Communication, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

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Ifesinachi Anyaegbunam Ayogu, Joseph Oluchukwu Wogu, “Influence of Internet Advertising Features on Online Shopping Habits Among Undergraduate Students in South-East Nigerian Universities ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 11, pp.46-64 November 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-11/46-64.pdf

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Simulation of Model Predictive Control MPC for Practical Design and Application
Emian Mohammad Abed Zaid Aljbory, Dr. Mahi FIrouzi, Ahmed Selman Altuma, Dr. Babak Mozafari November 2022 – Page No.: 65-74

The precise location control of DC servo motor is a significant issue in industry. Here examination introduce location seeking with expectation of DC motor utilizing various controls methodology. Controlling procedures is expected to reduce and minimize the consistent state errors. Utilization of model predictive controller MPC strategy also carry out such requirements. Three types of control procedures are introduced in this work. The dynamic set strategy ASM, the inside mark technique IPM, and the quick online slope technique FGM have been utilized as control techniques. Such exploration recognizes and portrays the plan decisions connected with a three kinds of control units with predictive controller for a DC servo motor. Implementation of such controllers has been confirmed along reenactment using simulation program with MATLAB software. According to the reenactment results the Comparisons among ASM, IPM, FGM and MPC controllers are inclined in this undertaking. The adjusting strategy was further effective in an enhancing the progression reaction qualities, for example, reducing the ascent time, settling time and greatest overshoot in Position control of DC servo motor. Model predictive controller strategy provides the favorite exhibition and prevalence of MPC strategy view at along alternative controlling units.

Page(s): 65-74                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 December 2022

 Emian Mohammad Abed Zaid Aljbory
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Karbala, Islamic Azad University

 Dr. Mahi FIrouzi
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Karbala, Islamic Azad University

 Ahmed Selman Altuma
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Karbala, Islamic Azad University

 Dr. Babak Mozafari
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Karbala, Islamic Azad University

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Emian Mohammad Abed Zaid Aljbory, Dr. Mahi FIrouzi, Ahmed Selman Altuma, Dr. Babak Mozafari, “Simulation of Model Predictive Control MPC for Practical Design and Application ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 11, pp.65-74 November 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-11/65-74.pdf

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The Theory of Reference Dialect in Yamba Orthography Development: Revitalisation or Endangerment?
Talah Benard Sanda, Vincent A Tanda November 2022 – Page No.: 65-70

Orthography development over decades has been at the onset of mother tongue literacy, language revitalization and preservation. This was informed by the fact that language in its oral form run the risk of getting extinct gradually. The development of writing systems (orthographies) therefore, became necessary in different minority languages in order to bridge the gap between orality and the written form of languages. Many languages are endowed with many variants or dialects and for this reason, a variant is chosen for standardization. Many linguists have responded to this need by laying down criteria on how a reference dialect should be chosen among many variants. Over the years, this has not gone without problems as the speakers of the dialect not chosen either gave up learning to read and write the reference or dialect demonstrated a silent rejection of the standard form. At the inception of standardization of the language, the Yamba people were already opposed to the choice of the reference dialect. It was observed by Bradley (1986b) that there is a major problem in the usage of materials produced in the language using the Mbem dialect as reference. Despite the publication of the orthography statement Bradley (1986a), the Yamba language has remained essentially oral, thereby promoting the gradual death of the language. The attempt to revitalize the language using a single dialect has turned to promote the endangerment of 16 of the 17 dialects. Reference dialect theory therefore, singles out a dialect for revitalization thereby indirectly endangering the language. Developing a multidialectal orthography would be a block building process of safeguarding a language.

Page(s): 65-70                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 December 2022

 Talah Benard Sanda
The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

 Vincent A Tanda
The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

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Talah Benard Sanda, Vincent A Tanda , “The Theory of Reference Dialect in Yamba Orthography Development: Revitalisation or Endangerment? ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 11, pp.65-70 November 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-11/65-70.pdf

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The Potential of Robusta Coffee Bean Gel as a Non-Pharmacological Material to Inhibit the Growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis Bacteria That Cause Periodontitis (laboratory study)
Ardi Mohamad Bukhari, Supriyana, Lanny Sunarjo, Suharyo Hadisaputro, Endah Aryati Ekoningtyas November 2022 – Page No.: 71-74

Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial infectious disease of the dental support tissue caused by microorganisms. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a bacterium that has an important role in the initiation, growth, and severity of chronic periodontitis. So far, periodontitis treatment is carried out with scaling therapy or using chemical topical antibacterial agents such as aloclair gel. This topical antibacterial ingredient has side effects. For this reason, it is necessary to conduct research to prove herbal ingredients as a potential to inhibit the bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, the cause of periodontitis which is expected to contribute to dental therapy services. The purpose of this study was to prove robusta coffee bean gel alkaloid and flavonoids compounds of various concentrations in inhibiting the growth of porphyromonas gingivalis.The study used True Experiment post test only control group design. The subjects used the bacteria porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 with Suspense Mc Farland 0.5. Inhibitory power test using disc diffusion method. The Results of Robusta coffee bean gel alkaloid compounds all concentrations of 0.39%, 0.78%, 1.56% have inhibitory power with a weak category (<5mm) and are less effective in inhibiting the growth of porphyromonas gingivalis bacteria and robusta coffee bean gel flavonoid compounds concentrations of 0.39% and 0.78% have inhibitory power with a weak category (<5 mm), while a concentration of 1.56% has an inhibitory power with a moderate category (5-10 mm). This study Conclude Robusta coffee alkaloid and flavonoid compounds concentrations of 0.39%, 0.78%, 1.56% have the potential to inhibit the growth of porphyromonas gingivalis bacteria statistically meaningfully (ANOVA, p<0.05).

Page(s): 71-74                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 December 2022

 Ardi Mohamad Bukhari
Posgraduate Program of Dental and Oral Therapist, Semarang Health Polytechnic, Indonesia

Posgraduate Program of Dental and Oral Therapist, Semarang Health Polytechnic, Indonesia

 Lanny Sunarjo
Posgraduate Program of Dental and Oral Therapist, Semarang Health Polytechnic, Indonesia

 Suharyo Hadisaputro
Posgraduate Program of Dental and Oral Therapist, Semarang Health Polytechnic, Indonesia

 Endah Aryati Ekoningtyas
Posgraduate Program of Dental and Oral Therapist, Semarang Health Polytechnic, Indonesia

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Ardi Mohamad Bukhari, Supriyana, Lanny Sunarjo, Suharyo Hadisaputro, Endah Aryati Ekoningtyas, “The Potential of Robusta Coffee Bean Gel as a Non-Pharmacological Material to Inhibit the Growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis Bacteria That Cause Periodontitis (laboratory study) ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.9 issue 11, pp.71-74 November 2022 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-9-issue-11/71-74.pdf

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