Volume VI Issue X

Heat Wave in the Context of Climate Change: A Cross Sectional Study on Awareness and Practices among Health Workers in North East Nigeria

Adah Ruth, Olusonde Oluseyi, Nashon Benjamin – October 2019 Page No.: 01-07

The most obvious evidence of global warming and climate change is the frequent heat waves experienced globally. There have been reports of increased morbidity and mortality associated with heat wave periods. Although heat wave as an effect of global warming is a worldwide phenomenon, very few studies on issues of climate change come from resource poor counties of the tropics. The recent heat waves experienced in Adamawa state Nigeria is of public health concern. The perception and practice of health workers during heat wave conditions not only affects their health but that of the public they serve. This study aims at determining health workers’ perceptions of cause of the heatwave, its effect on health and protective measures taken.
The study was adescriptive cross-sectional one conducted among health workers in Yola, Adamawa state during the April 2019 heatwave. Largely open-ended questionnaires were used to obtain data from 80 health workers (doctors, nurses, community health extension workers-CHEWs) working in different levels and agencies of the health sector. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 Univariate and bivariate analysis were carried out and the level considered statistically significance was set at p< 0.05. The results indicate that majority (68.8%)of health workers perceived that the increased environmental heat was associated with severe discomfort. A large proportion (72.5%) of health workers had cause to educate individuals on heat management but only few (25%) had good knowledge on heat related morbidity and 13.8% were aware of any existing guidelines on management of heat waves. Ignorance and misconceptions exist surrounding the cause and effects of the heat waves in the context of changing climate with the vast majority(90%) perceiving themselves as having no role to play in climate change. Trees and shades (29.2%) were the most frequently used methods for protecting self from heat at home, while few practiced increased fluid intake (7.1%). Almost a fifth (17.5%)of respondents practiced no method of keeping cool at work. On this basis, it is recommended that there be collaborative efforts by the state ministries of health and related agencies to expand the narrative of climate change to include the health threat. Involving health workers in communication, advocacy and managing the effect is required if the targets of the 13th SDG is to be achieved.

Page(s): 01-07                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 October 2019

 Adah Ruth
Department of Paediatrics, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos. Plateau State, Nigeria

 Olusonde Oluseyi
National Primary Health Care Development Agency, Abuja Nigeria

 Nashon Benjamin
Adamawa State Ministry of Health, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

[1]. Meehl GA, Tebaldi C. More intense, more frequent, and longer lasting heat waves in the 21st century. Science 2004; 305: 994–997
[2]. Costello A, Abbas M, Allen A,Bell S, Bellamy R, Friel S et al. Managing the health effects of climate change: Lancet and University College London Institute for Global Health Commission. Lancet 2009;373:1693–733
[3]. Adebayo, A. A., Climate: Resource and resistance to agriculture. 8th Inaugural Lecture, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria,19th May 2010
[4]. Coutts C, Hahn M. Green infrastructure, ecosystem services, and human health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(8):9768-9798. doi:10.3390/ijerph120809768
[5]. Overview of Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability to Climate Change.” IPCC Climate Change 2001: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg2/061.htm#1434
[6]. World Meteorological Organization and World Health Organization, 2015: Heatwaves and Health: Guidance on 1447 Warning-System Development, WMO- No. 1142
[7]. Odjugo P. A. O. Regional evidence of climate change in Nigeria. Journal of Geography and regional Planning . 2010; 3(6): 142-150
[8]. A.A. Adebayo, Zemba A.A, Ray H.H, Dayya SV. Climate change in Adamawa state, Nigeria: evidence from Agro climatic Parameters. Adamawa State University Journal of Scientific Research (ADSUJR) 2012: 2(2)
[9]. https://www.accuweather. Accessed on 11/04/2019
[10]. Auwal f. Abdussalam. Changes in indices of daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Northwest Nigeria. Science world journal 2015; 10 (2)
[11]. Kovats RS, Hajat S Heat stress and public health: a critical review. Annual Review of Public Health 2008; 29: 41–55.
[12]. Fouillet A, Rey G, Wagner V, Laaidi K, Empereur-Bissonnet P, Le Tertre A, Frayssinet P, Bessemoulin P, Has the impact of heat waves on mortality changed in France since the European heat wave of summer 2003? A study of the 2006 heat wave Int. J. Epidemiol. 2008; 37 :309–17
[13]. Kakkad K, Barzaga ML, Wallenstein S, Azhar GS, Sheffield PE. Neonates in Ahmedabad, India, during the 2010 Heat Wave: A Climate Change Adaptation Study. J Environ Public Health. 2014; 2014
[14]. Murari K K, Ghosh S, Patwardhan A, Daly E, Salvi K, Intensification of future severe heat waves in India and their effect on heat stress and mortality. Reg. Environ. Change 2015 ;15, 569–579
[15]. Nitschke, M.; Tucker, G.; Hansen, A.; Williams, S.; Zhang, Y.; Bi, P. Impact of two recent extreme heat episodes on morbidity and mortality in Adelaide, South Australia: A case-series analysis. Environ. Health 2011, 10, doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-10-42
[16]. Smith, Tiffany T.; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Gohlke, Julia M. “Heat Waves in the United States: Definitions, Patterns and Trends,” Climatic Change. 2013; 118: 811-825. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0659-2.
[17]. Katherine G. Arbuthnott& Shakoor Hajat. The health effects of hotter summers and heat waves in the population of the United Kingdom: a review of the evidence Environmental Health 2017; 16(119)
[18]. Victoria State Government (2018). Heat Health Plan for Victoria. Melbourne, Australia.
[19]. Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/2XAzH9s- 14/09/2019
[20]. World Health Organization (2011). Public Health Advice on Preventing Health Effects of Heat. Copenhagen, Denmark Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/pubhealth2
[21]. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, (2019). Heatwave guide for cities: Geneva, Switzerland https://www.climatecentre.org
[22]. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCC (2012) Status of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol.
[23]. Odjugo, P. A. Ovuyovwiroye Analysis of climate change awareness in Nigeria. Academic Journals. 2013: 8(26):1203-1211. http://www.academicjournals.org/SRE
[24]. Xiang J, Hansen A, Pisaniello D, Bi P. Perceptions of Workplace Heat Exposure and Controls among Occupational Hygienists and Relevant Specialists in Australia. PLoS ONE 2015; 10(8) e0135040. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135040
[25]. Lianping Yang, Wenmin Liao, Chaojie Liu, Na Zhang, Shuang Zhong, and CunruiHuang Associations between Knowledge of the Causes and Perceived Impacts of Climate Change: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Medical, Public Health and Nursing Students in Universities in China Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018; 15(12): 2650
[26]. Julia Hathaway and Edward W. Maibach. Health Implications of Climate Change: a Review of the Literature About the Perception of the Public and Health Professionals. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2018; 5(1): 197–204
[27]. Perry Sheffield, Kathleen durante. Emerging roles of health care providers mitigate climate change impacts WHO/Europe web site at http://www.euro.who.int/pubrequest.
[28]. Akpan C.S, Anorue L.I, Ukonu M.O, An Analysis of the Influence of the Nigerian Mass Media on Public Understanding of Climate Change. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences. 2012; 4 (4): 688-710
[29]. Abdussalam, A.F. and Qaffas, Y. Spatiotemporal Patterns and Social Risk Factors of Meningitis in Nigeria. Open Access Library Journal. 2016. 3:8: e2909. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1102909).
[30]. Pugliese A, Ray J (2009). Awareness of Climate Change and Threat Vary by Region Adults in Americas, Europe most likely to be aware, perceive threat. http://www.gallup.com/poll/124652/awarenessclimate-change-threat-vary-region.aspx. Accessed 12/9/2019
[31]. Mohammad M. A., I. M. Polycarp, Jatau D. F, Hamid M.Y. and Goji T.C: The use of fruit Trees as Strategy for Combating Desertification in Nigeria. The Nigerian Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 2006; 7(2): 234-241.
[32]. Naughton MP, Henderson A, Mirabelli MC, Kaiser R, Wilhelm JL, Kieszak SM, et al. Heat-related mortality during a 1999 heat wave in Chicago. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(4):221–7

Adah Ruth, Olusonde Oluseyi, Nashon Benjamin “Heat Wave in the Context of Climate Change: A Cross Sectional Study on Awareness and Practices among Health Workers in North East Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.01-07 October 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/01-07.pdf

Download PDF


Environmental Noise Attenuation in Port Harcourt Metropolis Using Fences
Ogoro Mark and Obafemi Andrew – October 2019 – Page No.: 08-20

Whenever environmental pollution is mentioned, what comes to the mind of individuals, scholars and other concerned groups, are water, land and air pollution. Environmental noise as a form of pollution has always been downplayed in some countries while fences, buffer zones, acoustic panels, noise regulations were considered as measures to check noise pollution in other countries. Excessive noise often diminishes the quality of life for people who live in cities. This has resulted in the use of noise barriers as a means of reducing noise effect especially among busy route urban dwellers. The situation is not different as urbanization and human economic activities accelerating noise level has also increased. This has led to the adoption of possible measures to check noise i.e building of fences as barrier against the sound (noise) wave concerted effort is required to check and recommend the most preferred fences types that would attenuate noise level. The digital noise meter (EXTECH) instrument ‘Digital Sound level Meter with RS232’ was used to measure noise level in decibels dBA. Measurement also involved the use of measuring tape and digital camera. It is therefore recommended that most appropriate fences for noise attenuation be used in the bid to attenuate noise. Major findings of this work are that: different fences attenuate noise at different rate in decibel (dBA) and that some fences i.e half block and iron crossed bars do not attenuate noise significantly.

Page(s): 08-20                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 October 2019

 Ogoro Mark
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Obafemi Andrew
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

[1]. Oyegun C. U. et al 1999. Port Harcourt Region, Paragraphics Port Harcourt

[2]. Bruel Kjar (2002) Sound and Vibration Measurements http://www.nonoise.org/library/envnoisse/index.ltn

[3]. Adebayo O.O. and B. E. Egbewale (1996). Does Knowledge of Hazard of Exposure to Noise Change attitude and Translate to Healthful Practices? (The internet journal of health : 1528-8315) LLC, internet scientific publisher.

[4]. Federal Government of Nigeria (1991). The 1991 National Population Census Abuja, National Population Commission

[5]. Federal Highway Authority (2000). Keeping The Noise Down, Washington

[6]. Federal Highway Authority (2005). Highway Traffic Noise United State

[7]. Malcoln J.C. (1998). Handbook of Acoustic, New York

[8]. Mark U. and A. Cumming (2006). Noise Pollution, New York City

[9]. Miller T.G. (1996). Living in the Environment Ninth Edition USAA, Wodsworth Publishing Company

[10]. Noise Pollution Clearinghouse (NPC) (2001). Noise Barrier Stimulation RTA Group PTY Ltd

[11]. Norwegien Pollution Control Authority (2005). State of the Environment, Norway http://www.environment.no/template/thempage

[12]. Oyewale T. (2005). Nigeria National Merit Award. Saviorite Limited, Port Harcourt

[13]. Peter H.R. et al (1998). Environment, Second Edition, Toronto Saunder College Publishing.

[14]. The Journal of Acoustical Society of America (1998). Volume 103, issue 5, United State Acoustical Society.

Ogoro Mark and Obafemi Andrew “Environmental Noise Attenuation in Port Harcourt Metropolis Using Fences” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.08-20 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/08-20.pdf

Download PDF


Environmental Benefits of Estate and Urban Green Architecture across Locations in Port Harcourt Conurbation, Nigeria
Ubani Princewill, Iyowuna Jonah, Naabura Macwillian Kingdom – October 2019 – Page No.: 21-28

Port Harcourt metropolis is the only developing town in Rivers state Nigeria with quality agricultural soil and other natural endowment. The enriched environment for all systems of agricultural practices attract some urbanites in agricultural sector and the indigenes believed that their resource particularly the soil had been abandoned from agricultural uses and its environmental advantages owing to over concentration of industrial and commercial activities. This study was necessitated to actually verify the claim. Therefore, environmental benefits of urban agriculture and food crops visibility questionnaire were administered in different income locations of the fruitful soil region. The collected sample were analysed using principal component analysis method, standard deviation and Duncan multiple correlation coefficient. The result for determination of urban agriculture environmental advantages held that visibility of food (0.49) and improving air quality (0.50) were considered as the supreme environmental benefits of urban agriculture. However, tree product/medical herb (20%), urban sustainability (13%), agrarian development (12%), soil capacity/incubation (09%) and climate change resilience (10%) were the classified environmental benefits of urban agriculture. In respect to variation, the analysis detailed that the environmental values of urban agrarian for high and medium income communities are the same but differs for low income communities at (p<0.05).The increase of poor environmental quality recorded in different income communities or location of urban communities may be attributed to non-inclusiveness of agrarian practices in urban governance. It is our ultimate opinion that the governments should adopt the establishment and regular maintenance of crop farms across the urban communities to ensure uniformity, availability of open green belt and encouragement of environmental aesthetics for all the communities. So that the 5% per cent space allotted for agriculture in every individual proposed urban land space can serve as a buffer, wind control measure, enhancement of quality air, natural landscape element and as well as visibility of food crops.

Page(s): 21-28                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 October 2019

 Ubani Princewill
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ken Saro – Wiwa Polytechnic Bori, Nigeria

 Iyowuna Jonah
Department of Surveying and Geomatics, Rivers State University Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Naabura Macwillian Kingdom
Department of Estate Management, Ken Saro – Wiwa Polytechnic Bori, Nigeria

[1]. Catherine, B. (2012)’’Evaluating the Benefits of Peri-Urban Agriculture’’ Journal of Planning Literature 27 (3)259-269
[2]. De, Z., R., Van V., and M. Dubbeling (2011)’’ The role of urban agriculture in building resilient cities in developing countries’’ The Journal of Agricultural Science 149 (S1) 153-163.
[3]. Dunn, S. (2010) urban agriculture in Cape Town: an investigation into the history and impact of small-scale urban agriculture in the Cape Flats townships with a special focus on the social benefits of urban farming Cape Town University.
[4]. Gil, D. (2005) ‘’Urban Agriculture: Small, Medium, Large’’special issue 75(3) 52-59.
[5]. Hans, D. (2017)’’ Urban agriculture in Mexico City; balancing between ecological, economic, social and symbolic value’’ Journal of Cleaner Production 163, S156-S163 .
[6]. Hynes, H.P., and Howe, G. (2004)’’ Urban Horticulture in the Contemporary United States: Personal and Community Benefits’’ International Conference of Urban Horticulture 643.21, 171-181 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.643.21
[7]. Isabel, M. (2000) ‘’Urban agriculture in Belém, Brazil’’ 17(1) 73-77
[8]. Jac, S., and Joe, N.(1992)’’ Urban agriculture for sustainable cities: using wastes and idle land and water bodies as resources’’sega journals 4(2)
[9]. Jane, B., and Maya, M.( 2013) ‘’Growing Communities: Integrating the Social and Economic Benefits of Urban Agriculture in Cape Town ‘’ University of Cape TownCape south Africa 24 (4) 447–461.
[10]. Kate, H. B., Andrew, L. J.(2000) ‘’Public Health Implications of Urban Agriculture’’ Journal of Public Health Policy 21(1)20-39
[11]. Kathrin, S.R., SiebertIna, H.U. B., Freisinger, M.S., Armin, W.S., Thomaier, D. H., Heike, W. D.(2014)’’ Urban agriculture of the future: an overview of sustainability aspects of food production in and on buildings’’ Agriculture and Human Values 31 (1)33-51.
[12]. Leonie, J. P., Linda, P. and Craig, J. P. (2010) ‘’Sustainable urban agriculture: stocktake and opportunities’’ International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 8(1-2) 7-19.
[13]. Leigh, J. W., and D. Bradley Rowe (2012)’’ The role of green roof technology in urban agriculture’’ 27( 4) 314-322.
[14]. Li, F., Liu, X., Zhang, X., Zhao, D., Liu, H., Zhou, C., and Wang, R.(2017)’’ Urban ecological infrastructure: an integrated network for ecosystem services and sustainable urban systems’’ Journal of Cleaner Production 163 (1) S12-S18.
[15]. Obadia, K.B, and Shaldon, L.S. (2018)’’Opportunies of Urban Horticulture for Poverty Alleviation in Dar es Salaam city Tanzania ’’ Journal of Food, Nutrition and Agriculture 1(1) 12016.
[16]. Rachel, J. S. (2001) ‘’urban agriculture, gender and empowerment: An alternative view’’ Journal Development Southern Africa 18, (5) 635-650.
[17]. Rogerson, M.C.(1993)’’Urban agriculture in South Africa: Policy issues from the international experience’’ Journal of Development Southern Africa 10 (1) 33-44.
[18]. Sarah, T. L. (2010) ‘’Multifunctional Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Land Use Planning in the United States’’ Sustainability 2(8) 2499-2522
[19]. Saverio, M. F., and Finuccib, R.M. (2016)’’ Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia’’ Feeding the Cities Through Urban Agriculture The Community Esteem Value 8 ,128-134.
[20]. Viljoen, A., and Bohn, K. (2005)’’Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes: urban agriculture as an essential infrastructure’’ Urban Agriculture Magazine (15) 1571-6244, 34-36.
[21]. Webb, N.L. Urban Forum (1998) 9: 95. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03033131

Ubani Princewill, Iyowuna Jonah, Naabura Macwillian Kingdom “Environmental Benefits of Estate and Urban Green Architecture across Locations in Port Harcourt Conurbation, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp. 21-28 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/21-28.pdf

Download PDF


A Simulation of the Local Area Network Design for Use in the Department of Civil and Electrical/Electronics Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi Using the OSPF Routing Protocol

Peter A. Akor, Attai I. Abubakar, David Akhuwa – October 2019 Page No.: 29-33

This project deals with the open shortest path first (OSPF) design of a local area network (LAN) for use in the department of Electrical/Electronics and Civil Engineering using the Cisco Packet Tracer. The aim of this project is to allow systems and devices to be able to communicate with each other and should be able to provide desired information, to reduce isolated users and workgroups, physical systems and devices should be able to maintain and provide satisfactory performance, reliability and security, resource sharing. For these devices to communicate on different networks, the networks must be routed to each other. Therefore after routing is done the LAN will be tested using a ping message command to test whether the devices can communicate.

Page(s): 29-33                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 October 2019

 Peter A. Akor
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

 Attai I. Abubakar
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

 David Akhuwa
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

[1]. Peter A. Akor, Yilwatda M. Morkat, Attai I. Abubakar “Integrated Lan Design for the Department of Civil and Electrical/Electronics Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi Using the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol” International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science-IJLTEMAS vol.8 issue 9, September 2019, pp.58-62 URL: www.ijltemas.in/DigitalLibrary/Vol.8Issue9/58-62.pdf
[2]. Nathaniel S. Tarkaa, Paul I. Iannah, Isaac T. Iber, Design and Simulation of Local Area Network Using Cisco Packet Tracer. The International Journal of Engineering and Science, 10(6) 63- 77.
[3]. OSPF Design Guide – Cisco.html
[4]. Tim Reardon, Planning, Designing and operating local area networks, DISAM Journal, Summer, 1997.
[5]. Latisha, Sugand Rao Rathod, Comparison of Dynamic Routing Protocols: RIP and OSPF, International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) , 4( 6 ) 1530-1553

Peter A. Akor, Attai I. Abubakar, David Akhuwa “A Simulation of the Local Area Network Design for Use in the Department of Civil and Electrical/Electronics Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi Using the OSPF Routing Protocol” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.29-33 October 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/29-33.pdf

Download PDF


Pesticides Use and Safety Compliance among Rural Maize Farmers; A Case of the Sunyani West District, Ghana

Josephine Yalley – October 2019 Page No.: 34-61

This pragmatic case study research investigates pesticides use and compliance with the recommended safety measures among less educated rural small holding maize farmers in the Sunyani West District of Ghana. Three hundred and ninety maize farmers were sampled across about three farming zones involving 15 rural communities in the study District. The types of pesticides used by maize farmers, their frequency of use and the number of pesticides used on their maize farms per the farming season as against the recommended dosage were assessed. A five-point Likert scale was used to assess farmers’ awareness of the health implications of pesticides use and it was revealed that respondents were aware of the health implications of pesticides used in the study area. Also, a perception index used to assess the perception of farmers on the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) found that, farmers agree to the perception that the use of PPE is expensive and unavailable in the rural communities, financial status of rural farmers makes it difficult to purchase PPE for pesticide application and it is also important in pesticides application. However, respondents disagreed that PPEs cause discomfort to the user. A set of twelve compliance statements used to assess the extent of respondent’s compliance on the recommended safety measures also found that majority of farmers were in the medium to low compliance category indicating that there was evidence of low compliance of pesticides regulations among maize farmers in the Sunyani West District. Furthermore, the estimation of the ordered logit model revealed that primary, JHS/Middle, SHS/Technical and tertiary levels of education had a significant positive correlation on pesticides use. More so, farmer’s access to extension and credit facility was significant hence recorded a positive coefficient. This, therefore, implies that access to credit and access to an extension are also a significant determinant of pesticides compliance. The study therefore recommends that the government should support local industries to produce PPEs locally to make it more affordable and accessible. In addition to targeting the less educated farmers with innovative and effective flow of information dissemination and education on the proper use of pesticides.

Page(s): 34-61                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 October 2019

  Josephine Yalley
Faculty of Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

[1]. Abayomi, S. O. (2018). Cocoa Farmers’ Compliance with Safety Precautions in Spraying Agrochemicals and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in Cameroon.
[2]. Abdollahzadeh, G., Sharifzadeh, M. S., & Damalas, C. A. (2015). Perceptions of the beneficial and harmful effects of pesticides among Iranian rice farmers influence the adoption of biological control. Crop Protection, 75, 124-131.
[3]. Adesuyi, A. A., Longinus, N. K., Olatunde, A. M., & Chinedu, N. V. (2018). Pesticides related knowledge, attitude and safety practices among small-scale vegetable farmers in lagoon wetlands, Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development (JAEID), 112(1), 81-99.
[4]. Afari-Sefa, V., Asare-Bediako, E., Kenyon, L., & Micah, J. A. (2015). Pesticide use practices and perceptions of vegetable farmers in the cocoa belts of the Ashanti and Western Regions of Ghana. Advances in Crop Science and Technology, 1-10.
[5]. Afful, E. A. (2015). Sustainability assessment of rain-fed maize production systems in the Tano North District (Doctoral dissertation).
[6]. Ajayi, O. C., & Akinnifesi, F. K. (2007). Farmer’s understanding of pesticide safety labels and field spraying practices: a case study of cotton farmers in northern Cote d’Ivoire. Scientific Research and Essays, 2(6), 204-210.
[7]. Akoto, O., Andoh, H., Darko, G., Eshun, K., & Osei-Fosu, P. J. C. (2013). Health risk assessment of pesticides residue in maize and cowpea from Ejura, Ghana. 92(1), 67-73.
[8]. Aktar, W., Sengupta, D., & Chowdhury, A. (2009). Impact of pesticides used in agriculture: their benefits and hazards. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 2(1), 1–12. doi:10.2478/v10102-009-0001-7
[9]. Aldosari, F., Mubushar, M., & Baig, M. B. (2018). Assessment of Farmers Knowledge on Pesticides and Training on Pesticide Waste Management in Central Punjab–Pakistan. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences, 6(1), 168-175.
[10]. Alewu, B., & Nosiri, C. (2011). Pesticides and human health. In Pesticides in the Modern World-Effects of Pesticides Exposure. InTech.
[11]. Al-zain, B. F., & Mosalami, J. (2014). Pesticides usage, perceptions, practices and health effects among farmers in North Gaza, Palestine. Indian J Appl Res, 4(6), 17-22.
[12]. Al-zain, B., & Mosalami, J. (2014). Pesticides usage, perceptions, practices and health effects among farmers in North Gaza, Palestine. Indian J Appl Res, 4(6), 17-22.
[13]. Atreya, K. (2007). Pesticide use knowledge and practices: gender differences in Nepal. Environmental Research, 104(2), 305-311.
[14]. Ba, M. N. (2017). Competitiveness of Maize Value Chains for Smallholders in West Africa: Case of Benin, Ghana, and Cote D’Ivoire. Agricultural Sciences, 8(12), 1372.
[15]. Banerjee, I., Tripathi, S. K., Roy, A. S., & Sengupta, P. (2014). Pesticide use pattern among farmers in a rural district of West Bengal, India. Journal of natural science, biology, and medicine, 5(2), 313.
[16]. Bhalli, J. A., Ali, T., Asi, M. R., Khalid, Z. M., Ceppi, M., & Khan, Q. M. (2009). DNA damage in Pakistani agricultural workers exposed to a mixture of pesticides. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis, 50(1), 37-45.
[17]. Bhandari, G. (2014). An overview of agrochemicals and their effects on the environment in Nepal. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2(2), 66-73.
[18]. Biney, P. M. (2001). Pesticide use pattern and insecticide residue levels in tomato (lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) in some selected production systems in Ghana. University of Ghana,
[19]. Boland, J., Koomen, I., de Jeude, J. v. L., & Oudejans, J. (2004). AD29E Pesticides: compounds, use, and hazards: Agromisa Foundation.
[20]. Bulmer, M. (2017). Sociological research methods. Routledge.
[21]. Burns A, Burns R (2008) Basic marketing research (second edition). Pearson Education, New Jersey, p 245. ISBN 978-0-13-205958-9
[22]. CEC, (2006). Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Establishing a Framework for Community Action to Achieve a Sustainable Use of Pesticides. Commission of the European Communities. Brussels, 12 July 2006
[23]. Chennakrishnan, P. (2012). Maize production in India: fighting hunger and malnutrition. World, 163(823,965), 168-408.
[24]. Cooper, J., & Dobson, H. (2007). The benefits of pesticides to mankind and the environment. Crop Protection, 26(9), 1337-1348.
[25]. Cudjoe, A. R., Kyofa-Boamah, M., & Braun, M. (2002). Selected Fruit Crops (Mango, Papaya and Pineapple). Handbook of Crop Protection Recommended in Ghana, an IPM Approach, 60 63.
[26]. Dalvie, M., & English, R. (2013). 93 Review of the male reproductive health effects of hormonally active conventional agricultural pesticides used in South Africa. Occup Environ Med, 70(Suppl 1), A31-A31.
[27]. Damalas, C. A., & Abdollahzadeh, G. (2016). Farmers’ use of personal protective equipment during handling of plant protection products: determinants of implementation. Science of the Total Environment, 571, 730-736.
[28]. Danso-Abbeam, G., Bosiako, J. A., Ehiakpor, D. S., & Mabe, F. N. (2017). Adoption of improved maize variety among farm households in the northern region of Ghana. Cogent Economics & Finance, 5(1), 1416896.
[29]. Darfour, B., & Rosentrater, K. A. (2016). Maize in Ghana: an overview of cultivation to processing. In 2016 ASABE Annual International Meeting (p. 1). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.
[30]. Dethier, J.-J., & Effenberger, A. (2012). Agriculture and development: A brief review of the literature. Economic Systems, 36(2), 175-205.
[31]. Dey, K., Choudhury, P., & Dutta, B. (2013). Impact of pesticide use on the health of farmers: A study in Barak valley, Assam (India). Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 5(10), 269-277.
[32]. Ecobichon, D. J. (2001). Pesticide use in developing countries. Toxicology, 160(1-3), 27-33.
[33]. Eddleston, M., Karalliedde, L., Buckley, N., Fernando, R., Hutchinson, G., Isbister, G., Senanayake, N. J. T. L. (2002). Pesticide poisoning in the developing world – a minimum pesticides list. 360(9340), 1163-1167.
[34]. Environmental Protection Authority, (2006). Horticulture exports industry initiative (HEII) pesticide for horticulture production. Reference Guide. Buck Press, Accra. Pp.1-27.
[35]. Fait, A., Iversen, B., Visentin, S., Maroni, M., He, F., & World Health Organization. (2001). Preventing health risks from the use of pesticides in agriculture (No. WHO/SDE/OEH/01.8). Geneva: World Health Organization.
[36]. FAO. (1989). International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, Rome, Italy,
[37]. Fianko, J. R., Donkor, A., Lowor, S. T., & Yeboah, P. O. (2011). Agrochemicals and the Ghanaian environment, a review. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2(03), 221.
[38]. Franke, T. C., Kelsey, K. D., & Royer, T. A. (2009). Pest management needs assessment for Oklahoma canola producers. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Oklahoma State University.
[39]. García-García, C. R., Parrón, T., Requena, M., Alarcón, R., Tsatsakis, A. M., & Hernández, A. F. (2016). Occupational pesticide exposure and adverse health effects at the clinical, hematological and biochemical level. Life sciences, 145, 274-283.
[40]. Gatto, M. P., Fioretti, M., Fabrizi, G., Gherardi, M., Strafella, E., & Santarelli, L. (2014). Effects of potentially neurotoxic pesticides on hearing loss: A review. NeuroToxicology, 42, 24–32.doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2014.03.009
[41]. Ghana Statistical Service. (2014). Ghana Living Standards Survey Round 6 (GLSS 6): Labour Force Report.
[42]. Giddings, B., Hopwood, B., & O’Brien, G. 2002 ‘Environment, economy and society: fitting them together into sustainable development sustainable development 10, 187-196 DOI: 10.1002/sd.199
[43]. Ghisari, M., Long, M., Tabbo, A., & Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E. C. (2015). Effects of currently used pesticides and their mixtures on the function of thyroid hormone and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cell culture. Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 284(3), 292-303.
[44]. Greene, W. H. (2008). The econometric approach to efficiency analysis. The measurement of productive efficiency and productivity growth, 1(1), 92-250.
[45]. Haruna, A., Adu, G. B., Buah, S. S., Kanton, R. A., Kudzo, A. I., Seidu, A. M., & Kwadwo, O. A. (2017). Analysis of genotype by environment interaction for grain yield of intermediate maturing drought tolerant top-cross maize hybrids under rain-fed conditions. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 3(1), 1333243.
[46]. IFPRI (2014). International Food Policy Research Institute (Ghana Strategy Support Program, GSSP). Ghana Agricultural News Digest – September 8, 2014. New GSSP policy note prepared by Arhin, B.G
[47]. Imane, B., Mariam, A., Chakib, N., & Ahmed, Z. (2016). Pesticide Use Pattern among Farmers in a Rural District of Meknes: Morocco. Open Access Library Journal, 3(12), 1.
[48]. Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals, & World Health Organization. (2010). WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification 2009. World Health Organization.
[49]. IPCS, 2002. Antidotes for poisoning by organophosphorus pesticides. In: Monograph on Atropine. International Programme on Chemical Safety Evaluation, World Health Organization, Geneva
[50]. Jallow, M. F., Awadh, D. G., Albaho, M. S., Devi, V. Y., & Thomas, B. M. (2017). Pesticide knowledge and safety practices among farm workers in Kuwait: results of a survey. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(4), 340.
[51]. Jenkins, J. J., & Thomson, P. A. (1999). OSU Extension pesticide properties database.
[52]. Jin, J., Wang, W., He, R., & Gong, H. (2017). Pesticide use and risk perceptions among small-scale farmers in Anqiu County, China. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(1), 29.
[53]. Khan, M., Mahmood, H. Z., & Damalas, C. A. (2015). Pesticide use and risk perceptions among farmers in the cotton belt of Punjab, Pakistan. Crop Protection, 67, 184-190.
[54]. Kumari, P. L., & Reddy, K. G. (2013). Knowledge and practices of safe use of pesticides among farm workers. J Agr Veter Sci, 6(2), 1-8.
[55]. Kyofa-Boamah, M., &Blay, E. (2000). A Study on Pineapple Production and Protection Procedure in Ghana. Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Plant Protection and Regulatory Services Directorate, Accra, Ghana.
[56]. Lah, K. (2011). Effects of pesticides on human health. Toxipedia. Available from http://www. toxipedia. org/display/toxipedia/Effects+ of+ Pesticides+ on+ Human+ Health. Accessed Oct16, 2018
[57]. Lowe, I. (2008) ‘Shaping a sustainable future – an outline of the transition’, Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 247-254
[58]. Lichtenberg, E., & Zilberman, D. (1986). The econometrics of damage control: why specification matters. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 68(2), 261-273.
[59]. MacFarlane, E., Carey, R., Keegel, T., El-Zaemay, S., & Fritschi, L. (2013). Dermal exposure associated with the occupational end use of pesticides and the role of protective measures. Safety and Health at Work, 4(3), 136-141.
[60]. Mahmood, I., Imadi, S. R., Shazadi, K., Gul, A., & Hakeem, K. R. (2016). Effects of pesticides on the environment. In Plant, Soil and Microbes (pp. 253-269): Springer.
[61]. Messina, et al. 2014. Population Growth, Climate Change and Pressure on the Land – Eastern and Southern Africa. 99 pp. ISBN 978-0-9903005-0-2.
[62]. Mathur, H. B., Agarwal, H. C., Johnson, S., & Saikia, N. (2005). Analysis of pesticide residues in blood samples from villages of Punjab. Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, 1-24.
[63]. Mattah, M. M., Mattah, P. A., & Futagbi, G. (2015). Pesticide application among farmers in the catchment of Ashaiman irrigation scheme of Ghana: health implications. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2015.
[64]. Mehrpour, O., Karrari, P., Zamani, N., Tsatsakis, A. M., & Abdollahi, M. (2014). Occupational exposure to pesticides and consequences on male semen and fertility: a review. Toxicology Letters, 230(2), 146-156.
[65]. Mensah, E. D. (2015). Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticides and Atrazine Residues in Maize Produced in Ghana Using Gc-Ecd/Gc-Ms (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ghana).
[66]. Mihale, M., Deng, A., Selemani, H., Kamatenesi, M., Kidukuli, A., & Ogendo, J. (2009). Use of indigenous knowledge in the management of field and storage pests around Lake Victoria basin in Tanzania. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 3(9).
[67]. MoFA (2016). Agricultural Sector Progress Report. Ministry of Food and Agriculture; Monitoring and Evaluation Directorate. Retrieved from http://mofa.gov.gh/site/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Agric-Report_2016.pdf
[68]. MoFA (2011). Agriculture in Ghana: Facts and Figures. Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Accra.
[69]. Morris, M. L., Tripp, R., & Dankyi, A. (1999). Adoption and impacts of improved maize production technology: A case study of the Ghana Grains Development Project.
[70]. Mostafalou, S., & Abdollahi, M. (2013). Pesticides and human chronic diseases: evidence, mechanisms, and perspectives. Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 268(2), 157-177.
[71]. Mugenda, D. M., & Mugenda, D. (1999). Research Methods; Quantitative and Qualitative Research.
[72]. Musah, L. (2015). Assessing the factors influencing the adoption of bio-pesticides vegetable production in the Ashanti Region of Ghana (Doctoral dissertation).
[73]. NARP (1993) National Agricultural Research Project, Horticultural Crops. Volume-3, July 1993. NARP, CSIR, Accra
[74]. Negatu, B., Kromhout, H., Mekonnen, Y., & Vermeulen, R. (2016). Use of Chemical Pesticides in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional comparative study on Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of farmers and farm workers in three farming systems. The Annals of occupational hygiene, 60(5), 551-566.
[75]. Neghab, M., Momenbella-Fard, M., Naziaghdam, R., Salahshour, N., Kazemi, M., & Alipour, H. (2014). The effects of exposure to pesticides on the fecundity status of farm workers resident in a rural region of Fars province, southern Iran. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine, 4(4), 324-328.
[76]. Nesheim, O. N., & Whitney, S. P. (1989). Proper Disposal of Pesticide Wastes. Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
[77]. Ngidlo, R. T. (2013). Impacts of pesticides and fertilizers on soil, tail water and groundwater in three vegetable producing areas in the Cordillera Region, Northern Philippines. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 3(4), 780.
[78]. Northern Presbyterian Agricultural Services and Partners (NPAS) (2012). Ghana’s pesticide crisis; the need for further government action. Pp 50
[79]. NPIC, U. S. (2015). United States National Pesticide Information Center pesticide properties databases.
[80]. Ntow, W. J., Gijzen, H. J., Kelderman, P., & Drechsel, P. (2006). Farmer perceptions and pesticide use practices in vegetable production in Ghana. Pest Management Science: formerly Pesticide Science, 62(4), 356-365.
[81]. Ntow, W. J., Gijzen, H. J., Kelderman, P., & Drechsel, P. (2006). Farmer perceptions and pesticide use practices in vegetable production in Ghana. Pest Management Science: formerly Pesticide Science, 62(4), 356-365.
[82]. Obeng-Bio, E. (2010). Selection and ranking of local and exotic maize (Zea mays L.) genotype to drought stress in Ghana (Doctoral dissertation).
[83]. Oesterlund, A. H., Thomsen, J. F., Sekimpi, D. K., Maziina, J., Racheal, A., & Jørs, E. (2014). Pesticide knowledge, practice, and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda: a cross-sectional study. African health sciences, 14(2), 420-433.
[84]. Okoffo, E. D., Mensah, M., & Fosu-Mensah, B. Y. (2016). Pesticides exposure and the use of personal protective equipment by cocoa farmers in Ghana. Environmental Systems Research, 5(1), 17.
[85]. Oladejo, J. A., & Adetunji, M. O. (2012). Economic analysis of maize (Zea mays l.) production in the Oyo state of Nigeria. Agricultural Science Research Journals, 2(2), 77-83.
[86]. Omari, Y. I. (2011). Micronucleus analysis and mitotic index in a Jordanian population exposed to pesticides of organophosphate: malathion and chlorpyrifos. Caryologia, 64(2), 173-178.
[87]. Oyekale, A. (2017). Cocoa Farmers’safety Perception and Compliance with Precautions in the Use of Pesticides in Centre and Western Cameroon. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 15(3), 205-219.
[88]. Parhi, M. (2005). Diffusion of new technology in the Indian auto component industry: an examination of the determinants of adoption. UNU-INTECH Discussion Paper Series(8).
[89]. Parveen, S., & Nakagoshi, N. (2001). An analysis of pesticide use for rice pest management in Bangladesh. Journal of International Development and Cooperation, 8(1), 107-126.
[90]. Popp, J., Pető, K., & Nagy, J. (2013). Pesticide productivity and food security. A review. Agronomy for sustainable development, 33(1), 243-255.
[91]. Pretty, J. (Ed.). (2012). The pesticide detox: towards more sustainable agriculture. Earthscan.
[92]. Quinn, L. P., Fernandes-Whaley, M., Roos, C., Bouwman, H., Kylin, H., Pieters, R., & Van Den Berg, J. (2011). Pesticide use in South Africa: one of the largest importers of pesticides in Africa. In Pesticides in the Modern World-Pesticides Use and Management. InTech.
[93]. Ragasa, C., Dankyi, A., Acheampong, P., Wiredu, A. N., Chapoto, A., Asamoah, M., & Tripp, R. (2013). Patterns of adoption of improved rice technologies in Ghana. International Food Policy Research Institute Working Paper, 35, 6-8.
[94]. Ray A. S., & Modal J. (2017). Potential applications of various fungal and bacterial agents in decontamination of agricultural soils: An overview. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, e-ISSN: 2319-2380, p-ISSN: 2319-2372. Volume 10, Issue 3 Ver. II (March. 2017), PP 40-47.
[95]. Remoundou, K., Brennan, M., Hart, A., & Frewer, L. J. (2014). Pesticide risk perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of operators, workers, and residents: a review of the literature. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 20(4), 1113-1138.
[96]. Rewa, C (2002). Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Wildlife.
[97]. Rijal, J. P., Regmi, R., Ghimire, R., Puri, K. D., Gyawaly, S., & Poudel, S. (2018). Farmers’ Knowledge on Pesticide Safety and Pest Management Practices: A Case Study of Vegetable Growers in Chitwan, Nepal. Agriculture, 8(1), 16.
[98]. Shiferaw, B., Prasanna, B. M., Hellin, J., & Bänziger, M. (2011). Crops that feed the world 6. Past successes and future challenges to the role played by maize in global food security. Food Security, 3(3), 307.
[99]. Sosan, M. B., & Akingbohungbe, A. E. (2009). Occupational insecticide exposure and perception of safety measures among cacao farmers in Southwestern Nigeria. Archives of environmental & occupational health, 64(3), 185-193.
[100]. SRID-MoFA. (2011). Statistics Research and Information Directorate (SRID), “Agriculture in Ghana: Facts and Figures”, May 2011.
[101]. Stadlinger, N., Mmochi, A. J., Dobo, S., Gyllbäck, E., & Kumblad, L. (2011). Pesticide use among smallholder rice farmers in Tanzania. Environment, Development, and Sustainability, 13(3), 641-656.
[102]. Strong, L. L., Thompson, B., Koepsell, T. D., & Meischke, H. (2007). Factors associated with pesticide safety practices in farmworkers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 51(1), 69–81.doi:10.1002/ajim.20519
[103]. Thundiyil, J. G., Stober, J., Besbelli, N., & Pronczuk, J. (2008). Acute pesticide poisoning: a proposed classification tool. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 86, 205-209.
[104]. VOTO (2015). A Complete Curriculum and Guide to Maize Production in Ghana. Retrieved from http://agricinghana.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/maize-production-guide-ghana-2016.pdf
[105]. Wang, J., Chu, M., & Ma, Y. (2018). Measuring Rice Farmer’s Pesticide Overuse Practice and the Determinants: A Statistical Analysis Based on Data Collected in Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces of China. Sustainability, 10(3), 677.
[106]. World Health Organization. (1999). Food safety: An essential public health issue for the new millennium. In Food safety: an essential public health issue for the new millennium.
[107]. World Health Organization. (2010). Multidrug and extensively drug-resistant TB(M/XDR-TB):global report on surveillance and Response.
[108]. Wuensch, K. L. (2005). What is a Likert scale? and how do you pronounce Likert?’. East Carolina University, 4.
[109]. Yamane, T. (1967) Statistics. An Introductory Analysis. 2nd Edition, Harper and Row, New York.
[110]. Yuantari, M. G., Van Gestel, C. A., Van Straalen, N. M., Widianarko, B., Sunoko, H. R., & Shobib, M. N. (2015). Knowledge, attitude, and practice of Indonesian farmers regarding the use of personal protective equipment against pesticide exposure. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 187(3), 142.
[111]. Zseleczky, L., Christie, M. E., & Haleegoah, J. (2014). Embodied livelihoods and tomato farmers’ gendered experience of pesticides in Tuobodom, Ghana. Gender, Technology, and Development, 18(2), 249-274.

Josephine Yalley “Pesticides Use and Safety Compliance among Rural Maize Farmers; A Case of the Sunyani West District, Ghana” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.34-61 October 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/34-61.pdf

Download PDF


Professional Development of Teachers
Saman Karim (CPE) – October 2019 – Page No.: 62-64

Professional development refers to the development of a person in his or her professional role. Educator advancement is the expert development an instructor accomplishes because of increasing expanded involvement and inspecting his or her educating method (Glatthorn, 1995, P. 41). The conception of professional development is therefore, broader than career development, which is defined as “The growth that occurs as the teacher moves through the professional career cycle” (Glatthorn, 1995, P. 41). Today, societies as engaging in building serious educational reforms and one of the key element o these reforms is the professional development of teachers. Societies are finally acknowledging that teachers are not only one of the variables that need to be changed in order to improve their education system, but they are also the most important change agents in these reforms.
In my view and as this paper reinforces great training strategies have critical positive effect on how and what students learn. Learning how to teach and working to become excellent teacher, is a long – term process that requires not only the development of very practical and complex skills under the guidance and supervision experts.

Page(s): 62-64                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 October 2019

 Saman Karim (CPE)
Aga Khan University, Institute for Educational Development, Karachi, Pakistan

References are not available.

Saman Karim (CPE) “Professional Development of Teachers” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.62-64 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/62-64.pdf

Download PDF


Psychometric Exploration of Congruence between Examinee Ambition and Performance in the Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) In Uasin Gishu County, Kenya
Chege Kimani Gabriel – October 2019 – Page No.: 65-68

According to Kenya’s Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (2008), there is poor management of national examinations. Cases of cheating in national examinations due to poor management of the processes- where leaked papers give some students and schools an unfair advantage over others – have become commonplace. Yet, placement to university is based on national exams. Developed countries use aptitude tests to make placement decisions. Such tests may be proposed for adoption in Kenya but only after establishing their relevance. The purpose of the study was to determine the possible relevance of such tests and in this particular study the researcher sought to find out whether the test taker’s ambition (for higher education) was significantly related to his/her performance in the Scholastic achievement testamong Kenyan students. The null hypothesis HO: There is no significant relationship between the examinee’s ambitions for higher education and performance in the Scholastic Achievement Test was tested. The study adopted the Ex-post facto research design. The target population comprised all the 2469 form four students in the twenty four (24) secondary schools in Eldoret town from which eight (8) schools were sampled using the stratified random sampling technique and a sample of 240 students was selected purposively from the eight (8) schools. The data was collected using a past Scholastic Achievement Test. The study data was analysed using ANOVA and it was conducted using SPSS 17 version 22 with the level of significance being α = 0.05. The Null hypothesis was rejected implying that there is a significant relationship between the examinee’s ambition for higher education and their performance in the Scholastic achievement test. Those with high ambition possess a high academic aptitude as indicated by their SAT scores. The implication of the results is that the SAT is unlikely to identify an examinee as having an aptitude for higher education and yet the individual has no ambition or interest in the same. Concerning the examinee ambition therefore, the study recommends that the test of aptitude be considered for adoption because it can be useful in Kenya in placing students who are keen to study further and who would not drop out due to lack of interest.

Page(s): 65-68                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 October 2019

 Chege Kimani Gabriel
Moi University, Kenya

[1]. Allen worth, E., Macarena, C. & Steve, P. (2008). From High School to the Future: ACT Preparation – Too Much, Too Late. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[2]. Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (2008). Radical Reforms for Kenya’s Education Sector: Implementing Policies Responsive to Vision 2030. Nairobi: Government Printers.
[3]. Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International Publishers Ltd.
[4]. Messick, S. & Ann, J. (1981). Time and Method in Coaching for the SAT. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.
[5]. Mugenda, O.M. & Mugenda, A.G. (1999). Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Nairobi: Acts Press.
[6]. National Association for College Admission Counseling. (1995). Recommendations of the Commission on the Role of Standardized Testing in College Admission. New York: Author.
[7]. National Association for College Admission Counseling. (2008). NACAC Commission on the Use of Standardized Tests: ACT’s Response and Recommendations Regarding the Critical Issue Areas Identified by the Commission. New York: Author.
[8]. Nitko, A. J. (2004). Educational Assessment of Students (3rd ed.) New Jersey: Merrill Prentice-Hall.
[9]. Slack, W. V. & Douglas, P. (1980). The Scholastic Aptitude Test: A Critical Appraisal. Harvard Educational Review, 50(2), 154-175.

Chege Kimani Gabriel “Psychometric Exploration of Congruence between Examinee Ambition and Performance in the Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) In Uasin Gishu County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp. 65-68 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/65-68.pdf

Download PDF


A Study of Infrastructure and Utilities on Residential Estate Development in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria

Hassan, Yakubu O.; Awotungase Abayomi S.; Olaitan, Peter A.; Adewunmi, Olamilekan; Talabi, Ibukun J. – October 2019 Page No.: 69-78

The study characterize residential estate development Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria, a case study of Ayangburen Jubilee Estate; it review the development policy framework in the study area; examining the implication of high density residential development on infrastructure provision in the study area, and explore appropriate planning interventions for a sustainable housing utilities and infrastructure with the corresponding development in the study area. Having analyzed the current state and possible future scenarios, this study identified population and development control, physical infrastructure upgrade, Sustainable designs, policy review, Green infrastructure integration and public participation as possible intervention and recommendations to help halt and reverse the negative changes in the study area.

Page(s): 69-78                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 October 2019

 Hassan, Yakubu O.
Post Graduate Student, Department Urban and Regional Planning, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria

 Awotungase Abayomi S.
Lecturer, Department Architecture Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Nigeria

 Olaitan, Peter A.
Lecturer, Department Urban and Regional Planning, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Nigeria

 Adewunmi, Olamilekan
Lecturer, Department Urban and Regional Planning, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Nigeria

 Talabi, Ibukun J.
Lecturer, Department Architecture Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Nigeria

[1]. Abdul Ghani, S., & Nurwati, B. (2012). Quality of Life of Residents in Urban Neighbourhoods of Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 17(2), 117–123.
[2]. Acioly, C., & Forbes, D. (1996). Density in Urban Development. Building issues 3. . Lund University, Sweden: Lund Centre for Habitat studies.
[3]. Ahmed, A., & Dinye, R. D. (2011). Urbanization and the challenges of development control in Ghana: A case study of Wa Township. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 13(7).
[4]. Asoka, W., Thuo, D., & M., B. (2013). Effects of population growth on urban Infrastructure and services. A case study of Eastleigh neighborhood Nairobi. Nairobi: Unpublished thesis, Kenyatta University.
[5]. Ayoola, A. B., Kemiki, O. A., Adeniran, A. A., & Abdulkareem, S. (2017). ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLDS’ SATISFACTION WITH NEIGHBOURHOOD FACILITIES IN SELECTED RESIDENTIAL LOCATIONS OF MINNA URBAN. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315651445.
[6]. Baross, P. (1990). Sequencing Land Development: The Price Implications of Legal and Illegal Settlement Growth. In B. Pal, & L. Jan van der, The Transformation of Land Supply Systems in Third World Cities (pp. 57-82 ). Gower: Aldershot.
[7]. Bhatta, B. (2010). Analysis of urban growth and sprawl from remote sensing data (6 ed.). New York, NY:: Springer.
[8]. Boakye, B. K. (1997). Environmental Issues in Urban Management. National Development Planning Bulletin.
[9]. Campbell, K. (2001). Rethinking Open Space, Open space Provision and Management: A Way Forward, Report presented by Scottish Executive Central Research Unit. Edinburgh Scotland,UK.: Scottish Executive Central Research Unit.
[10]. Chiara, G., & Valentina, M. P. (2018). Evaluating urban quality: Indicators and assessment tools for smart sustainable cities. Journal of Sustainability, 10(575), 1-18. doi:doi:10.3390/su10030575
[11]. Chipungu, L. (2011). Insights into urban development control challenges: A case study of Operation Murambatsvina/Restore Order in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe: The Built & Human Environment Review.
[12]. CNN. (2008). Urban densification: creating space to live. Available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/asiapcf/12/03/eco.denseliving.
[13]. Dangschat, J., Kratochwil, S., & Mann, A. (2003). On a theory of urban sprawl and Sprawling. Vienna: URBS PANDENS Working Paper. Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Sociology for Spatial Planning and Architecture (ISRA).
[14]. Dunphy, R. (2005). Smart Growth and transportation: Issues and Lessons Learned. Washington D.C : Transportation Research Board.
[15]. Essein, G. A. (2009). Development Control as a Tool for Sustainable Management of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 13(7).
[16]. Goncalves, J., & Umakoshi, E. (2010). The Environmental performance of Tall buildings. London, UK: Earth scan Publication Ltd.
[17]. Hague, E., Giordano, B., & Sebesta, E. (2005). Whiteness, multiculturalism and nationalist Appropriation of Celtic culture: the case of the League of the South and the Lega Nord. Cultural Geographies(12), 151-173.
[18]. James, P. e. (2013). Managing Metropolises by Negotiating Mega-Urban Growth. UK.: Routledge.
[19]. Kasuku, S. (2001). Provision of Pedestrian Transport Facilities in Nairobi; The Case of Jogoo Road Corridor. Nairobi: unpublished Thesis: University of Nairobi, Kenya.
[20]. Keeble, L. (1972). Town Planning Made Plain. London and New York: Construction Press.
[21]. Khalid, A.-H. (2008). Towards a Sustainable Neighborhood: The Role of Open Spaces Archnet-IJAR. International Journal of Architectural Research(2).
[22]. Kinyua, S. K. (2010). Sustainable Housing densification in Nairobi. A case study of Kileleshwa Estate. Nairobi: Unpublished M.A Thesis, University of Nairobi.
[23]. Kiri, B. (2015). Neighbourhood Sustainability Assessment: Connecting Impact with Policy Intent. 699 Research Project Submitted to Simon Fraser University, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master in Resource Management (Planning).
[24]. Landry, C. (2008). 2008. The Creative City: A toolkit for Urban Innovators. London: Earthscan.
[25]. Mike, H. (2013). Facilitating neighbourhood plans: the infrastructure challenge. http://www.rtpi.org.uk/item/5169: MICHAEL HAYES CONSULTING.
[26]. Morakinyo, K. O., Okunola, A. S., Musibau, L., ODEWANDE, A. G., & Dada, O. (2014). An Assessment of Housing Infrastructural Provision in Public Housing: A Case Study of Bashorun Housing Estate Akobo, Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Civil and Environmental Research, 6(12), 102-113.
[28]. Myrdal, G. (1974). What is Development? Association for Evolutionary Economics.
[29]. Newman, P., & Kenworthy, J. R. (1999). Sustainability and Cities: overcoming automobile dependence. Washington DC: Island Press.
[30]. Niemela, J. (2011). Urban Ecology: Patterns, Processes and Application. New York: Oxford University Press.
[31]. Ogundele, F. O. (2011). Challenges and prospects of physical development control: A case study of Festac Town, Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations.
[32]. Okpala, D. (2009). Regional Overview of the Status of Urban Planning and Planning Practice In Anglophone (Sub-Saharan) African Countries: Regional study prepared for Revisiting Urban Planning: Global Report on Human Settlements. Nairobi: UN-HABITAT.
[33]. Pacione, M. (2007). Urban Geography: A Global Perspective. Oxford: Taylor & Francis.
[34]. Royuela, D. (2013). Malthus living in a slum: Urban concentration, infrastructures and economicgrowth. Barcelona.
[35]. Sanderson, D. (2000). Cities: Disasters and Livelihoods. Environment and Urbanization, 12(2), 93-102.
[36]. Seers, D. (1967). The Meaning of Development. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.
[37]. Szirmai, A. (2005). The Dynamics of Socio-Economic Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[38]. Tan, Y., Md., K., & Suharto, T. (2015). Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment: Evaluating Residential Development Sustainability in a Developing Country Context. Journal of Sustainability(7), 2570-2602. doi:doi:10.3390/su7032570
[39]. The Young Foundation. (2010). How can neighbourhoods be understood and defined? Birmingham: The Young Foundation.
[40]. Wit, P., & Verheye, W. (2010). Land use planning for sustainable development. (Vol. III). Encyclopaedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS).
[41]. Yhdego, M. (1986). Physical Infrastructure Improvement for Squatter Upgrading in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Ardhi Institute.

Hassan, Yakubu O.; Awotungase Abayomi S.; Olaitan, Peter A.; Adewunmi, Olamilekan; Talabi, Ibukun J. “A Study of Infrastructure and Utilities on Residential Estate Development in Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.69-78 October 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/69-78.pdf

Download PDF


Modelling and Optimisation of Water Melon Seed Protein Isolate Coag-flocculation of Nworie River Water

Anagwu Festus Ifeanyi, Onukwuli Okechukwu Dominic, Menkiti Matthew Chukwudi, Obiora-Okafo Ifeoma Amaoge, Emurigho Tega Anthony, Ofoluwanyo Rosemary – October 2019 Page No.: 79-89

Treatment of surface water by coagulation/flocculation was investigated in this research using protein isolate of water melon seed known as Water Melon Coagulant (WMC) with the aim of removing turbidity and colour in the water sample. Bench-scale nephelometric jar tests were performed to remove turbidity and colour from the water sample collected from Nworie River (NR) in Owerri, Imo state, Nigeria. Process factors were initially varied to investigate their effects on the coagulation/flocculation process adopting one-factor-at-a-time approach. Thereafter, the experiment was designed within a narrower region of search for optimality of the process variables. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed in the experimental design, adopting the rotatable Central Composite Design (CCD) option. ANOVA results showed that turbidity and colour removal efficiencies in WMC-in-NR system are well represented by quadratic models. The turbidity removal efficiency model yielded p-value of 0.0001 at 5 % significance level, coefficient of determination,  of 0.9563 and adjusted  of 0.9126. The adequate precision, representing the signal-to-noise ratio was found to be 14.976, sufficiently above the benchmark of 4. This implies that the quadratic model can be used within the range of variables in the design space. The coefficient of variance which indicates the ratio of the standard error of estimate to the mean value of the observed model was reasonably low at 2.79 %. This value is well below the required maximum of 10 %, clearly pointing to the reproducibility of the models. For colour removal efficiency model, the indices used for the judgement were p-value of 0.0001 as obtained,  of 0.9879, adjusted  of 0.9759, signal-to-noise ratio of 35.692 and coefficient of variance of 2.10. Process optimization results gave optimal process parameters values of 250 mg/l dosage, pH of 7.26 and 35 minutes settling time. At this point, the optimal turbidity and colour removal efficiencies were 94.87 % and 84.66 % respectively. It is concluded that while water melon-derived coagulant is very effective in the removal of turbidity and colour from surface water, the process at room temperature is described by a quadratic model.

Page(s): 79-89                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 October 2019

 Anagwu Festus Ifeanyi
Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri, Nigeria

 Onukwuli Okechukwu Dominic
Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Menkiti Matthew Chukwudi
Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Obiora-Okafo Ifeoma Amaoge
Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Emurigho Tega Anthony
Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri, Nigeria

 Ofoluwanyo Rosemary
Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri, Nigeria

[1]. AC-Chukwuocha, N., Ngah, S. A. & Chukwuocha, A. C. (2017). Vulnerability Studies of Sensitive Watershed Areas of Owerri South East Nigeria Using Digital Elevation Models. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 5(5), 1-10. doi: 10.4236/gep.2017.510001.
[2]. Ahmadi, M., Vahabzadeh, F., Bonakdarpour, B., Mofarrah, E. & Mehranian, M. (2005). Application of the central composite design and response surface methodology to the advanced treatment of olive oil processing wastewater using Fenton’s peroxidation. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 123, 187-195.
[3]. American Water Works Association (AWWA). (2005). Standard Methods for the examination of water and waste water effluent. New York, U.S.A.
[4]. Anagwu, F. I., Ifegbo, A. N. & Onukwuli, O. D. (2016). Elements of chemical engineering unit operations 1. Elech Publichers, Ihugba St., Owerri, Nigeria.
[5]. Ani, J. U., Menkiti, M. C, & Onukwuli O. D. (2009). Coagulation and flocculation behaviour of snail/shell coagulant in fibre-cement plant effluent. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 67(2).
[6]. Babayemi, K. A, & Onukwuli, O.D. (2015). Phosphate removal from phosphorus containing wastewater by coagulation/flocculation process using Gossypium spp. (GS) as coagulant.Current Advances in Environmental Science, 3(1), 1-5.
[7]. Babayemi, K. A., Onukwuli, O. D. & Okewale, A. O. (2013). Coag-Flocculation of Phosphorus Containing Waste Water Using Afzella-Africana Biomass. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology 3(6).
[8]. Elkanem, K. V., Chukwuma, G. O. & Ubah J. I. (2016). Determination of the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Effluent Discharged From Abattoir. International Journal of Science and Science and 5(2).
[9]. Ghafari, S., Aziz, H. A., Isa, M. H. & Zinatizadeh, A. A. (2009). Application of response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize coagulation-flocculation treatment of leachate using poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) and alum. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 163, 650-656.
[10]. Ibrahim, O., Odoh, R. & Onyebuchi, N. J. (2012). Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Surrounding Environment. Archives of Applied Science Research, 4(1), 406-413.
[11]. Martínez-Maqueda, D., Hernández-Ledesma, B., Amigo, L., Miralles, B. & Gómez-Ruiz, J. A. (2013). Extraction/Fractionation Techniques for Proteins and Peptides and Protein Digestion. In:Toldra F., NolletL. (eds.) Proteomics in Foods. Food Microbiology and Food Safety, 2. Springer, Boston, MA.doi: 10. 1007/978-1-4614-5626-1_2.
[12]. McLachlan, D. R. C. (1995). Aluminium and the Risk for alzheimer’s disease. Environmetrics, 6, 233–275.
[13]. Menkiti, M. C. & Onukwuli, O. D. (2011b). Coag-flocculation studies of Afzelia bella coagulant (ABC) in coal effluent using single and simulated multi angle nephelometry. Journal of Mineral and Material Characterisation and Engineering, 10(3), 279-298.
[14]. Menkiti, M. C., Aneke, M. C., Ogbuene, E. B,, Onukwuli, O. D. & Ekumankama, E. O. (2012). Optimal Evaluation of Coag-flocculation Factors for Alum-Brewery Effluent System by Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, 11(5), 543-558.
[15]. Menkiti, M. C., Nnaji, P.C., Nwoye, C. I. & Onukwuli, O. D. (2010). Coag-flocculation kinetics and functional parameters response of mucuna coagulant to pH variation in organic rich coal effluent medium. Journal of Mineral and Material Characterisation and Engineering, 9(2), 89-103.
[16]. Menkiti, M. C., Nnaji, P.C & Onukwuli, O. D. (2009). Coag-flocculation kinetics and functional parameters response of Periwinkle shell coagulant (PSC) to pH variation in organic rich coal effluent medium. Nature and Science, 7(6).
[17]. Menkiti, M. C. & Onukwuli, O. D. (2011a). Coag-flocculation of Mucuna seed coag-flocculant (MSC) in coal washery effluent (CWE) using light scattering effects. AICHE Journal, 57(5).
[18]. Mohammad, H. M., Bijan, B., Mahnaz, N. & Hossein, M. A. (2009). Effectiveness of chitosan as natural coagulant aid in removal of turbidity and bacteria from turbid waters.Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 7(3), 845-850.
[19]. Montgomery, J. M. (1985). Water treatment principles and design. John Wiley and sons Inc.
[20]. Muhammad, I. M., Abdulsalam, S., Abdulkarim, A. & Bello, A. A. (2015). Water Melon Seed as a Potential Coagulant for Water Treatment;Global Journal of Researches in Engineering: Chemical Engineering, 15(1).
[21]. Ndabigengesere, A. & Narasiah, K. S. (1998). Quality of water treated by coagulation using Moringa oleifera seeds. Water Res., 32(3), 781-791.
[22]. Nougbode, Y. A. E. I., Sessou, P., Alassane, A., Youssao, A. K. A., Agbangnan, C. P, Mama D. & Sohounhloue K. C. D. (2016). Evaluation of Aloe vera leaf gel as a Natural Flocculant: Phytochemical Screening and Turbidity removal Trials of water by Coagulation flocculation.Research Journal of Recent Sciences,5(1), 9-15.
[23]. Okoro, B. C., Uzoukwu, R. A. & Ademe, C. K. (2016). Investigation of Surface Water Quality in Owerri Municipal, Imo State, Nigeria for Human Consumption.ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 11(13).
[24]. Onyekuru, S. O., Okereke, C. N., Ibeneme, S. I., Nnaji, A. O., Akaolisa, C. Z., Ahiarakwem, C. A., Ibecheozo, M. O. & Ukiwe, L. N. (2014). An Evaluation of the Spatial Distributions of the Physico-Chemical and Microbial Contents of Nworie River in Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria.British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 4(25), 3687-3700.
[25]. Sharma, P., Singh, L. & Dilbaghi, N. (2009). Optimisation of process variables variables for decolorisation of disperse yellow 211 by Bacillus subtilis using Box-Behnken design. J. Hazard Matter, 164, 1024 – 1029.
[26]. Ugonabo, V. I., Menkiti, M. C. & Onukwuli, O. D. (2016). Micro-Kinetics Evaluation of Coag-flocculation Factors for Telfairia occidentalis Seed Biomass in Pharmaceutical Effluent System.Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 3(3), 574-589.
[27]. United Nations Environment Programme, the Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council and the World Health Organization. (1997).Water Pollution Control – A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles: Case Study IV* – Nigeria. E. & F. Spon.
[28]. Water Specialist Technology (WST). (2003). About coagulation and flocculation. Information Bulletins, U.S.A, pp 1-10.
[29]. World Health Organisation (WHO). (2011). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 4th Edition. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

Anagwu Festus Ifeanyi, Onukwuli Okechukwu Dominic, Menkiti Matthew Chukwudi, Obiora-Okafo Ifeoma Amaoge, Emurigho Tega Anthony, Ofoluwanyo Rosemary “Modelling and Optimisation of Water Melon Seed Protein Isolate Coag-flocculation of Nworie River Water” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.79-89 October 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/79-89.pdf

Download PDF


The Impact of Indian Banking Sector- A Comparative Study of Public and Private Sector Merged Banks- A Study
Dr. V.Venkateswara Rao, D.Pushpa Sri – October 2019 – Page No.: 90-94

Indian economy is known for its perseverance, over the years it has faced continuous fluctuation, global economic depressions and recent reforms of the Government with ease. The Indian Banking sector has its own reputation in the international level for maintaining its stability, even though the global economic environment and the emerging trends in financial sector pose challenges. A merger is simply the combining of two business entities to form a larger one but with no explicit change in ownership. This is in contrast to an acquisition where one business entity takes ownership control over another by paying for the ownership privilege in cash, stock, or other means. In the case of state owned banks that are being merged now, where the government is the majority shareholder, there will be no change in ownership but merely a restructuring of how these banks how these banks are organized.
Today, the Banking industry is counted among the rapidly growing industries in India. It has transformed itself from a sluggish business entity to a dynamic industry. The growth rate in this sector is remarkable and therefore, it has become the most preferred banking destinations for international investors. A relatively new dimension in the Indian banking industry is accelerated through mergers and acquisitions. It will enable banks to achieve world class status and throw greater value to the stakeholders. The main objective of this paper is to analyze whether the bank has achieved financial performance efficiency during the post merger & acquisition period specifically in the areas of profitability, leverage, liquidity, and capital market standards. This study is testing the impact of merger and acquisition of banks and provides insights about their role in performance.

Page(s): 90-94                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 October 2019

 Dr. V.Venkateswara Rao
Professor in Management, PACE Institute of Technology & Sciences, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh, India

 D.Pushpa Sri
Assistant Professor, Department of MBA, PACE Institute of Technology & Sciences, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh, India

[1]. A.N. Tamragundi, Devarajappa S. ( 2016) Impact of Mergers on Indian Banking sector – A compative study of publis and private sector merged Banks, International Journal of Research in Management, social sciences & technology , ISSN 2320-2039 Vol. 13 .
[2]. Jayashree R Kotanal (2018) The Economic impact of merger and acquisition on profitability of SBI : ISSN on line 2394-5869. Impact factor 5.2. 810-818.
[3]. Prasanth Athma, A. Bhavani ( 2016) Mergers in Banking sector in India- An Analysis of pre-post merger performance of SBI & HDFC Bank. IOSR journals of Business management (IOSR-JBM)
[4]. M. JayaDev, Rudra Sensarma ( 2017) Mergers in Indian banking: An Analysis; https://www.researchgate.net.publication.
[5]. Gurbaksh Singh, Sunil Gupta (2015) “An Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on Productivity and Profitability of consolidation of Banking sector in India” Volume 4 Issue 9 ( September, 2016)
[6]. Positive and Negative Implications and Consequences of Mergers . www.allbankingsolutions.com
[7]. How the Bank of Boroda, Vijaya Bank and Dena bank merger will impact you.
[8]. www.thehindubusinessline.com 25 April 2018.
[9]. cabinet approves merger of vijaya bank, Dena bank with Bank of Baroda.
[10]. https://www.businesstoday.in
[11]. Bank merger news-livemint https://www.livemint.in
[12]. The Hindu September 8, 2019.
[13]. http://www.mergersandacquisitions.in
[14]. http://www.mergersindia.com/mergeronline.
[15]. http://www.moneycontrol.com .
[16]. http://akpinsight.webs.com/Azeem%20Ahmad%20Khan.pdf

Dr. V.Venkateswara Rao, D.Pushpa Sri “The Impact of Indian Banking Sector- A Comparative Study of Public and Private Sector Merged Banks- A Study” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.90-94 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/90-94.pdf

Download PDF


Teachers’ Views on Use of ICT in Facilitating Teaching and Learning in Tanzania

Shima Dawson Banele – October 2019 Page No.: 95-101

Teachers’ views replicate readiness and attitudes which could be taken in introducing any new education intervention in this instance ICT use in facilitating teaching and learning. Tanzania Secondary School teachers had different views greenlight the acceptance or rejection of ICT in classroom practices. Explanatory descriptive design was followed in conducting the study at Kibaha district, Pwani Region, Tanzania. Interpretivist paradigm was followed in getting the meaning through interpretation of teachers’ opinions as was originated from themselves. The study elements involved 25 teachers’ selected using probability simple randomly technique to form 5 groups each comprised 5 elements to collect qualitative data which were thematically analyzed.

Page(s): 95-101                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 October 2019

 Shima Dawson Banele
The Open University of Tanzania, Faculty of Education, P.O. Box 23409, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

[1]. Cavas, B., (2009). A study on Science Teacher’s Attitudes toward Information and Communication Technologies in Education. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 20-32.
[2]. Cohen, D. and H. Hill (2001). Learning Policy: When State Education Reform Works. New Haven: Yale University Press.
[3]. Hamidi, F., Meshkat, M., Rezaee, M., &Jafari, M. (2011). Information Technology in Education. Procedia Computer Science, 3, 369-373.
[4]. Lu, Z., Hou, L and Huang, X., (2010). Research on a Student-Centered Teaching Model in an ICT based English Audio-Video Speaking Class. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, vol. 6, pp.101-123.
[5]. Piaget, J. (1964). Development and Learning. In R. E. Ripple & V. N. Rockcastle (Eds.), Piaget rediscovered: A Report of the Jean Piaget Conferences at Cornell University and the University of California Ithaca, NY: Cornell University pp. 7-20.
[6]. Steel, C. (2009). Reconciling university teacher beliefs to create learning designs for LMS.
[7]. Tanzania Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (2003).National Information and Communication Technologies Policy for basic education. Retrieved on 12 August 2019 from www.moe.go.tz/pdf/ICT%20Policy%20for%20Basic%20Education.pdf
[8]. Tyack, D. and L. Cuban (1995). Tinkering toward Utopia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
[9]. UNESCO. (2008). ICT Competency Standards for Teachers – Implementation Guidelines, Version 1.0. Retrieved 29th September 2019. From http://www.unesco.org/en/competency-standards-teachers
[10]. The United Republic of Tanzania. (2007). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy for basic education. ICT for Improved Education. Dar es Salaam: Ministry of Education and Vocational Training. Retrieved on 18 July 2019 from http://www.moe.go.tz/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=226&Itemid=619

Shima Dawson Banele, “Teachers’ Views on Use of ICT in Facilitating Teaching and Learning in Tanzania” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.95-101 October 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/95-101.pdf

Download PDF


Output Growth Decomposition in Nigeria Agriculture: An Econometric Analysis 1960-2018
Olufunke O. Ilemobayo – October 2019 – Page No.: 102-107

Nigerian agriculture has relied on land area expansion and not optimal land use, due to population pressure. Thus agricultural production has moved into marginal lands, characterized by poor output. There is however a paucity of research on output growth as most studies emphasized only production. Hence output growth decomposition in Nigeria agriculture were investigated. Secondary data were sourced from FAOSTAT covering 1960 to 2018.Variables used include agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP), land, labour, fertilizer and tractors. Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test was carried out on stationary dataset. Stochastic Frontier Model, Output Decomposition and Multiple Regression Models at 0.05 was used. ADF tests indicated that variables were not stationary at their level but became stationary at first difference, output at 5% and others at 1%, indicating no spurious regression results. Key parameters of the stochastic function were positively significant. Fertilizer had 0.2376, land 0.2234, labour 0.2032 and tractors 0.1681. Agricultural production showed decreasing return to scale having a coefficient of 0. 8283, and inefficiency level with Technical inefficiency (TEI) of 0.1754. Output growth rate was 3.52(100%), it was decomposed into input growth contributed (14.8%, TFP contributed 62.8%, and residual added 22.4%.

Page(s): 102-107                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 October 2019

 Olufunke O. Ilemobayo
Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

[1]. Ahmad, M. And B.E . Bravo-Uretta (1995) AnEconometric Decomposition of Dairy Output Growth.’ American Journal of Agricultural Economics; 77, 914-21
[2]. Al-hassan S. (2012). Technical Efficiency in Smallholder Paddy Farms in Ghana: An Analysis Based on Different Farming Systems and Gender. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development Vol., 3, No.5, 2012
[3]. Battese GE, Coelli TJ (1995). A model for technical inefficiency effects in a stochastic frontier production function for panel data. Empirical Econ. 20: 325-332.
[4]. Bravo-Ureta B. E. and Rieger L.1991. Dairy Farm Efficiency Measuremen Using`Stochastic Frontiers and Neoclassical Duality, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 73,Issue 2, Pages 421- 428.
[5]. Brown L. R(1995). State of the World, 1995. World watch Institute report on progress toward a sustainable society, [compiled by] Lester R. Brown, Christopher Flavin, Hilary F.French, Linda Starke, Derek Denniston, Hal Kane, Nicholas Lenssen, Michael Renner, David Malin Roodman, Megan Ryan. New York, New York, W.W. Norton,1995. 3-20.
[6]. Central Bank of Nigeria CBN (2014). Real Sector Developments; Central Banks of Nigeria Annual Reports.
[7]. Daramola, G.B. (2014) Keynote Address: Peter Adebola Inter-Varsity Debate (PAID) Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. 2014
[8]. Evenson, R.E and Mc Kinsey, Jr., J.W. (1991). Research, extension, infrastructure, and productivity change in Indian Agriculture. In R.E. Evenson and C.E Pray, eds, Research and Productivity in Asian Agriculture, pg 158-184 Ithaca, USA , Cornell University Press
[9]. Fakayode Segun, Bamidele, R.O. Babatunde and Ajao Rasheed (2008) Productivity Analysis of Cassava Based Production Systems in the Guinea Savannah: Case Study of Kwara State, Nigeria, American Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 3 (1): 33 39, 2008
[10]. Fan. S (1991) ‘Effects of technical change and institutional reform on production growth in Chinese agriculture’ America journal of agric. Econs .pp 216-75.
[11]. Jin, S. et al., 2007. Productivity, efficiency and technical change: measuring the performance of China’s transforming agriculture, Contributed paper to the conference on Trends & forces in international agricultural productivity growth, 15 March 2007, Washington, DC
[12]. Kalirajan, K.P., Obwona, M.B & Zhao.S. 1996. A decomposition of Total Factor Productivity Growth: The Case of Chinese Agricultural Growth Before and after Reform. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 78: 331-338.
[13]. Kalirajan, K,P. and R.T. Shand, 1997.“Sources of Output Growth in Indian Agriculture,” IndianJournal of Agricultural Economics 52:693–706.
[14]. Mundlak Y, Larson D, Butzer R (1997). The Determinants of Agricultural Production: A Cross Country Analysis. Policy Research Working Paper (WPS 1827), Development Research Group. The World Bank, Washington DC.
[15]. NBS(2016). National Bureau of Statistics, Nigerian Gross Domestic Product Report. Q4 and full year 2017
[16]. Ogundari, K and S. O. Ojo(2007) an Examination of Technical, Economic and Allocative Efficiency of Small Farms: The Case Study of Cassava Farmers in Osun State of Nigeria. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 13 (2007), 185-195
[17]. Oni, O.; Nkonya, E.; Pender, J.; Phillips, D. and Kato, E. (2009). Trends and Drivers of Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria, NSSP Report 1. IFPRI Abuja.
[18]. Wu, Y. (1995) “Productivity Growth, Technological Progress and Technical Efficiency Change in China. A Three Sector Analysis’ Journal of ComparativeEconometrics21: 207-29

Olufunke O. Ilemobayo “Output Growth Decomposition in Nigeria Agriculture: An Econometric Analysis 1960-2018” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp. 102-107 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/102-107.pdf

Download PDF


Profit Efficiency of Pig Producers in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Abiyong, P. A., Abu, G.A., Odoemenem, I. U, Biam, C.K. – October 2019 Page No.: 108-114

The study analysed the profit efficiency among pig producers in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from one hundred pig producers. Primary data were generated using structured questionnaires and personal observations for 2015 production year. Data were analysed using gross margin, Cobb Douglas Stochastic profit frontier function, maximum likelihood estimates and factor analysis. Pig production was profitable with a return per naira invested of 69% and gross margin of N8,426.30 per pig. The result of profit efficiency showed that feeds and labour coefficients were 0.13 and 0.19 respectively and were significant at 1% level. The study found out that profit efficiency varied from 0.01 to 0.99 with a mean profit efficiency of 52.35%. On the other hand, profit inefficiency increased with the use of the following variables, education, farming experience, household size, gender, pen age and conflict while age and co-operative membership decreased profit inefficiency. The result of the chi- square (x) confirmed that farm and farm-specific characteristics significantly affected profit inefficiency at 5% level. It is recommended that all the variables responsible for profit inefficiency should be adequately addressed through good and experienced management.

Page(s): 108-114                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 October 2019

 Abiyong, P. A.
Department of Extension and Management, Samaru Kataf Campus, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria, Nigeria

 Abu, G.A.
Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

 Odoemenem, I. U
Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

 Biam, C.K.
Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

[1]. Abu, G.A., Ater, P.I. and Abah, D. (2012). Profit Efficiency among Sesame Farmers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences.4(4):261-268
[2]. Adegeye, A.J. and Dittoh, J.S.(1985). Essentials of Agricultural Economics. Impact Publishers Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria. Pp 164-177.
[3]. Adeleke, O.A.( 2008). Profit Efficiency among Female Smallholder Farmers in Atiba Local Government Area of Oyo State. J. of Economic Theory. Vol; 2(3):7783.
[4]. Ajala, M.K. (2003). Economics of pig production in Jama’a Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Trop. J. Anim. Sci. 6(1): 53-62. Published by the Animal Science Association of Nigeria (ASAN), University of Ibadan, Ibadan
[5]. Ajala, M.K., Adesehinwa, A.O.K. and Mohammed, A.K. (2007). Characteristics of Smallholder Pig Production in Southern Kaduna Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science. 2(2):182-188.
[6]. Akinyemiju, O.A. and Alimi,T. (1989). Economics of maize (Zea Mays) production under different weed control methods. Nigerian Journal Weed Sci., 2: 51–55.
[7]. Alamu, S. O., Abiodun, J. A. and Miller, J.W. (2004). Food Security and Poverty Alleviation Under the National Special Programme for food security: A preliminary socio-economic assessment of Yamama Lake in Kebbi State: In P.A. Araoye (eds). Proceedings of the 19th Fisheries Association of Nigeria Conference.Pp. 149.
[8]. Ali, M., and Flinn, J. (1989), Profit efficiency among Basmati rice producers in Pakistan Punjab. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 71(2):303-310 http://www.lautechaee-edu.com/journal/ijaerd1/ijaerd%20-%201.6%20edition.pdf
[9]. Aromolaran, A. B and Bamgbose, A. M (1999). Comparative Cost Analysis of Meat Products and Energy Production in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Animal Science 2(1):180–193.
[10]. Ashley, B., S. Amber and F. Anthony. (2006). Education by Nation: Multivariate analysis. http://www.users.muohio.edu/porterbm/Sunj/2006/start.s Feb 12, 2017.
[11]. Bamiro, O. M. 2008 ‘Technical Efficiency in Pig Production in Ogun State, Nigeria’ Research Journal of Animal Sciences 2:3 78-82, Department of Agricultural Economics, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Yewa Campus, Ayetoro, Ogun State, Nigeria. http://medwelljournals.com/abstract/?doi=rjnasci.2008.78.82 20/10/16
[12]. Banerjee, G.C.(2004). A text book on Animal Husbandry (Eight\Edition).Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.PVT Ltd New Delhi, India.Pp 775-779.
[13]. Battese, G.E. and Coelli, T.I. (1992). “Frontier Production Functions, Technical Efficiency and Panel Data: With Application to Paddy Farmers in India”. Journal of Productivity Analysis 3:153-169, in: Edwards, S., Allen, A. R. and Shaik, S. (2006). Market Structure Conduct Performance(SCP) Hypothesis Revisited using Stochastic Frontier Efficiency Analysis. Selected Paper for presentation at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting , Long Beach, California, July 23-26, 2006.
[14]. Coelli, T.J. (1994) A guide to Frontier Version 4.1: A computer programme for Stochastic Frontier Production and Cost Function Estimation. Department of Econometrics, University of New England, Armidale, Australia. 1994.
[15]. Dafwang, I.I., Adebanjo, O.A. and Adesehinwa, A.O.K.(2011).Status of Pig Production in Nigeria. An overview of current practices, problems and prospects In Proceedings of the 19th International Pig Summit 22nd – 25th November 2010. IAR and Training, Moore Plantation, Ibadan.
[16]. Duniya, K.P., Akpoko. G.J., Oyakhilome,O. and Nandi, J.A. (2013). Measurement of Pig Profitability in Zangon- Kataf and Jema’a Local Government Areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 3(4) 1455-1463
[17]. Farrell, M.J. (1957). The Measurement of Productive Efficiency. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (General),Part III, Vol.120:3.253-290http://www.jstor.org/jounals/rss.html. 15 Feb 2014.
[18]. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAOSTAT), (2002). FAO statistical databases. http:www//apps.-fao.org. sdd 12/6/2016
[19]. Godwin, D. M (1974). Pig Management and Production .Hutchinson Educational, London.pp.53.
[20]. Holms, A.S., (1971). Market Structure, Conduct and Food grain Pricing Efficiency: An Indian Case Study. MSS Educational Publishing Company, Inc. New York.
[21]. Iorlamen, T.R.. Okorji, E.C. and Nweze, N.J. (2016). Technical Efficiency in Sesame Production in Benue State, Nigeria. JAEES 2(2&3): 281-289
[22]. Ka’ankuka, F,G, (2012).Principles and Practice of Pig Husbandry. A paper presented at the Training Workshop in Ruminant, Pigs and Poultry Production at the University of Agriculture, Makurdi. 12th – 16th March, 2012.
[23]. Kaduna State Statictical Year Book, (1996).Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, Statistics and Research Development Edition.
[24]. Kolawole, O. (2006). Determinants of profit efficiency among small scale rice farmers in Nigeria: A Profit Function Approach. Research J. of Applied Sc.; 1(14): 116-122.
[25]. Lau, I.J., and Yotopolous, P.A. (1971). A test for a relative and application to Indian agriculture. American Economic Review, 61, 94-109.
[26]. Madubuike, F.N (1992). Bridging the Animal protein gap for Rural Development in Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural and Rural Development. 5 (1).
[27]. NPC (2006). Census Provisional Results. National Population Commission, Nigeria.
[28]. Ogah,O.M., Okee, M.A. and Mamvong, L.N. (2016).Evaluation of Women Participation in Agricultural Co-operatives in Makurdi Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. JAEES, 2&3:21-27
[29]. Ogundari, K., Ojo, S.O. and Brummer, B.(2006) Productivity potential and technical efficiency of aquaculture production in alleviating poverty. Emperical Evidence from Nigeria J. of Fisheries International, 1(1-2):21-26.
[30]. Oluwaseun O. (2015). Make A Living With Piggery Business – Agriculture – Naira land,http://www.nairaland.com/737232/make-living-piggery-business.
[31]. Onwujiariri, E.B and Okoronkwo, M.O (2007). Economic Evaluation and Growth Performance of Grower Pigs fed differently levels of maize processing residue (MPR).Proceedings of the 41st Annual Conference of Agricultural Society of Nigeria (ASN) 22 – 26th Oct. 2007, Zaria, Nigeria. Pp. 304 – 307.
[32]. Ter meuleen Udo and El-Harinth, E.A. (1985).Feeding Farm Animals on Un-used Resources in the Tropics and Sub-Tropics. Animal Research and Development 22:116-127
[33]. Tijani, A.A., Alimi T. and Adesiyan, A.T. (2006).Profit Efficiency among Nigerian Poultry Egg Farmers: A Case Study of Aiyedoto Farm Settlement, Nigeria. Research journal of Agricultural Biological Sciences, 2(6): 256-261. University Press, Ithaca and London, Pp. 119-139
[34]. Tsue, P.T., Lawal, W.L. and Ayuba, V.O. (2012). Profit Efficiency Among Catfish Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria.African Journal Food ,Agriculture, Nutrition and Development (AJFAND). 2:(6)
[35]. Umeh, J.C., Ogbanje, C. and Adejo, M.A. (2015). Technical Analysis of Pig Production: A Sustainable Animal Protein Augmentation for Nigerians. Journal of Advanced Technologies.2(1): 19-24
[36]. Yotopolous, P.A., and Lau, L.J. (1973). A Test for Relative Economic efficiency: Some further results. American Economic Review, 63(1), 214-223. http://www.lautechaee- edu.com/journal/ijaerd1/ijaerd%20-%201.6%20edition.pdf 16/2/2017

Abiyong, P. A., Abu, G.A., Odoemenem, I. U, Biam, C.K. “Profit Efficiency of Pig Producers in Kaduna State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.108-114 October 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/108-114.pdf

Download PDF


Floating Admittance Matrix Modelling Approach to BJT
Dr. Meena Singh, Pragati Prerna – October 2019 – Page No.: 115-120

The floating admittance matrix (FAM) approach is an elegant method that provides unified approach to analysis of different terminal functions such as impedances, and gains or ratios of voltages, currents and powers of both active and passive network with ease. The zero sum property of the floating admittance matrix provides a check to the researchers to proceed further or re observe the first equation itself. All transfer functions are represented as cofactors of the floating admittance matrix of the circuit.

Page(s): 115-120                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 October 2019

 Dr. Meena Singh
Assistant Professor in Electronics Department, BIT, Mesra, Ranchi, India

 Pragati Prerna
Department of ECE University Polytechnic, B.I.T. Mesra, Ranchi, India

[1]. Pieter Eykhoff, Identification, Springer (Hardcover), 1974.
[2]. Vernal, V.V, Network Analysis by the Method of Integral Equation, Journal of Electron Modeling, 5, 5,1021-1031, 1985.
[3]. Wai-Kai Chen, On second-order cofactors and null return difference in feedback amplifier theory, International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, Volume 6 Issue 3, Pages 305 – 312, Dec 2006.
[4]. Balbanian, N. and Bickart, T.A., Electrical Network Theory, John Wiley.
[5]. Friedman and R. Gulliver, Mathematical modeling for instructors, Technical Report 1254, Institute for Mathematics and its Applications, 1994.
[6]. E. Edwards and M. Hamson, Guide to Mathematical Modeling, CRC, 1990.
[7]. J. G. Andrews and R. R. McLone, Mathematical Modeling, Butterworths, 1976.
[8]. D. Burghes, P. Galbraith, N. Price, and A. Sherlock, Mathematical Modeling, Prentice Hall, 1996.
[9]. R. R. Clements, Mathematical Modeling: A Case Study Approach, Cambridge Press University, 1989.
[10]. M. Cross and A. O. Moscardini, Learning the Art of Mathematical Modeling, Ellis Horwood, 1985.
[11]. C. L. Dym and E. S. Ivey, Principles of Mathematical Modeling, 58 Academic Press, 1980.
[12]. Bender, E.A., An Introduction to mathematical Modeling, Wiley, 1978. 40. P. Doucet and P.B. Sloep, Mathematical Modeling in the life Sciences, Ellis Horwood, 1992.
[13]. Aris, Rutherford [1978] (1994), Mathematical Modeling Techniques, New York: Dover. ISBN 0-486-68131-9
[14]. Bender, E. A. [1978] (2000), An Introduction to Mathematical Modeling, New York: Dover. ISBN 0-486-41180-X
[15]. Lin, C. C. & Segel, L. A. (1988), Mathematics Applied to Deterministic Problems in the Natural Sciences, Philadelphia: SIAM. ISBN 0-89871-229-7
[16]. Gershenfeld, N. (1998), The Nature of Mathematical Modeling, Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-57095-6.
[17]. Baehr, Jason. (2006), “A Priori and A Posteriori,” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
[18]. I. Getreu, Modeling the Bipolar Transistor, Beaverton, Ore: 98 Tektronix, Inc., 1976.
[19]. Otso Juntunen (1998); A Two-Port S-Parameter Data Transformation; Circuit Theory Laboratory Report Series, CT-35, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland, Espoo.
[20]. B. P. Singh, Unified Approach to Electronics Circuit Analysis: IJEEE, Vol, pp.276-285, July 1978.
[21]. B.P. Singh, Meena Singh, Sanjay Kumar Roy, and S.N. Shukla, “Mathematical Modeling of Electronic Devices and its integration,” Proceedings of National Seminar on Recent Advances on Information Technology, pp.494-502, Feb. 6-7, 2009, Indian School of Mines Dhanbad University, Published by Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd..
[22]. B. P. Singh, Meena Singh & Sanjay Kumar Roy,” Mathematical Modeling of Electronic Devices and Circuits” .International Journal of Computer Sciences, Software Engineering and Electrical Communication Engineering , Vol. 3 No. 1 pp 19-26, Jan-June 2012, ISSN: 2229-3175, Published by Global Research Publications New Delhi (India)
[23]. Meena Singh, Sachidanand Shukla & B.P Singh,” On Demand Realization of Input and Output Resistances of MOSFET Amplifier” International Journal of Computer Sciences, Software Engineering and Electrical Communication Engineering , Vol. 3. pp 27-32, Jan-June 2012, ISSN: 2229-3175, Published by Global Research Publications New Delhi (India)
[24]. Meena Singh, B.P Singh Lecture notes in Electrical engineering book series (LNEE VOLUME 476) Published by Springer, DOI 10,1007/978-981-10-8234-4_24 PP 267-280 CITE AS “Floating Admittance Matrix Approach to model development of active devices and circuits”. JULY 2018

Dr. Meena Singh, Pragati Prerna “Floating Admittance Matrix Modelling Approach to BJT” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.115-120 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/115-120.pdf

Download PDF


Chemical and Organoleptic Characterization of Vernonia Honey
Gemechis Legesse Yadeta – October 2019 – Page No.: 121-124

Vernonia amygdalina honey is one of the important mono-floral honey in Ethiopia where the plant grows widely. In this study Vernonia honey samples were collected from potential honey producing districts of West Wollega, Jimma and Ilu Abba Bora zones of Oromia regional state. Melissopalynological analysis was conducted for the samples to confirm their botanical origin. Aroma and taste were evaluated using blindfold assessment of experienced tasters. Colour was graded using p-fund color grader. Granulation starting time was recorded by inspecting the samples every two days visually and granulation pattern was also judged by close observation of the crystallizing samples. Chemical characterization was conducted following the Codex Alimentarius (2001) protocol. The results indicated that V.amygdalina honey is a moo-floral honey with high pollen frequency (mean 84.45%), its peculiar color, aroma, taste and uniform and fine crystallization pattern. The chemical profile generally showed that the honey meets national and international standards: the mean moisture content (18.87%), mean mineral content (0.28%), mean total reducing sugars (70.4%), mean sucrose level (2.03%), mean value of 24.75meq/kg free acidity and mean HMF value of 15.52mg/kg. Therefore, this honey needs due attention so that the beekeepers harvest it and process separately and maintain its natural characteristics to be promoted for improved production and better marketing.

Page(s): 121-124                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 October 2019

 Gemechis Legesse Yadeta
Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Holeta Bee Research Center, Holeta P.O. Box 22, Ethiopia

[1]. Bista, S. and Shivakoti, GP. (2000). Honeybee Flora at Kabre, Dolakha District . Nepal Agriculture Research Journal, 4: 18– 25.
[2]. Admasu, A., Kibebew, W., Ensermu, K. and Amssalu, B. (2014). Honeybee forages of Ethiopia. United Printers, Addis Abba, Ethiopia. Pp 438.
[3]. Admasu, A. (1996). Preliminary investigation on taxonomy of Ethiopian honeybee flora. Pp 181– 186. Ethiopian Society of Animal roduction (ESAP) 1996. Proceeding of the 4th Annual Conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. April 18 to 19, 1996. ESAP, Addis Ababa 242 pp.
[4]. Fitchtl, R. and Adimasu, A. (1994). The honeybee flora of Ethiopia. Margraf Verlag, Germany. Pp 510.
[5]. Fisseha, M., Sebsebe, D. and Tilahun, T. (2009). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 5:28 doi:10.1186/1746-4269-5-28.
[6]. Giday, M, Asfaw, Z. and Woldu, Z. (2009). Medicinal plants of the Meinit ethnic group of Ethiopia: An ethnobotanical study. J. Ethnopharmacol., 124: 513– 521.
[7]. Bonsi, MLK., Osuji, PO., Tuah, AK. and Umunna, NN. (1995). Vernonia amygdalina as a supplement to teff straw (Eragrostis tef) fed to Ethiopian Menz sheep. Agrofor. Syst., 31: 229– 241.
[8]. Alawa, JP., Jokthan, GE. and Akut, K. (2002). Ethnoveterinary medical practice for ruminants in the subhumid zone of northern Nigeria. Prevent. Vet. Med., 54: 79– 90.
[9]. Adedapo, AA., Otesile, T. and Soetan, KO. (2007). Assessment of the anthelmintic efficacy of an aqueous crude extract of Vernonia amygdalina. Pharm. Biol., 45: 564– 568.
[10]. Gemechis, L. (2013). Identification and characterization of major mono-floral honeys in Ethiopia. Pp 121– 128. Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) 2013. Livestock at the crossroads of climate change variability. Proceeding of the 20th Annual Conference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. October 03 to 05, 2012. ESAP, Addis Ababa 284 pp.
[11]. Nuru, A. and Desalegn, B. (unpublished). Spatial analysis of Apicultural resources in Southwestern parts of SNNP regional state. Reported submitted to SNV-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[12]. Levouex, J., Maurizio, A. and Vorwohl, G. (1978). Methods of Melissopalynology, Bee world, 59: 139– 157.
[13]. Codex Alimentarius Commission (2001). Revised Codex Standard for Honey JointFAO/WHO Standards Programme. FAO Headquarters Rome, Italy.
[14]. Dyce, EJ. (1975). Producing finely granulated or creamed honey. In: Honey: a comprehensive survey, pp: 293–325, (Crane, E. ed). Heinemann, London.
[15]. Abera, B., Gulelat, DH., Birringer, M., Borck, H., Admasu, A., Kaleab, B. and Samuel, M. (2017). Rheology and botanical origin of Ethiopian monofloral honey. Food science and technology, 75: 393– 401.
[16]. Crane, E. (1990). Bees and beekeeping: science, practice and world resources. Heinnmann Newness, London. Pp 614.
[17]. Nuru, A. (1996). Physical and chemical properties of Ethiopian honey. Pp 176– 180. Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) 1996. Proceeding of the 4th AnnualConference of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP) held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. April 18 to 19, 1996. ESAP, Addis Ababa 242 pp.
[18]. Gebreegziabher, G., Gebrehiwot, T. and Etsay, K. (2013). Physiochemical characteristics of honey obtained from traditional and modern hive production systems in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science (MEJS), 5:115– 128.
[19]. Addis, G. and Malede, B. (2014). Chemical analysis of honey and major honey production challenges in and around Gondar, Ethiopia. Aca. J. Nut., 3(1).
[20]. Awraris, G., Hailemariam, G., Dejen, A. and Zerihun, T. (2014). Physico-Chemical properties of honey produced in Masha, Gesha and Sheko districts in Southwestern Ethiopia. Current Research in Agricultural Sciences, 1: 110– 116.
[21]. Abera, B., Solomon, WK., Geremew, B., Nuru, A. and Samuel, M. (2013). Physicochemical properties of the Harena forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia. Food chemistry, 14: 3386– 3392.
[22]. Bogdanov, S. (2007). Authenticity of honey and other bee products: state of the art. Bulletin USAMV˗CN, 63– 64.
[23]. Lazaridou, A., Biliaderis, CG., Bacandristos, N. and Sabatini, AG. (2004). Composition, thermal and rheological behavior of selected Greek honeys. Journal of Food Engineering, 64: 9– 21.
[24]. IHC (2002). Harmonized Methods of the International Honey Commission. URLhttp://www.apis.admin.ch/english/host/pdf/honey/HMFabstract .pdf). Accessed 22.07.2019.
[25]. Baltac, C. and Candan, F. (2007). Biological activities and chemical composition of three honeys of different types from Anatolia. Food chemistry, 100: 526– 534.
[26]. Bogdanov, S., Ruoff, K. and Oddo, LP. (2004). Physico-chemical methods for the characterization of unifloral honeys: A review. Apidologie, 35: 4– 17.
[27]. Venir, E., Spaziani, M. and Maltini, E. (2010). Crystallization in “Tarassaco” Italian honey studied by DSC. Food Chemistry, 122: 410– 415.
[28]. Gemechis, LY. (2016). Honey production and marketing in Ethiopia. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 7: 248– 253.

Gemechis Legesse Yadeta “Chemical and Organoleptic Characterization of Vernonia Honey” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp. 121-124 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/121-124.pdf

Download PDF


Mineral Compositions of Sugarcane Juice Cultivated in Papalanto, Ogun State, Nigeria

Afolayan Olubisola Arike, Afolabi Oluwabukola Racheal, Kayode Omowumi Titilola and Kayode Azeez Abideen Abolanle – October 2019 Page No.: 125-126

Papalanto, Ogun State is one of the locations where sugar cane (Saccharium offinarium) is grown and largely cultivated in Nigeria. Mineral compositions of the sugarcane juice in this area is not yet reported. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the mineral content of the sugarcane cultivars in Papalanto, Ogun state, Nigeria. The result of the study shows that calcium is present in both the NPK-treated sugarcane (that is, fertilizers was used for this cultivar) and the untreated sugarcane (no fertilizers added) samples at about the same level. Concentrations of zinc and potassium were found to be significantly higher in the NPK- treated sugarcane samples than the untreated samples. The findings of this research work suggest that the mineral contents of the NPK-treated sugar cane are higher than their untreated counterpart. Consumption of the NPK-treated sugarcane by the people of the area and beyond should therefore be encouraged. Further work is required to detect and explain the biochemical basis for the high mineral contents of the NPK-treated sugar cane.

Page(s): 125-126                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 October 2019

 Afolayan Olubisola Arike
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, P.M.B 50, Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Afolabi Oluwabukola Racheal
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, P.M.B 50, Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Kayode Omowumi Titilola
Department of Biochemistry, Landmark University, P.M.B 1001, Omu Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

 Kayode Azeez Abideen Abolanle
Department of Chemical Sciences, Anchor University, P.M.B 001 Ipaja, Lagos State, Nigeria

[1]. Meyer and Wood, (2012). “Manual sugarcane cutter performances in the southern African region”, Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association,7(4) 150-157.

[2]. Girei and Giroh, (2012). “Comparison of benefit to sugarcane plant growth and incorporation following inoculation of sterile plants with Acetobacterdiazotrophicus wild-type and Nif- mutant strains”, Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 14(3) 358-366.

[3]. Ahmed, (2013). “Growth and function of the sugarcane root system”, Field Crops Research, 92(2-3) 169-183.

[4]. Godwin, (2013).Mill Mud Case Study in Mackay:An Economic Study on RecyclingSugar By-Products for theMackay Region, CRC Publication Series, CRC Sustainable SugarProduction James Cook University, Townsvil

[5]. Hawkesford M., Horst W., Kichey T., Lambers H., Schjoerring J., Müller IS., White P,(2012) Functions of macronutrients: Potassium. In: Marschner P. (ed) Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, Elsevier, Adelaide.

[6]. Jordral-Segado A.M., Navarro-Allarcon., H.Lopez- Ga De La Serrana., (2016). Calcium and Magnesium Levels in Agricultural soil and sevage sludge in an industrialarea from Southeastern Spain: Relationship with Plant(Saccharium officinarum)disposition. Soil & sedimentation contamination 15:307-377

Afolayan Olubisola Arike, Afolabi Oluwabukola Racheal, Kayode Omowumi Titilola and Kayode Azeez Abideen Abolanle “Mineral Compositions of Sugarcane Juice Cultivated in Papalanto, Ogun State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.125-126 October 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/125-126.pdf

Download PDF


Impact of Advanced Organisers on the Performance of Students in Linear Differential Equations: A Case of Mukuba University, Kitwe District, Copperbelt Province, Zambia

Evans Musonda – October 2019 Page No.: 127-131

This study was done in order to show the impact of Advanced Organisers on the performance of students in Linear Differential Equations. The dismal performance of Second Year Students in Introduction to Analytical Geometry and Calculus (MAT 220) and Linear Differential Equations in particular at Mukuba University has been a thorny issue. To solve this problem a study was conducted by the Researcher. The study population included all Second Year students doing Introduction to Analytical Geometry and Calculus (MAT 220) pursuing a degree programme at Mukuba University. The study was based on one research question and two hypotheses. The research method used was an Experimental Design. The sample size was 60 students comprising 40 male and 20 female students. The Shapiro-wilk test was used for this purpose because of the small sample size. The two groups were made from a homogeneous class at random. Particular, 30 students were assigned to the Experimental Group and 30 students to Control group. These two groups were subjected to a pre-test. The experimental group was lectured using the Advanced Organisers while the Control group was lectured using Conventional methods. The analysis of data was done with the help of SPSS, considering the mean, standard deviation. Then an Independent sample t-test was conducted at alpha (α) = 0.05 to analyse the results of the pre-test and post-test scores. The study showed there was statistically significant difference in the post-test scores for Experimental group (Mean = 67.5, standard deviation = 19.5) and the control group (Mean = 49.8, standard deviation = 19.8), P = .001. Therefore, using Advanced Organisers when lecturing Linear Differential Equations was found to have an impact on students’ performance.

Page(s): 127-131                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 October 2019

 Evans Musonda
Mukuba University, School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, P.O Box 20382, Kitwe, Zambia

[1]. Adhakari, K. (2010). Ausubel’s learning theory and its implications: A practical work for Math-519, T.U., submitted to Department of mathematics, Sukuna M. Campus.
[2]. Ausubel, D.P. (1978). In defense of advance organizer, a reply to critics, Retrieved from ERIC.
[3]. Ausubel, D.P. (1968).Educational psychology: A cognitive view, New York; Holt Rinehart and Wiston.
[4]. Ausubel, D.P&Robinson, F.G.(1969).School learning: An introduction to educational Psychology. New York: Holt Rinehart and wigs ton.
[5]. David Asubel. OrgJoyce, B et. al. (2000), Models of teaching (6thEd.).
[6]. Englewood Clifts, NJ: printice-HallWool flok et. al. (2010), Educational psychology Canada.
[7]. Hassard, J. (2003) Backup of Meaningful learning Model, Georgia State University Ometitus

Evans Musonda “Impact of Advanced Organisers on the Performance of Students in Linear Differential Equations: A Case of Mukuba University, Kitwe District, Copperbelt Province, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.127-131 October 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/127-131.pdf

Download PDF


Man-machine Interaction System for the Paraplegics using Eye-Tracking Technique

F. O. Aranuwa, M.A. Busari, A.O. Ige, J.E. Efiong – October 2019 Page No.: 132-137

Over the years, the paraplegics have relatively found it difficult using computer systems as a result of their physical conditions, especially in Sub-Sahara Africa. They have been solely relying on third party to achieve any form of computer interactions. Meanwhile, researchers at different levels have proposed and use of different mechanisms such as: electroculogram (EOG), videooculography (VOG), video-based infrared (VIR) and sclera search coil methods overtime to assist the paraplegics. However, studies have shown that these approaches are not efficient as they were mono-directional and require other aids to complete their actions. Additionally, most of the aids are not affordable and could be dangerous to human health. Therefore, this work presents a man-machine interaction mechanism using quadrilateral eye-tracking technique, involving 3-tier eye-gaze algorithm to enhance paraplegics’ interactions with any system. The pupil-center/corneal reflection method was used to determine where the user is looking on the screen. A window based system interface platform was developed and implemented on visual C# with camcorder integrated to monitor the movement of the user’s eye. The system was effectively demonstrated and enabled user to read, type and make phone calls. The approach was found to be more robust when compared with existing methodologies in terms of efficiency, flexibility and time taken to process an action. Based on the good performance of the system, it is therefore recommended that the Federal government of Nigeria will sustain this development to assist the paraplegics in the country.

Page(s): 132-137                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 November 2019

 F. O. Aranuwa
Department of Computer Science, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba–Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

 M.A. Busari
Department of Computer Science, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba–Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

 A.O. Ige
Department of Computer Science, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba–Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

 J.E. Efiong
Wesley University, Ondo City, Ondo, Nigeria

[1]. Hewett, B.C; Carey; G; Mantei; P; Strong; V (2014). “ACM SIGCHI Curricula for Human–Computer Interaction”. ACM SIGCHI. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
[2]. Shneiderman, B (2002): Leonardo’s Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Technologies, Cambridge: MIT Press, MA, 2002.
[3]. Te’eni, D, Carey, J and Zhang P (2007): Human Computer Interaction: Developing Effective Organizational Information Systems, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
[4]. Hayward, V. O., R. Astley, M. Cruz-Hernandez, D. Grant and G. Robles-De-La-Torre (2014).“Haptic Interfaces and Devices, Sensor Review, 2004, 24(1): 16-29.
[5]. Ware, C. and Mikaelian, H. H(203): An Evaluation of an Eye Tracker as a Device for Computer Input. In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems and Graphics Interface (CHI/GI), 2003, pp 183–188.
[6]. Poole, A., Linden J. B (2006): Eye Tracking In Human-Computer Interaction and Usability Research: Current Status and Future Prospects, 2006
[7]. Arai, K. and R. Mardiyanto (2012): Eye-based Human Computer Interaction Allowing Phoning, Reading E-Book/E-Comic/E-Learning, Internet Browsing, and TV Information Extraction. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications (IJACSA), 2012, 2(12).
[8]. Bălan, O., Moldoveanu A., Moldoveanu F., Morar A., and Asavei, V (2013): Assistive IT for Visually Impaired People. Journal of Information Systems & Operations Management, 2013, 7(2): 391−403
[9]. Singh, H and Singh, J (2012). Eye on tracking and related issues: A Review. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, September, 2012, 2(9):1-99.
[10]. Lukander, K (2003): “ Mobile usability – Measuring gaze point on handheld devices” Master’s Thesis, 2003. available at http://www.ndltd.org.
[11]. Parte, S. Rupali, G. Mundkar, N. Karande, Nain, S. and Bhosale, N (2015): A Survey on Eye Tracking and Detection. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. October 2015, 4(10): 9863-9867.
[12]. Drewes, H. “Eye Gaze Tracking for Human Computer Interaction”, A Dissertation Submitted in the Partial Fulfilment of the Ph. D. Degree, 2010. Available at http://www.ndltd.org.
[13]. Duchowski, A. T. (2002): A Breadth-First Survey of Eye Tracking Applications. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 2002, pp. 455−470.
[14]. Betke, M., J. Gip, and Fleming P (2002): “The camera mouse: Visual tracking of body features to provide computer access for people with severe disabilities”. IEEE Transactions on Neural System Rehabilitation Engineering, 2002, 20(1): 1-10.
[15]. Yang, M. H., Kriegman, D. J. and Ahuja, N (2009): “Detecting faces in images: A Survey”, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 2009, 24(1): 34-58.
[16]. Hansen, D. and Majaranta P (2012): Communication and Text Entry by Gaze. In Gaze Interaction and Applications of Eye Tracking. Advances in Assistive Technologies. IGI Global, 2012.
[17]. Kumar, M., Gaze-Enhanced User Interface Design, A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Computer Science and the Committee on Graduate Studies, Stanford University, 2007.
[18]. Shahzad, M. I. and Mehmood, S. (2010): Control of Articulated Robot Arm by Eye Tracking, Master of Science in Computer Science Thesis, School of Computing at Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden, 2010.
[19]. Lee, E. C., J. C. Woo, J. H. Kim, M. Whang and K. R. Park (2010): A Brain–Computer Interface Method Combined with Eye Tracking for 3D Interaction. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 2010, pp. 289–298
[20]. Anjana, S. and Pawanesh A. (2013): Eye Gaze Techniques for Human Computer Interaction: A Research Survey. International Journal of Computer Applications, 2013, 71(9): 0975 – 8887.
[21]. Morimoto, C. H. and Mimica, M. R.M. (2005): Eye gaze tracking techniques for interactive applications. Elsevier Computer Vision and Image Understanding 98 (2005) 4–24.

F. O. Aranuwa, M.A. Busari, A.O. Ige, J.E. Efiong “Man-machine Interaction System for the Paraplegics using Eye-Tracking Technique” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.132-137 October 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/132-137.pdf

Download PDF


Stress today has become a natural phenomenon. It occurs in various forms. Every work place and organization are experiencing the alarming increase of the negative effects and problems on their workers. This study therefore compares the level of stress of teaching and non-teaching working mothers in tertiary institutions in Anambra State. The study employed descriptive survey design and one hypothesis which was tested at 0.05 level of significant. The population of the study was 2,911 working mothers in the five tertiary institutions in Anambra State. A sample of 630 working mothers (representing 22% of the population) was drawn through proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Instrument titled Levels of Stress Inventory (LSI) was constructed, validated and used for data collection. The reliability of the instrument was estimated using split half and value got was 0.76. Six hundred and thirty (630) copies of questionnaire were correctly filled, retrieved and used for analysis. t-test was used to test the hypothesis. The findings of this study revealed that there is significant difference between the level of stress of teaching and non-teaching working mothers in tertiary institutions in Anambra State. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which includes that counsellors should introduce stress management strategies for working mothers in tertiary institution to curb their stress. Also, management of tertiary institutions should endeavour to recruit more workers and provide recreational facilities for their staff to relieve tension.

Page(s): 138-140                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 November 2019

 Akuezuilo, Juliana Azuka
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

[1]. Adebola, T. M. (2011). Examination stress, its rape and management. Calabar, Rapid Educational Publisher Limited.
[2]. Akubue, A. (2000). The key to effective resources management: A look at the over looked Interdisciplinary Education Journal 4(2) 4 – 46.
[3]. Akuezuilo, E. O. & Agu, N. (2015). Research and statistics in education and social sciences; Method and application. (Millennium Ed.) Awka, Nigeria; Nuel Centi Publishers and Academics Press Ltd.
[4]. Akuezuilo, J. A. (2012). Levels of stress and adjustment patterns among working mothers in tertiary institutions in Anambra State. Unpublished M.Ed. thesis in the Department Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.
[5]. Bernstein, A. W. (2008). Education and identity. San-Francisco Jossey Bass.
[6]. Obi & Obi (2007). Stress management. Awka: Sunrise Publication.
[7]. Ofoegbu, F. & Nwadiani, M. (2006). Level of perceived stress among lecturers in Nigeria Universities. Journal of Instructional Psychology; 33(1) 66 – 74.
[8]. Onah, C. I. (2013). Introduction to psychology (basic issues). Onitsha; Veritas Printing and Publishing Co. Ltd.
[9]. Selye, H. (2000). The stress of life. New York; McGraw Hill Book Company.
[10]. U. K. Health & Safety Executive (2000). Tackling work related stress: A guide for employees. UK Publishers.

Akuezuilo, Juliana Azuka “Comparative Study of Level of Stress among Teaching and Non-Teaching Mothers in Tertiary Institutions in Anambra State” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.138-140 October 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/138-140.pdf

Download PDF


Extraversion and Neuroticism Personality traits as Predictors of Marital Adjustment among Married Teachers in Awka Educational Zone

Veronica Nkiruka Nkechukwu, Ngozi E. Anyikwa – October 2019 Page No.: 141-145

The inability of couples to understand and appreciate the individual differences associated with personality traits which account for variation in behaviours tend to worsen the problem of adjustment in many marriages. The purpose of this study is to investigate extraversion and neuroticism personality traits as predictors of marital adjustment among married teachers in public secondary schools in Awka Educational Zone in Anambra State. Two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Correlational research design was adopted for the study. A sample size of 822 married teachers was drawn from 31 out of 61 public secondary schools in the zone (with a population of 1252 married teachers) through simple stratified random sampling of disproportionate nature. Two instruments: Structured personality trait assessment questionnaire (PTAQ) and marital adjustment scale questionnaire (MASQ) were used for data collection. The reliability coefficient of the Restructured Personality trait Assessment scale (SPTAS) facets was extraversion, 0.878; neuroticism, 0.859, while that of marital adjustment scale was 0.92. Simple regression analysis was used in answering the research questions and testing of null hypotheses. The findings of the study showed that extraversion and neuroticism personality traits are not significant predictors of married teachers’ marital adjustment. It was recommended, among others, that premarital counselling and workshop/seminars be organized from time to time for intending and married couples, for the understanding of individual personality traits and marital adjustment and also to assist couples to be well adjusted in their marriages.

Page(s): 141-145                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 November 2019

 Veronica Nkiruka Nkechukwu
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Akwa, Anambra State, Nigeria

 Ngozi E. Anyikwa
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Akwa, Anambra State, Nigeria

[1]. Ahmadi, K., Ashtiani, F. & Navabinejhad (2004). An analysis of mutual background: Interpersonal and communicative factors in marital adjustment.Family Analysis (3)1, 221-237. Accessed online, July 23, 2015.
[2]. Aluja, A., Barrio, V. & Garcia, L.F. (2006).Personality, social values, and marital satisfaction as predictors of parents’ rearing styles. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.answer.com/Q/whataresocialvariable10/8/2015.
[3]. Batool, S.S. & Khalid, R. (2012). Emotional intelligence: A predictor of marital quality in Pakistan couples. Journal of Pakistan Psychological Research, 27(1), 65-88
[4]. Combs, R. (2010). Marital status and personality well-being: A Literature Review of Family Relations, 40, 97-102.
[5]. Ghaemian, A. &Gholomi, J. (2010). An investigation into the relationship between personality types and interpersonal problem styles with marital adjustments in the married students at Islamic Azad University. The Arab Journal of Psychiatry, 21(1) 70-84.
[6]. Ghoroghi, S., Hassan, S.A. & Baba, M. (2015).Marital adjustment and duration of marriage among postgraduate Iranian students in Malaysia.International Education Studies, 8(2).Retrieved from URL: http://dx.doi.org /10.5539/ies.v8n2p50.
[7]. Hawkley, L.C., Cacioppo, J.T. (2010). Loneliness matters: A theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanisms of behavioural medicine (2). Accessed online, July23, 2015.
[8]. McCrae, R.R., & Costa, P.T (2006). Personality in Adulthood: A Five-Factor Theory Perspective 2nd ed. New York: Guildford press.
[9]. National Association of Directors of Religious Education (NADRE) (2012).Challenges to Christian Marriage Catechetical week 7th – 14th October.
[10]. Ofole, N.M. (2015). Determinant of Marital Satisfaction among young couples in Lagos State: Nigeria the Counsellor, VoL.34. No (1), 2015.
[11]. Papp, L.M. Cumming, E.M. &Goeke-Morey, M.C. (2009). For richer, for poorer: Money as a topic of marital conflict in the home. Family Relations, 58(1).
[12]. Weiten, W., Lloyd, M.A., Dunn, D.S. & Hammer, E.Y. (2009).Recent Trend in Marital Disruption. Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century, 19th ed. USA: WadworthCengage Learning.

Veronica Nkiruka Nkechukwu, Ngozi E. Anyikwa “Extraversion and Neuroticism Personality traits as Predictors of Marital Adjustment among Married Teachers in Awka Educational Zone” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.141-145 October 2019  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/141-145.pdf

Download PDF


Hematological and Blood Glucose Regulatory Properties of Methanolic Extract of Capsicum Annuum (Chilli Pepper) in Rats
Nkpurukwe C.I., Odia, K.M, Bekinbo, M. T. – October 2019 – Page No.: 146-148

The aim of the study was to determine the effects of methanolic extract of Capsicum annum (chilli) on haematological parameters and blood glucose level in wistar rats. A total of 30 male rats were used. The animals were divided into five groups of five animals each.  Group 1 served as control and was not treated. Groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were treated with 5mg/kg; 10 mg/kg; 15mg/kg and 20mg/kg respectively of the capsicum annum extract. All administrations were done orally for four weeks. At the end of the study, blood samples were obtained from the animals by cardiac puncture method. After specified laboratory screenings and statistical analysis of the values obtained, the result revealed that there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in white blood cell count of groups 4 and 5, however, group 2 showed significant decrease compared to the control. On WBC differentials, monocyte levels for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were found to be significantly (p<0.05) reduced.    The red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly elevated (p<0.05) as well as the haematocrit levels. However, the platelets values of all treated groups showed significant (p<0.05) decreases in groups 3, 4 and 5(i.e. 10mg/kg, 15mg/kg and 20mg/kg dose treated groups respectively). Groups 3, 4 and 5 had significant (p<0.05) decreases in blood glucose level. In conclusion, the methanolic extract of Capsicum annum (chilli) can be considered safe to boosts haematological profile and moderate doses have the potential to attenuate blood glucose level in Wistar rats.

Page(s): 146-148                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 November 2019

 Nkpurukwe C.I.
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Odia, K.M
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Bekinbo, M. T.
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

[1]. Adebayo, A.H; Abolaji, A.O; Opata, T.K; and Adegbenro, I.K (2010): Effect Of Ethatnolic Leaf Extract of Chrysophyllum Albidum G. on Biochemical and Haematological Parameters of Albino Wistar Rats. Afri. J.Biotech. Vol (94): 2145-2150
[2]. Barnes, J.J; Anderson, L.A. and Phillipson, J.D. (2007): HerbalMedicines, Pharmaceutical Press, London, UK, 3rd edition,
[3]. James, D.B; Owolabi; O. A; Ibrahim, A. B; Ibrahim, A.B: Folorumsho, F.O; Bwakka, I and Akanta, F (2010): Changes in Lipid profile of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extract of Blighia sapida in Rats. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 2(4): 177-180.
[4]. Materska, M. and Perucka, I. (2005). “Antioxidant activity of the main phenolic compounds isolated from hot pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L.),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53(5): 1750–1756, 2005.
[5]. Menichini,F; Tundis, R. and Bonesi, M. (2009). “The influence of fruit ripening on the phytochemical content and biologicalactivity of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv Habanero,” Food Chemistry, 114(2): 553–560.
[6]. Nworah, D.C; Nwafor A and Bekinbo, M. T. (2012): Comparative Characterization of Phytomedicinal Constituents of Xylopia aethiopia. American Journal of Pharmtech Research. 2(2): 706-712.
[7]. Otitoju, G.T.O; Nwamarah Otitoju, O. Odoh, E.C and Iyeghe (2014): Phytochemical composition of some under used green leaf vegetables in Nsukka urban L.G.A of Enugu state. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental sciences (JBES 4 (4): 208-217).
[8]. Srinivasan, K. (2005). “Spices as influencers of body metabolism:an overview of three decades of research,” Food Research International, 38(1):77–86.
[9]. WHO [World Health Organisation], (2008). The Promotion and Development of Traditional Medicine. Technical Report 622, Geneva

Nkpurukwe C.I., Odia, K.M, Bekinbo, M. T. “Hematological and Blood Glucose Regulatory Properties of Methanolic Extract of Capsicum Annuum (Chilli Pepper) in Rats” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.146-148 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/146-148.pdf

Download PDF


Antibacterial Activity of the Ethanolic Root Bark Extract of Plumbago zeylanica (Linn.)
A. B. Ogunleye and J. O. Akinneye – October 2019 – Page No.: 149-154

This study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic root bark extract of Plumbago zeylanica against seven bacteria isolated from two dumpsites in the city of Akure. Agar well diffusion method was used for this study. It was revealed that the ethanolic root bark extract of Plumbago zeylanica seems promising since it showed antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria (both Gram positive and Gram negative). From this study, it was recorded that the antibacterial activity of the extract increased with increasing concentration i.e. the concentration of 0.5g/ml showed the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. The highest zone of inhibition of 12.57mm was observed in Serratia spat the concentration of 0.5g/ml. Upon completion of this study, it is therefore recommended that more research work should be carried out on this plant in order to develop alternative antibacterial drugs for the treatment of diseases caused by bacteria.

Page(s): 149-154                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 November 2019

 A. B. Ogunleye
Department of Biology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

 J. O. Akinneye
Department of Biology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

[1]. Evans, C. E., Banso, A. and Samuel, O. A. (2002). Efficacy of some nupe medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi: an invitro study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 80: 21–24.
[2]. Das, P. N., Purohit S. S, Sharma A. K., and Kumar T. A. (2003). Hand book of Medicinal Plants, Agrobios (India), Agri House, Behind Nasrani Cinema, Chopasani road, Jodhpur.
[3]. Chanana, G. L. (1997). Standardisation and Quality control, In Devendra Sharma (ed.), compendium on Phytomedicines, council for development of Rural Areas, Gramin Chhetriya vikas Parishad, 2, Vigyan Lok, Vikas Marg Extension, Delhi, pp 323-326.
[4]. Baker, J. T., Borris, R. P., and Carte, B. (1995). Natural products drug discovery and Development: New perspective on international collaborations. Journal of Natural products 58:1325-1357.
[5]. Nisha, S. and Purshotam, K. (2014). Medicinal, Biological and Pharmacological Aspects of Plumbago zeylanica (Linn.). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 3(4): 117-120.
[6]. Paiva, S. R., Marques, S. S., Figueiredo, M. R. and Kaplan M. A. C. (2003). Plumbaginale: A Pharmacological approach. Florestae Ambiente 10: 98-105.
[7]. Sharma, P. C., Yelne, M. B. and Dennis, T. (2001). Data Base on Medicinal plant used in Ayurveda. Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, New Delhi.
[8]. Manu, P., Ankita, L., Swati, R. and Anju, R. (2012). Plumbago zeylanica l.: a mini review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Applications 3(3): 399-401.
[9]. Jiangsu, F. (1979). New Medical College, “Zhongyao Dictionary (Encyclopedia of Chinese Materia Medica),” Scientific & Technological Press, Shanghai. 711–712.
[10]. Ali, Aberoumand. (2012). Screening of Phytochemical Compounds and Toxic Proteinaceous Protease Inhibitor in Some Lesser-known Food Based Plants and Their Effects and Potential Applications in Food. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, 2(3): 16-20.
[11]. Subhash, K., Wabale, A. S. and Kharde, M. N. (2013). Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Studies on Plumbago zeylanica L. Advances in Bioresearch, 4(3): 115-117.
[12]. Haribabu, D., Vijaya, T., Ramana-Naidu, B. V., Subramanyam, P. and Rayalu, D. J. (2012). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial studies of compounds Isolated from Plumbago zeylanica.L. International Journal of Analytical, Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 1(3):83-90.
[13]. Arina, Z. B. and Iqbal, A. (2000). Effect of Plumbago zeylanica extract and certain curing agents on multidrug resistant bacteria of clinical origin. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 16(8):841-844.
[14]. Rahman, M. S. and Anwar, M. N. (2007). Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Extract Obtained from the Root of Plumbago zeylanica. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 24(1): 73-75.

A. B. Ogunleye and J. O. Akinneye “Antibacterial Activity of the Ethanolic Root Bark Extract of Plumbago zeylanica (Linn.)” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.149-154 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/149-154.pdf

Download PDF


Influence of Education Level of Parentson their involvement in Pre-Primary Children’s Science Skills Acquisition in Kitui County, Kenya
Kianga Njagi, Dr. Maureen Mweru – October 2019 – Page No.: 155-160

The aim of this study therefore was to determine whether the education level of parents influences involvement in their pre-primary children’s science skills acquisition in pre-primary schools in Mumoni Sub County, Kitui County Kenya. The study was based on Epstein’s Theory of Parental participation. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and the target population was 1457 subjects comprising of 149 early childhood teachers and 1308 parents of pre-primary school children. Simple random sampling was employed to select 45 teachers and 132 parents of the pre-primary children who were included in the study. The instruments for data collection included questionnaires for teachers and parents. Prior to data collection, the researcherconducted a pilot study in two schools in Mumoni Sub County that were not included in the final study. The quantitative data were coded and entered in the computer for analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21 for windows.Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, means and percentages were employed to analyze quantitative data obtained from the field. The study established that parents with no formal education inadequately engaged their children in science learning at home and inadequately supported their children’s science learning. This study therefore, recommends raising the level of parent’s education through capacity building, through adult literacy programmes, community empowerment programmes aimed at improving family incomes and diversifying and strengthen family guidance and counseling programs to mitigate divorce among other family disintegration triggers.

Page(s): 155-160                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 November 2019

 Kianga Njagi
Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Dr. Maureen Mweru
Kenyatta University, Kenya

[1]. Al-Shikili, A. (2013). The degree of Omani’s post basic education students’ acquisition of geographical science process skills (Unpublished MA Thesis), Sultan Qaboos University. Oman.

[2]. Brenneman, K., Stevenson-Boyd, J., &Frede, E. (2009).Math and Science in Preschool: Policies and Practice. Preschool Policy Matters, 19. New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Education Research.

[3]. Chevalier, A., Harmon, C., O’Sullivan, V., & Walker, I. (2013).The impact of parental income and education on the schooling of their children. IZA Journal of Labor Economics, 2(1), 8.

[4]. Copple, C. &Bredekamp, S. (2009). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through Age 8 (3rded.). Washington, DC: NAEYC.

[5]. Daniel, G. (2011). Family-School Partnerships: Towards Sustainable Pedagogical Practice. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 39(2), 165-176.

[6]. Epstein, J. L., Sanders, M. G., Sheldon, S. B., Simon, B. S., Salinas, K. C., Jansorn, N. R. & Hutchins, D. J. (2018). School, family, and community partnerships: Your handbook for action. Corwin Press.

[7]. Kemunto, N. (2012). Influence of home background on pre-school children’s academic performance in mathematics, MukuruKwaNjenga pre- school, Embakasi Nairobi, County. A Master of Education thesis, University of Nairobi.

[8]. Khatete, D. (2010). Innovative Pedagogy in Science Education.A paper presented at workshop “Towards Effective Pedagogy in Science Education” 17th to 19th June 2010, CEMASTEA Nairobi, Kenya.

[9]. Leavell, A. S., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Ruble, D. N., Zosuls, K. M., & Cabrera, N. J. (2012). African American, White and Latino Fathers’ Activities with Their Sons and Daughters in Early Childhood. Sex Roles, 66(1-2), 53-65.

[10]. Mbewe, S., Chabalengula, V. M. &Mumba, F. (2010). Pre-service teachers’ familiarity, interest and conceptual understanding of science process skills. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 22(22): 76-86.

[11]. Miles, E. (2010). In-Service elementary teachers’ familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge and performance on science process skills, MSc (Educ) Theses, Open SIUC, (i)-(ii)

[12]. Muola, J. M. (2010). A Study of the relationship between academic achievement motivation and home environment among standard eight pupils.Educational Research and Reviews, 5(5): 213 – 217.

[13]. Mutisya, S. M. Rotich, S. K. &Rotich, P. K. (2013). Conceptual understanding of science process skills and gender stereotyping: A Critical component for inquiry teaching of science in Kenya’s primary schools. Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (AJSSH), 2(3), 359-364.

[14]. Ndarihoranye, E. &Ndayambaje, D. (2012).Socio-Economic ProblemsAffecting Early Childhood Education. Kigali: KIE. Unpublished.

[15]. Njagi, J. (2016). Determinants Of Use Of Inquiry Based Instruction By Early Childhood Teachers’ In Teaching Science In Meru South Sub-County, Kenya. A Master of Education Thesis, Kenyatta University. Kenya.

[16]. Ntahombyariye, M. &Maniragaba, J. (2012).Factors that Hinder the EffectiveImplementation of Early Childhood Education in Rural Area:Case Study of Nemba Sector, Gakenke District. Kigali: KIE.Unpublished.

[17]. Ogbemudia, M. I. &Aiasa, M. V. (2013). Influence of home environment on the academic performance of primary five pupils’ in English language in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo State. Merit Research Journal of Education and Review, 1 (5), 120 – 125.

[18]. Olatoye, R. A. &Agbatogun, A. O. (2009).Parental involvement as a correlate of pupils’ achievement in mathematics and science in Ogun State, Nigeria. Educational Research and Review, 4 (10), 457-464.

[19]. Oyoo, S. O. (2010). Science teacher effectiveness as a condition for successful science education in Africa: A Focus on Kenya. The International Journal of Learning, 17(9): 24-33.

Kianga Njagi, Dr. Maureen Mweru “Influence of Education Level of Parentson their involvement in Pre-Primary Children’s Science Skills Acquisition in Kitui County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.155-160 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/155-160.pdf

Download PDF


Relationship between Self-efficacy and Academic Buoyancy among form three Students in Selected Secondary Schools in Migori County, Kenya
Rosemary Akinyi Olendo, Dr. Wawire Chrispus Koinange, Dr. Doyne Mugambi – October 2019 – Page No.: 161-170

The study explored the relationship between self-efficacy and academic buoyancy among form three students in Migori County. A mixed methods design was adopted for the study. The sample comprised 252 girls and 217 boys drawn from both public and private schools within the County. A student questionnaire and an interview schedule were used to collect data from the participants. Data on students’ academic achievement was collected through document analysis of their past academic records. Analyses of the obtained data were done using both descriptive and inferential analysis. The study revealed that more students were on the high level of self-efficacy (59.1%) and more students had a moderate (39.1%) level of academic buoyancy. It was further revealed that self-efficacy predicted students’ academic buoyancy and additionally, that there was no significant gender difference among the participants in both constructs. The study recommended that stakeholders employ interventions aimed at bolstering students’ level of self-efficacy, since it is amenable to change, in order to improve academic buoyancy.

Page(s): 161-170                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 November 2019

 Rosemary Akinyi Olendo
PhD Student, Department of Educational Psychology, Kenyatta University, P. O. Box 43844-00100, Kenya

 Dr. Wawire Chrispus Koinange
PhD, Lecturer, Department of Educational Psychology, Kenyatta University, P. O. Box 43844-00100, Kenya

 Dr. Doyne Mugambi
PhD, Lecturer, Department of Educational Psychology, Kenyatta University, P. O. Box 43844-00100, Kenya

[1]. Martin, A. J., & Marsh, H. W. (2006). Academic resilience and its psychological and educationalcorrelates: A construct validity approach. Psychology in the Schools, 43 (3), 267–282.
[2]. Martin, A. J., and Marsh, H. W. (2009). Academic resilience and academic buoyancy: multidimensional and hierarchical conceptual framing of courses correlates and cognate constructs. Oxford Review of Education, 35 (3), 353-370.
[3]. Martin, A. J., Colmar, S. H., Davey, L. A., & Marsh, H. W. (2010). Longitudinal modeling of academic buoyancy and motivation: Do the ‘5Cs’ hold up over time? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80 (3), 473–496.
[4]. Martin, A. J., & Marsh, H. W. (2003, November n.d). Academic Resilience and the Four Cs: Confidence, Control, Composure, and Commitment. Paper presented at Self-concept Enhancement and Learning Facilitation Research Centre, Auckland, New Zealand.
[5]. Mampane, M. R. (2014). Factors contributing to the academic resilience of middle-adolescents in South Africa Township: Insight from resilience questionnaire. South African Journal Education, 34 (4), 1-11
[6]. Mampane, R., & Bouwer, C. (2011). The influence of township schools on resilience of their learners. South African Journal of Education, 31(2011), 114-126.
[7]. Wills, G. & Hofmeyr, H. (2011). Academic resilience in challenging contexts: Evidence from township and rural primary schools in South Africa. A Working Paper of the Department of Economics and the Bureau for Economic Research at University Of Stellenbosch.
[8]. Collie, R. J., Ginns, P., Martin, A. J., & Papworth, B. (2017). Academic buoyancy mediates academic anxiety’s effects on learning strategies: An investigation of English- and Chinese-speaking Australian students. Educational psychology, 1-18.
[9]. Martin, A. J. (2013). Academic buoyancy and academic resilience: Exploring every day and classic resilience in the face of academic adversity. School Psychology International, 34 (5), 488-500.
[10]. Martin, A. J., Ginn, P., Brackett, M. A., Malmberg, L. E., & Hall, J. (2013). Academic buoyancy and psychological risk: Exploring reciprocal relationships. Learning and Individual Differences, 27 (2013), 128-133.
[11]. Carrington, C.C. (2016). Psycho-educational factors in the prediction of academic buoyancy in Second Life. (Doctoral thesis, Capella University).
[12]. Fong, C. J. (2014). The relationship between academic resilience and sources of self-efficacy: Investigation, Intervention, and Evaluation. (Master Thesis. The University of Texas, Austin, USA.)
[13]. Putwain, D. W., & Daly, A. L. (2012). Do clusters of test anxiety and academic buoyancy differentially predict academic performance? Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 157-162.
[14]. Symes, W., Putwain, D. W., & Remedios, R. (2015). The enabling and protective role of academic buoyancy in the appraisal of fear appeals used prior to high stakes examinations. School Psychology International, 36(6), 605–619.
[15]. Jahedizadeh, S., Ghonsooly, B., & Ghanizadeh, A. (2019) “Academic buoyancy in higher education: Developing sustainability in language learning through encouraging buoyant EFL students”, Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 11 (2), 162-177.
[16]. Reisy, J., Dehghani, M ., Javanmard, A ., Shojaei, M., & Naeimian, P.M. (2014) Analysis of the mediating effect of academic buoyancy on the relationship between family communication pattern and academic buoyancy. Journal of Educational and Management Studies, 4 (1), 64-70.
[17]. Martin, A. J., & Marsh, H. W. (2008). Academic buoyancy: Towards an understanding of students’ everyday academic resilience. Journal of School Psychology, 46 (2008) 53-83.
[18]. Borman, G. D., & Rachuba, L. T. (2001). Academic success among poor and minority students. An analysis of competing models of school effects. Report No. 52. Center for Research on the education of students placed at risk.
[19]. Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. Encyclopedia of human behavior, 4 (1994), 71-81. New York: Academic Press.
[20]. Cassidy S. (2015). Resilience building in students: The role of academic self-Efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 6 (1781), 1-14.
[21]. Bala, I., Kaur, R., & Singh, S. (2017). Self-efficacy of senior secondary school students with respect to demographic variables. International Journal of Advanced Research and Development, 2 (4) 111-114.
[22]. Arslan, A. (2013). Investigation of relationship between sources of self-efficacy beliefs of secondary school students and some variables. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 13 (4)
[23]. Aslam, S., & Ali, M. S. (2017). Effect of self-efficacy on students’ achievement in science: a case of secondary school students in Pakistan. European Journal of Education Studies, 3 (11), 220- 235.
[24]. Moradi, M., Jamalabadi, M., Shahabzadeh, S., Shibani, O., Moradi, S., & Horri, M. (2018). Academic self-efficacy beliefs and academic vitality; the role of schoolwork engagement and gender. Educational Development of Judishapur, 8(4), 419-435.
[25]. Aurah, C. (2017). Investigating the Relationship between Science Self-efficacy Beliefs, Gender, and Academic Achievement, among High School Students in Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice, 8 (8), 1-8
[26]. Ochieng, W. (2015). Self-efficacy and academic achievement among secondary schools in Kenya: mathematics perspective. (Unpublished Master Thesis. University of Nairobi, Kenya.)
[27]. Onyeizugbo, E. U. (2010). Self-efficacy, gender and trait anxiety as moderators of test anxiety. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 8 (1), 299-312
[28]. Creswell, J W., (2018). Core mixed methods design. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
[29]. Martin, A. J. (2007). Examining a multidimentional model of student motivation and engament using construct validation approach. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 413-440.
[30]. Schmider, E., Ziegler, M., Danay, E., Beyer, L., & Bũhner, M. (2010). Is it really robust? Reinvestigating the robustness of ANOVA against violations of the normal distribution assumption. Methodology, 6 (4), 147-151.
[31]. DeCarlo, L. T., (1997). On the meaning and Use of kurtosis. Psychology Methods 2 (3) 292-307.
[32]. Ahmad, A., & Safaria, T. (2013) Effects of self-efficacy on students’ academic performance Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology, 2 (1), 234-248
[33]. Mburu, D.N.P., (2013) Effects of the type of school attended on students’ academic performance in Kericho and Kipkelion District., Kenya International Journal of Humanities and Social Science , 3 (4)
[34]. Rutter, M., (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, l 57 (3), 316-331
[35]. Surland, R (2017) Student voices: self-efficacy and graduating high school. (Unpublished thesis).
[36]. Maropamabi, G., (2014) Role of self-efficacy and self-esteem in academic performance. European Journal of Educational Sciences, 2 (2), 8-22.

Rosemary Akinyi Olendo, Dr. Wawire Chrispus Koinange, Dr. Doyne Mugambi “Relationship between Self-efficacy and Academic Buoyancy among form three Students in Selected Secondary Schools in Migori County, Kenya ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.161-170 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/161-170.pdf

Download PDF


Extraction of Zeolite from Flyash for Removal of Hardness from Borewell Water
P. P. Wani – October 2019 – Page No.: 171-174

The environmental issues regarding hardness of water are growing day by day and has brought the requirement of eco-friendly and as well as economical alternatives for its removal. Our work focused on the treatment of water only for removal of hardness. The material selected, should be such a bulk amount waste, so its usage, not only counteract the expensiveness issue but also helps to tackle waste management for that particular waste. Fly Ash is such an alternative which is cheap, as waster material of power plant, has multipurpose use in treatment of hard water. Though the use of Fly Ash is high in concrete technology and concrete products yet the quantity generated is such that it waste disposal is yet an issue. As fly as contains SiO2, Al2O3, and calcium oxide which resembles the compostion of zeolite, which can be extracted and used for removal of hardness of water economically and solve much more problem of solid waste disposal

Page(s): 171-174                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 November 2019

 P. P. Wani
Gokhale Education Society’s R.H. Sapat College of Engineering, Management studies and Research, Nasik 422005, Maharashtra, India

[1]. Moyo M 2.Muguni L 3.Nyamunda B.C.-Optimization of Copper and Zinc from aqueous solution by Coal Fly ash as adsorbent ,Moyo .M. et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST),vol:4-4th April 2012.
[2]. Parag Solanki 2.Vikal Gupta 3. Ruchi Kulshrestha-Synthesis of Zeolite from Fly Ash and Removal ofHeavy Metal Ions from Newly Synthesized Zeolite,www.e-journals.com,11th Nov 2009.
[3]. Samson Oluwaseyi2.SanjaPotgieter- Vermaak-Evaluation and Treatment of Coal Fly Ash for Adsorption Application, Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies,Jan- June2008.
[4]. Sunil J. Kulkarni 2. Sonali R. Dhokpande3. Dr. Jayant .P. Kaware-Studies on Flyash as an Adsorbent for Removal of Various Pollutants from Wastewater. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST),Vol:2 May 2013.
[5]. V. Sridevi 2.M.V.V.ChandanaLaksh3. Satya VaniYadla-Adsorption isothermal studies of lead of aqua solution using Fly Ash. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), vol:2 Nov 2013.
[6]. ChutimaJarusiripot,Removal of Reactive Dye by Adsorption over Chemical Pretreatment Coal Based Bottom Ash, International Conference and Workshop on Chemical Engineering UNPAR 2013, ICCE UNPAR 2013
[7]. ChafikaMezitia, 2.Abdelhamid Boukerroui,Removal of a Basic Textile Dye from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Regenerated Clay,ISWEE’11
[8]. YangkyuAhn, 2.Dae-Sup Kil, 3.Jung Il Yang, 4.Hun S. Chung,Characteristics of Unburned Carbon Particles Recovered from Fly Ash,Dept. Chemistry, Konyang University, Nonsan, Korea Korea Institute of Geology, Mining & Materials, Taejon, Korea.
[9]. A.K.Goswami, 2.S.J.Kulkarni, 3.S.K.Dharmadhikari, 4.P.E.Patil,Fly Ash as Low Cost Adsorbent to Remove Dyes,International Journal of scientific research and management (IJSRM),Volume 2,Issue 5,Pages :842-845,2014. Website: www.ijsrm.in ISSN (e): 2321-3418
[10]. Bnuce S. HeurNcwAyand 2.Rrchrno A. Roer, Thermodynamic properties of zeolites: low- temperature heat capacities and thermodynamic functions for phillipsite and clinoptilolite. Estimates of the thermochemical properties of zeolitic water at low temperature,American Mineralogist, Volume 69, pages 692-700, 1984.
[11]. Coal ash,Sgs minerals services – t3 Sgs 528.
[12]. Rajesh Biniwale, 2.Sadhana Rayulu and 3.M.Z.Hasan,Cost estimates for fly ash based Zeolites type A, Journal of scientific and industrial research, vol. 60, July 2001,pp 574-579.
[13]. WHO Guideline for drinking water.
[14]. IS: 1727 – 1967 (Methods of test for Pozzolanic materials).
[15]. Robert .L. Virta-Zeolites, 1995.
[16]. www.zeolites-products.com
[17]. www.sciencedirect.com
[18]. The Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986, [SCHEDULE – VI].

P. P. Wani “Extraction of Zeolite from Flyash for Removal of Hardness from Borewell Water” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.171-174 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/171-174.pdf

Download PDF


Spatial Analysis of Effect of Location on Prices of Transacted Property in Ile-Ife, State of Osun, Nigeria Using GIS Tools 2017-2018
Awotungase Abayomi S., Fagbemi Kayode B., Hassan Yakubu O., Olaitan, A.P., Ibrahim-Adedeji K.B.; Talabi, J.I., Apete-Adebola Lateefah A – October 2019 – Page No.: 175-179

This study analyses the effect of location on price of selected transacted property in Ile-Ife, State of Osun, Nigeria using GIS, with a view to providing information for property owners and government that will guide them in future transactions. By assembling cases of land transactions in the study area from March 2017 –February 2018, this study analyses the connection between physical accessing of sites, the spatial location of their local environment, along with vacant land prices of the respective sites. This finding provides powerful connection between variations in the regulatory environment around the study area and the prices specifying raw land as an input to residential or commercial advancement. However, the study relates variations in land prices to the prices paid by prospective buyers in the study area.

Page(s): 175-179                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 November 2019

 Awotungase Abayomi S.
Department of Architecture Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Nigeria

 Fagbemi Kayode B.
Department of Architecture Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji, Nigeria

 Hassan Yakubu O.
Post-graduate Student, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria

 Olaitan, A.P.
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Nigeria

 Ibrahim-Adedeji K.B.
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Nigeria

 Talabi, J.I.
Department of Architecture Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Nigeria

 Apete-Adebola Lateefah A
Department of Quantity Surveying, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Nigeria

Abreu, M., H. L. DeGroot and R. J. Florax. “2005, “Space and growth: a survey of empirical evidence and methods.” Région et Développement 21 (2005): 13-44.
[2]. Adair, A., J. Berry and l W.S McGrea. “Hedonic Modelling, housing submarkets and residential valuation.” Journal of Property Research 13 (1996): 67–83.
[3]. Albouy, David and Ehrlich Gabriel. Metropolitan Land Values and Housing Productivity. Michigan : University of Michigan , 2011.
[4]. Alston, Julian M. “An Analysis of Growth in U.S. Farmland Prices: 1963-82.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 68.1 (1986): 1-9.
[5]. Anselin, L. “Under the hood : Issues in the specification and interpretation of spatial regression models.” Agricultural Economics, Blackwell 27.3 (2002): 247-267.
[6]. Anselin, L.,. “Thirty Years of Spatial Econometrics.” 2009.
[7]. Bello, Victoria. “Marketing Time and Sales Price of Residential Properties in Akure, Nigeria.” Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 6.24 (2015): 129-134.
[8]. Black, Sandra. “Do Better Schools Matter? Parental Valuation of Elementary Education.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 114 .2 (1999): 577-600.
[9]. Bourassa, SC, M. Hoesli and VS. Peng. “Do housing submarkets really matter?” Journal of Housing Economic 125 (2003): 12–28.
[10]. C., Baumont and Legros D. “, “Neighbourhood effects in spatial housing value models: the case of the metropolitan area of Paris (1999).” 2009.
[11]. Cannon, S. E. and Col, R. A., 2011,. “How accurate are commercial-real-estate appraisals? Evidence from 25 years of NCREIF sales data.” Journal of Portfolio Management 37.5 (2011): 68-88.
[12]. Cervero, Robert and Murakami Jin. “Effects of Built Environments on Vehicle Miles Traveled: Evidence from 370 US Urbanized Areas.” Environment and Planning A, 42 42 (2010): 400-418.
[13]. Clayton, J., D. Geltner and S.W. Hamilton. “Smoothing in commercial property valuations: Evidence from individual appraisals.” Real Estate Economics 29 (2001): 337–360.
[14]. Coffee, N. and T. Lockwood. “The Property Wealth Metric and Socio Economic Indicators Estate Society January 15–18.” 18th Annual Conference Pacific Rim Real. Adelaide, Australia : Edited by Society PRRE Pacific Rim Real Estate Society, 2012 January 15-18.
[15]. Coffee, Neil T, et al. “Relative residential property value as a socio-economic status indicator for health research.” International Journal of Health Geographics 12.22 (2012): 1-19.
[16]. Crosby, N., S. Devaney and V. Law. “Benchmarking and valuation issues in measuring depreciation for European office markets.” Journal of European Real Estate Research 4 .1 (2011): 7-28.
[17]. Davis, E. P. and H. Zhu. “6Bank lending and commercial property prices: some cross country.” (2011).
[18]. —. “Commercial property prices and bank performance.” The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 49 (2009): 1341–1359.
[19]. Davis, Morris A. and Heathcote Jonathan. “The Price and Quantity of Residential Land in the United States.” Journal of Monetary Economics 54.8 (2007): 2595-2620.
[20]. Davis, Morris A. and Michael G. Palumbo. “The Price of Residential Land in Large US Cities.” Journal of Urban Economics 63.1 (2008): 352-384.
[21]. Di, ZX, Y Yang and X Liu. The Importance of Housing to the Accumulation of Household Net Wealth. Harvard University: Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, Working Paper W01-6, 2003.
[22]. Eichholtz, Piet ,M.A., Nils Kok and John M. Quigley. “Doing Well by Doing Good: Green Office Buildings.” American Economic Review 100.5 (2010): 2494-2511.
[23]. Gallimore, P, Fletcher, M, Carter, M. “Modelling the Influence of Location on.” Journal of Property Valuation Investment 14 (1996): 6–19.
[24]. Galster, G. “William Grigsby and the Analysis of Housing Sub-markets and Filtering.” Journal of Urban Studies (1996): 1797–1805.
[25]. Gibb, K and M. Hoesli. “Developments in Urban Housing and Property Markets.” Journal of Urban Studies 40 (2003): 887–896.
[26]. Kok, Nils, Paavo Monkkonen and John M. Quigley. Economic Geography, Jobs, and Regulations: The Value of Land and Housing . Berkeley: Research Institute at Maastricht University, 2011.
[27]. Maclennan, D. and Y. Tu. “: Economic Perspectives on the structure of Local Housing Systems.” Housing Studies 1996 11 (1996): 387–405.
[28]. Rothenberg, J., et al. The Maze of Urban Housing Markets Theory, Evidence, and Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.
[29]. Selin, Özyurt. Spatial dependence in Commercial Property Prices Micro Evidence from the Netherlands. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: European Central Bank, 2014.
[30]. Shevky, E. and W. Bell. Social area analysis. Theory, illustrative application and computational procedures. Stanford California: Stanford University Press, 1955.
[31]. Thrall, G.I. Business Geography and New Real Estate Market Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
[32]. Watkins, C. “The definition and identification of housing submarkets.” Environmental and Planning A 33 (2001): 2235–2253.

Awotungase Abayomi S., Fagbemi Kayode B., Hassan Yakubu O., Olaitan, A.P., Ibrahim-Adedeji K.B.; Talabi, J.I., Apete-Adebola Lateefah A “Spatial Analysis of Effect of Location on Prices of Transacted Property in Ile-Ife, State of Osun, Nigeria Using GIS Tools 2017-2018” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.175-179 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/175-179.pdf

Download PDF


Impacts of Intrinsic Motivational Tools on Job Commitment of Employees in Selected Private University in South Western Nigeria
Samuel Adewale Oladiipo, Stephen Olugbenga Afolabi, Johnson. O. Laosebikan, Damian Brownson Nwachukwu- October 2019 – Page No.: 180-193

This research study seeks to investigate the motivational factors that induce employees’ commitment in an organization. Many organizations are facing challenges on motivational factors that will induce their employees to be more committed to their jobs. Employees that are not well motivated will find it difficult to discharge their duties as expected by their employers. The vital predictor of commitment is motivation, which motivates employees to spend time and energy in the organizations. Employees’ commitment is a very vital element to boost job performance. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The study used stratified sampling to categorize respondents and ensure that each member of the population was given equal chance of being selected for study. Questionnaire was administered for data collection. In all 374 participants were selected for the study. The data were analyzed using various statistical techniques. Mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression and correlation analysis.

Page(s): 180-193                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 November 2019

 Samuel Adewale Oladiipo
Department of Social and Management Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria

 Stephen Olugbenga Afolabi
Department of Social and Management Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria

 Johnson. O. Laosebikan
Department of Social and Management Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria

 Damian Brownson Nwachukwu
Department of Social and Management Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria

[1]. Bakay A, & Huang J (2010). A conceptual model of motivational antecedents of job outcomes and how organizational culture moderates 08.12.2016, http://ssrn.com/abstract=1722048.Becker, H.S. (1960). Notes on the concept of commitment. Am. J. Soc., 66: 32-40.
[2]. Chang H, Chi N, & Miao M (2007).Testing the relationship between three-component organizational/occupational commitment and organizational occupational turnover intention using a non-recursive model. J. Vocal Behav., 70: 352-368.
[3]. Cheng Y, & Stockdale M.S (2003). The validity of the three-component model of organizational commitment in a Chinese context. J Vocal Behav., 62: 465–489.
[4]. Chong VK, & Eggleton IRC (2007). The impact of reliance on incentive based compensation schemes, information asymmetry and organizational commitment on managerial performance. Manage. Account. Res., 18: 312-342.
[5]. Deci, E.L. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum Press.Deci EL, Ryan RM (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.
[6]. Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M.(2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67.
[7]. Deci E. L. (2009). Promoting Self-Determined School Engagement: Motivation, Learning, and well-being. In K.R.Wenzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Educational Psychology handbook series.Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 171-195). New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor ^ Francis Group.
[8]. Decharms, R. (1968). Personal causation: the internal affective determinants of behaviour. New York: Academic Press.
[9]. DeSilva DAM, & Yamao M (2006). The involvement of female labor in seafood processing in Sri Lanka: Impact of organizational fairness, organizational commitment and supervisor evaluation on employee commitment. In Choo PS, Hall SJ, Williams MJ (eds.) Global Symposium on Gender and Fisheries. Seventh Asian Fisheries Forum, 1-2 December, 2004, Penang, Malaysia, pp. 103-114.
[10]. Eby LT, Freeman DM, Rush MC, & Lance CE (1999). Motivational bases of affective organizational commitment: A partial test of an integrative theoretical model. J. Occup. Organ. Psychol., 72: 463– 483.
[11]. Erdheim J, Wang M, & Zickar M.J, Cheng Y & Stockdale M.S. (2006). Linking the big five personality constructs to organizational commitment. Pers. Individ. Differ., 41: 959-970
[12]. Extension and test of a 3-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 538-551.
[13]. Geomani, (2012), Impact of Motivation on employee job performance, 46 P,http://ivythesis.typepad.com/term-paper-topics/2010/01/the-impact-of-motivation-employee-performance-research-proposal.html.
[14]. Johnson RE, Chang CH, & Yang LQ (2010).Commitment and motivation at work: The relevance of employee identity and regulatory focus. Acad. Manag. Rev., 35: 226-245.
[15]. Kim WG, Leong JK, & Lee YK (2005).Effect of service orientation on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention of leaving in a casual dining chain restaurant. Hosp. Manage., 24: 171-193.
[16]. Meyer JP,& Allen NJ (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Hum. Resource. Manage. Rev., 1: 6189.
[17]. Meyer, J.P. & Herskovitch, L. (2001). Commitment in the workplace: Toward a general model. Morris (1953), Effect of motivation in an organisation. New York: McGraw-Hill.
[18]. Meyer, J.P., Allen, N.J. & Smith, C.A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations.
[19]. Mowday, R.T., Porter, L.W. & Dubin, R. (1974). Unit performance, situational factors, and employee attitudes in spatially separated work units. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 231-248
[20]. Mowday RT, Steers RM, & Porter LW (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. J. Vocal Behav., 14: 224 – 247.
[21]. Obeng K, Ugboro I (2003). Organizational commitment among public transit employees: An assessment study. J. Transp. Res. Forum, 57: 83-98.
[22]. Pinder CC (1998). Work Motivation in Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[23]. Pool S, & Pool B (2007). A management development model: measuring organizational commitment and its impact on job satisfaction among executives in a learning organization. J. Manag. Dev., 26: 353-369.
[24]. Robbins, S.P., & Judge, T. (2008).Organisational Behaviour.13th Edition.
[25]. (Shaw et al., 2003; Chong & Eggleton, 2007; Wong & Law, 2002) satisfaction (Mathieu & Zajac, 1990; Pool and Pool, 2007; Yang and Chang, 2008), The impact of reliance on incentive based compensation schemes, information asymmetry and organizational commitment on managerial performance. Manage. Account. Res., 18: 312-342.
[26]. Shiverick, B. & Janelle, P. (May 2009). Achieving Excellence Through Employee Commitment. My Inner View,1-4.
[27]. Tella, A., Ayeni, C.O., & Popoola, S.O., (2007). Work motivation, Job Satisfaction and organisational Commitment of Library Personnel in Academic and Research Libraries in Oyo State. Library Philosophy and Practice, 9,2,13.
[28]. Thakor M. & Joshi W. (2005).Motivating Salesperson Customer orientation: insight from job characteristics model.
[29]. Thomas, K.B., & Velthouse, B.A., (1990). Cognition Elements of Empowerment; An “Interpretive” Model of Intrinsic Task Motivation, Academy of Management Review, 15, 666-681.

Samuel Adewale Oladiipo, Stephen Olugbenga Afolabi, Johnson. O. Laosebikan, Damian Brownson Nwachukwu “Impacts of Intrinsic Motivational Tools on Job Commitment of Employees in Selected Private University in South Western Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.180-193 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/180-193.pdf

Download PDF


Spatial Analysis and Distribution of Hotels and Tourism Centres in Ado-Ekiti
Agbayekhai J. P, Ishola K. O, Jegede P. A, Oyinkolade P.S- October 2019 – Page No.: 194-206

Location is a key conception in tourism sector analysis. Location of tourism and recreation plays a critical role for physical and mental health and contributes substantially to human well-being. The aim of the study was to analyze the spatial distribution of the recreation and tourism in Ado-Ekiti. This study analyzed the distribution of hotels and tourism centres in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State and the service available in the hotels and the significance of the tourism centres. The study advocated the relevance for a database containing information about the hotels and tourism centres in the area. The study made use of data from both primary and secondary sources. The handed (Global Positioning System) GPS receiver was used to capture the geographic coordinates of the hotels and tourism centres. The list of registered hotels and their addresses were obtained from internet sources while personal interview was carried out to gather data on the services provided by the hotels. A total of sixty-three (63) hotels and five (5) tourism sites were surveyed. It was detected that the hotels in the 2 star categories are the highest category in Ado-Ekiti. It was also observed most of these hotels were situated along road network. Furthermore, the study revealed that the prices of the hotels accommodate every socio-economic class of people. It is therefore recommended that hotel facilities should be upgraded for optimum performance that can meet desirable international criteria.

Page(s): 194-206                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 November 2019

 Agbayekhai J. P
Federal Polytechnic Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Ishola K. O
Federal Polytechnic Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Jegede P. A
Federal Polytechnic Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Oyinkolade P.S
Federal Polytechnic Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

[1]. Baba S. (2016).Spatial Distribution and Service Delivery of Hotels in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. Unpublished Dissertation in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of M.Sc. Degree in Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System. (Online) available at http://kubanni.abu.edu.ng/jspui/bitstream/123456789/8741/1/SPATIAL%20DISTRIBUTION%20AND%20SERVICE%20DELIVERY%20OF%20HOTELS%20IN%20KADUNA%20METROPOLIS%2C%20NIGERIA.pdf (Accessed on July 30, 2019).
[2]. Encyclopaedia Britannica (2019). Ado-Ekiti. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. (Online) available at https://www.britannica.com/place/Ado-Ekiti (Accessed on July 26, 2019)
[3]. Marcoutler, D. W. (2000). “Outdoor recreation and rural development”. In Eyo B.B & Ajake A. O. (2019). Spatial Distribution of Recreational Resorts in a Model Tourism Destination, Southern Nigeria. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports. Vol. 40 (Online) available at http://www.iiste.org/ (Accessed on July 29, 2019).
[4]. Oppermann, M., Din K.H. &Amri, S.Z. (1996). Urban Hotel Location and Evolution in a Developing Country: The Case of Johannesburg, Development Southern Africa, 19(1), 169-190
[5]. Tribe J. The economics of recreation, leisure and tourism. Fifth edit ed. New York, NY: Routledge; 2016.
[6]. Uwadiegwu B. O. (2006). Basics of Recreation and Tourism Facilities Planning. Enugu, Academic Publishing Company.
[7]. Vieira A. C. & Santos L. D. (2017). Tourism and Regional Development: A Spatial Econometric Model for Portugal at Municipal level. FEP Working Papers 589, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto. (Online) available at https://ideas.repec.org/p/wiw/wiwrsa/ersa15p641.html (Accessed on July 25, 2019).
[8]. Yoon Y, Uysal M. (2005). An examination of the Effects of Motivation and Satisfaction on Destination Loyalty: A Structural Model. Tourism Management. 26(1):45–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2003.08. 016

Agbayekhai J. P, Ishola K. O, Jegede P. A, Oyinkolade P.S “Spatial Analysis and Distribution of Hotels and Tourism Centres in Ado-Ekiti” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.194-206 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/194-206.pdf

Download PDF


Teacher-Factors Related to Counselling Strategies affecting Guidance and Counselling in Lower Primary School in Uniformed-Forces Based Schools in Nakuru County, Kenya
Adelaide Atakha Asenahabi, Dr. Margaret Mwangi- October 2019 – Page No.: 207-211

The main aim of this study was to establish the teacher counselling strategy-related factors affecting guidance and counselling in lower primary school pupils in uniformed forces-based schools in Nakuru County. The research adopted a descriptive survey. The study sample included all the five (5) head teachers of the study schools, five (5) teacher counsellors and (30) lower primary school class teachers of the study schools. Qualitative data was obtained from the open-ended questionnaires and the interview while quantitative data was derived from the closed-ended questionnaires. The results were presented using descriptive statistics such as frequency distributions, percentages and tabulations while qualitative data was presented using texts and verbatims. The results of the study indicated that lack of appropriate strategies for counselling of lower primary school pupils, the heavy workload and other non- guidance and counselling duties such as subject teaching and training of pupils in co-curricular activities hinder provision of guidance and counselling service in lower primary schools. The study concludes that teacher counsellors do not use a variety of strategies when counselling pupils. The study recommended that schools should use play activities such as sand play in guiding and counselling the lower primary school pupils; resources need to be availed to enhance provision of the guidance and counselling services to pupils effectively; teacher counsellors should be exposed to frequent training to acquire new and varied competencies and strategies for counselling lower primary school pupils, head teachers and class teachers should fully be supportive to counselling in the uniformed –forces based schools.

Page(s): 207-211                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 November 2019

 Adelaide Atakha Asenahabi
School of Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya

 Dr. Margaret Mwangi
School of Education, Kenyatta University, Kenya

[1]. Ajowi, J. O., & Simatwa, E. M. (2010). The role of guidance and counseling in promoting student discipline in secondary schools in Kenya: A case study of Kisumu district Educational Research and Reviews, 5(5), 263-272.
[2]. Amani, H. (2015). The Status of Career Counselling in Higher Learning Institutions in Tanzania. Department of Educational Psychology and Curriculum Studies. Mkawa University College of Education, Tanzania. Retrieved from www.ijetssnet.com
[3]. Anderson, D.(2013). Guidance and Counselling in Schools: Survey Findings. Education Review Office. Retrieved from www.ero.govt.nz.
[4]. Bain, S. (2012). School Counselling: A Review of Contemporary Issues. Texas A &M University Kingsville. Research in Higher Education Journal.
[5]. Chinonyelum, E. (2015). The Challenges of Guidance and Counselling Practices as Percieved by Secondary School Counsellors in Enugu State Nigeria.Paper Presented to Department of Guidance and Counselling,Faculty of Education,Enugu State University of Science and Technology,Nigeria.
[6]. Chireshe, R. (2012). Career Guidance and Counselling Provisions at a South African University: Career Advisors`s Reflections. College of Education, Department of Psychology of Education, University of south Africa. Creative Commons Attribution (2016). Wikipedia Foundation. Retrieved from http://wikipedia.org/wikicategorypeople who work with children.
[7]. Daniunaite Copper (2016). Counselling in UK Primary Schools;Outcomes and Predictors of Change,Counselling and Psychotherapy Research.Retrieved from www.gov.uk/government/Publication’s .on.
[8]. Gudyanga, E., Wadesango, N., Manzira, R., & Gudyanga, A.(2015). Implementation of Guidance and Counselling in Secondary Schools in Chinhoyi Urban Midlands State University.Faculty ofEducation,Gweru,Zimbambwe.
[9]. Masoumeh, A., Nazanin, B.,& Tajudin, N. (2012). The challenges of high school counsellors inworkplace.A research Paper Presented to Faculty of Education,Department of Guidance and Counselling.University of Teknology, Malaysia Elsevier Ltd.
[10]. Mbabazi, G., & Bagaya (2013). Guidance and Counselling Strategies and Conformity with Code of Conduct in Secondary Schools in Gulu Municipality, Uganda.Macrothink Institute. International Journal of Education Vol.5. No.2.
[11]. Ruttoh, R. & Jepkkoech, R. (2015). Planning and implementation of Guidance and Counselling Activities in Secondary School;A case of Kamariny Division of Keiyo District, Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice Vol.6 No.5
[12]. Topister, R., & Jepchirchir, R. (2014). Determinants of Guidance and Counselling Programme in addressing Students Social Adjustments in Schools in Siaya District. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Vol.4 No.4 2014.

Adelaide Atakha Asenahabi, Dr. Margaret Mwangi “Teacher-Factors Related to Counselling Strategies affecting Guidance and Counselling in Lower Primary School in Uniformed-Forces Based Schools in Nakuru County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.207-211 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/207-211.pdf

Download PDF


The Crisis in Yemen and Security Implications in the Middle East
Sylvester Ekpudu- October 2019 – Page No.: 212-220

This paper examined the Yemen crisis with a view to ascertaining its implication on the Middle East. The theory that was used for the study was the Institutional theory. The paper addressed issues that have to do with conceptual clarifications such as; the concept of security and regional crisis. The study adopted ex-post factor research design as the research design while data for the study was through secondary sources such as journal article, text books magazine newspapers and institutional documents and the content analysis method was adopted in the analysis. The findings of the paper among others revealed that the organized crime, corruption, terrorism and challenges of aid delivery have arisen as a result of the Yemen crisis and consequently it has affected the region in terms of humanitarian crisis which have made citizen of Yemen move to countries like Saudi Arabia, Oman and Djibouti. The finding of the paper further showed the security implications of the Yemen crisis on Iran and Saudi Arabia has for all intent brought about the proliferation of small arms, smuggling and piracy have affected the countries in the region. The paper recommended among others that the international community must make every effort to end the conflict in Yemen by developing mechanisms and strategies which would take into account the interests of all parties involved in this conflict and effective control of the circulation of small arms be ensured through the establishment of coherent legal and regulatory framework to control the circulation of small arms.

Page(s): 212-220                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 November 2019

 Sylvester Ekpudu
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

[1]. Abolurin, A. (2011). Para-military agencies and the promotion of good governance for national security in Nigeria in Ade Abolurin [ed] Nigeria’s National Security: Issues and Challenges. Ibadan: John Archers Publishers.
[2]. Amenta, Edwin. (2005). State-centered and political institutionalist theory: Retrospect and prospect. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
[3]. Batha, E. (2017) Child marriage soars in Yemen as famine looms UN.Thomson Reuters Foundation News. Retrieved May 20 2019 from http://news.trust.org/item/20170327152607456zy/?cid=social_20170328_71114866&adbid=10155150470554105&adbpl=fb&adbpr=168811439104
[4]. Bodunde, D. O., Ola, A. A. & Afolabi, M. B. (2014). Internal insecurity in Nigeria, the irony of multiplicity of security outfits and security challenges. IMPACT: IJRHAL. 2, 213-220.
[5]. Buzan, B. (1991). New pattern of global security in twenty-first century.Royal Institute of International Affairs, 431– 451.
[6]. Central Statistical Organization Security and Justice(2003). Sana’a Republic of Yemen.
[7]. Gulf Labor Market and Migration, Total Population and Percentage of Nationals and Non-nationals in GCC Countries.RetrievedMay 20 2019 from http://gulfmigration.eu/total-population-and-percentage-of-nationals-and-non-nationals-in-gcc-countries-latest-national-statistics-2010-2015/
[8]. Juneau, T. (2010). Yemen: Prospects for state failure implications and remedies.Middle East Policy. 27, 3.
[9]. Lukes, S. (1974). Power: A radical view. New York, NY: Macmillan.
[10]. Mann, M (1986). The sources of social power. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
[11]. Martínez, A D(2007). Organised crime the state and democracy: The cases of central America and the Caribbean. Madrid: Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior.
[12]. McKernan, B. (2017). Saudi Arabia deports 40,000 Pakistani workers over terror fears, Independent.Retrieved May 20 2019 fromwww.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/saudi-arabia-deports-40000-pakistan-workers-terror-fears-attacks-counter-terrorism-a7578151.html
[13]. Monitoring Group on Somalia. Retrieved May 20 2019 from http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2010/91.
[14]. Murphy, M. N. (2010). Small boats, weak states, dirty money: Piracy and maritime terrorism in the modern world. London: C. Hurts & Co.
[15]. Nwolise, O. B. C. (2008). National security and sustainable democracy in Emmanuel O. O. [ed], Challenges of Sustainable Democracy in Nigeria. Ibadan: John Archers Publisher.
[16]. Ochoche, S. (1997), Electoral severity and national security in Nigeria.African Peace Review. 1, 27.
[17]. Ogaba, O. (2010). Security, globalization and climate change: A conceptual analysis.
[18]. Shaibany, S (2017). Oman provides sanctuary for Yemenis fleeing conflict. The National. Retrieved May 202019 from www.thenational.ae/world/middle-east/oman-provides-sanctuary-for-yemenis-fleeing-conflict.
[19]. Skocpol, T. (1985). Bringing the state back In: Strategies of analysis in current research. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
[20]. UNHCR (2015)Regional Refugee and Migrant Response Plan: Arrivals from Yemen by Country.
[21]. UNHCR (2015)Submission by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees for the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights Compilation Report Universal Periodic Review. Retrieved May 20 2019 from www.refworld.org/country,,UNHCR,,OMN,,56371d0f4,0.html .
[22]. UNHCR, (2016).Yemeni crisis response factsheet.
[23]. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. The United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems. Geneva: United Nations. — 2010 UNODC and Yemen launch five year integrated country programme to tackle organised crime. Geneva: UNODC. Retrieved May 20th 2019 from http://www.unodc.org/
[24]. Walt, S. M. (1991). The renaissance of security studies.Mershon International Studies Review, 41, 211-239.
[25]. Williams, P. D. (2008). Security studies: An introduction. London: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group
[26]. Worth, R. F. (2010). Saudi border with Yemen is still inviting for Al Qaeda. Retrieved May 202019 www.nytimes.com/2010/10/27/world/middleeast/27saudi.html?pagewanted=all .

Sylvester Ekpudu “The Crisis in Yemen and Security Implications in the Middle East” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.212-220 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/212-220.pdf

Download PDF


Relationship Between Amount of Homework and Performance in Mathematics among Public Day Secondary School Students in Hamisi Sub-County, Kenya
Obuya S. O. Peter, Francis C. Indoshi and Tony O. Okwach- October 2019 – Page No.: 221-227

Various endeavors have been employed to improve performance in mathematics in Hamisi Sub-County including homework which teachers give to students at various amounts to no avail. Performance in mathematics is still the lowest not only in the county but also in the entire region. Appropriately managed homework may not have been exploited as research done so far has not established the amount of homework which impacts positively on the performance of secondary school students in mathematics. Existing literature indicates that teachers give various amounts of homework tasks based on their own discretion yet little is known about how much homework task is beneficial to learners in terms of improved performance in mathematics. In this study, questionnaires and document analysis guide were used to collect quantitative data which were then analyzed by use of frequencies, percentages and Pearson moment correlation coefficient. Qualitative data were analyzed by creating thematic categories and reported as verbatim excerpts. The study revealed that students assigned 21-30 mathematics questions staggered through different days within a week performed better than those assigned more or less questions for the entire topic but as a single assignment done within a period of one day. The findings of this study may be useful to the Ministry of Education, school managers and administrators to develop a policy on homework as a tool for enhancing performance in mathematics and other subjects instead of leaving its management exclusively at the discretion of teachers.

Page(s): 221-227                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 November 2019

 Obuya S. O. Peter
Department of Educational Communication Technology and Curriculum Studies, Maseno University, Kenya

 Francis C. Indoshi
Department of Educational Communication Technology and Curriculum Studies, Maseno University, Kenya

 Tony O. Okwach
Department of Educational Communication Technology and Curriculum Studies, Maseno University, Kenya

[1]. Adam M., & Robert H. T. (2012). When is homework worth the time?: Evaluating the Association Between Homework and Achievement in High School Science and Mathematics.
[2]. Annisia, M. (2015). Parental Involvement and its Effects on Students’ Academic Performances in Public Secondary Schools in Korogwe, Tanzania.
[3]. Comber, B. (2017). Literacy and Improvement: Finding Space in a Crowded Curriculum. Wiley Online Library. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com
[4]. Cooper, H. (2011). The Battle over Homework: Common Grounds for Administrators, Teachers and Parents.2nd Edition. Newbury Park, C.A.: Corwin Press.www.nctm.org/news/content.aspx
[5]. Cooper, H., Jackson, K. & Nye, B.A. (2011). A Model of Homework’s Influence on the Performance Evaluations of Elementary School Students. Journal of Experimental Education, 69 (2), 181 – 199.
[6]. De Jong, R., Westerhof, K.J. & Creemers, B.P.M. (2011). Homework and student math achievement in junior high schools. Educational Research & Evaluation, 6, 130- 157.
[7]. Dennis, P. (2007). Excessive Homework is Detrimental. Stanford Graduate School of Education: (650) 725-7412, dpope@stanford.edu.
[8]. Duke, S. (2007): Homework Helps Students to Succeed in School, As long as There Isn’t Too Much. Wikipedia.
[9]. Eita, P. (2007). Teacher practices to involve parents in homework in Namibian schools. Unpublished MEd thesis. Pretoria: University of South Africa.Retrieved April 24, 2008 from http://etd.unisa.ac.za/ETD-db/theses/available/etd- 08172007084318/unrestricted/dissertation.pdf
[10]. Epstein, J. L. (2007). More than Minutes: Teachers’ roles in designing Homework. Educational Psychologist 36(3): 181-93
[11]. Farrow, S. (2006). Homework and Attainment in Primary Schools. School of Education, University of Durham, Durham DHI ITA, UK.
[12]. Harold, R. D. (2009). Family Involvement in Children’s and Adolescents’ Schooling. Google Scholar Volume: 22 Issue: 2, pages 220-249. https://doi.org/10.1177/193220X1102200203.
[13]. Hayward, J.M. (2010) The Effects of Homework on Student Achievement, State University of New York, The College at Brockport.
[14]. Hyde, S., Lindberg, S.M. & Linn M. (2008) Gender Similarities Characterize Math Performance. Vol. 321. 10.1126/Science.1160364 (New York).
[15]. Jessica, P. (2016). Too much homework? Yes say Clifton parents. Clifton Journal.
[16]. Kapinga, S. O. (2014). The impact of parental socioeconomic status on students’ academic achievement in secondary schools in Tanzania. International Journal of Education, Vol 6 No. 4, 2014
[17]. Keith, T. Z. & Cool, V.A. (2014). Time Spent on Homework and High School Grades. Duke University.
[18]. Kitsantas A., (2011). Mathematics Achievement: The Role of Homework and Self-Efficacy Beliefs. Volume: 22 issue: 2 Pages 310-339.
[19]. Kohn, A. (2006). The Homework Myth: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of a Bad Thing. Cambridge MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN.
[20]. Kohn, A. (2007). The Truth about Homework Downloaded on 21/05/2012 from http://www.alfiekohn.org/teachign/edweek.
[21]. Madrigal, S.G. & Sapungan, R (2014) Parental Involvement in Child’s Education: Importance, Barriers and Benefits. Vol. 3 No. 2. Asian Journal of Management Sciences and Education.
[22]. McMullen, S. (2007): The Impact of the Homework Time on Academic Achievement Downloaded from calvin.academic.edu/stevenmcmullen/on 13/02/2016
[23]. Mullis, I.V.S; Martin, M.O. & Foy P. (2008) Teachers’ Professional Development and Students’ Mathematics Performance. Findings from TIMSS. https://www.sciencedirect.com
[24]. Nadine, F., Jacqui, D. and Eileen, S. (2008). Parents, homework and socio-economic class: Discourses of deficit and disadvantage in the “new” South Africa. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.
[25]. Ngaruiya, B. N. (2002). A study of mathematics homework practices in selected secondary schools in Kenya.
[26]. Ogoye C.N. (2007) Participation in Pupils’ Homework in Kenya: In Search of an Inclusive Policy.
[27]. Peace, D. (2006). Factors Affecting Homework Completion and Achievement in Community College Remedial Mathematics Classes, University of Massachusetts, Lowell.
[28]. Raquel, P & Anthony, H. N. (2012).The Predictive Power of Home Work Assignments on Student Achievement in Mathematics. Florida International University: U.S.A.
[29]. Republic of Kenya (ROK) (2013). The Basic Education Act No. 14 of 2013. Government Printers.
[30]. Singh, P., Mbokodi, S. & Msila, V. (2004). Black parental involvement in education. South African Journal of Education, 24, 301-307.
[31]. Trautwein, U. (2012). The Relationship between Homework Time and Achievement is not Universal: Evidence from multilevel analyses in 40 coumtries. https://doi.org/10.1080/0924345090294601 Downloaded on 9/2/2018.
[32]. Vatterott C. (2009) Rethinking homework: best practices that support diverse needs. ASCD, University of Missouri, St Louis, USA.

Obuya S. O. Peter, Francis C. Indoshi and Tony O. Okwach “Relationship Between Amount of Homework and Performance in Mathematics among Public Day Secondary School Students in Hamisi Sub-County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.221-227 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/221-227.pdf

Download PDF


Nutritional Status of Under Five Children Attending State Hospital Okitipupa Ondo State
Akande, Y.O, Abata, G. D, Mosimabale, M.M, Babalola, A.O, Abata, E. O- October 2019 – Page No.: 228-230

This study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 year in Okitipupa. A total number of 340 children were assessed using anthropometric indices. The result revealed the age distribution of the respondent base on gender which 9.8% were within the age range 1¬-10 months, 20.9 % within 11-20 months, 16.3 % within 21-30 month, 14.4 % within 31-40 months, 13.1 % within 41-50 months, 25.5 % within 51-60 months for male also 18.9 %, 17.1 % 9.6 %, 23.5 % and 16.5 % were with the age range of 1-10, 11-20, 21-30, 41-50 and 51-60 months for female moreover that only 36.47 % said their baby were currently on exclusive breastfeeding, furthermore 24.2 %, 14.4 %, 13.0 %, 27.5 %, 9.8 %, and 11.1% were Normal, Stunting, Wasting, Underweight, Overweight and Obese for male respectively while 22.05 %, 16.7 %, 13.82 %, 21.76 %. 10.29 % and 15.29 % were Normal, Stunting, Wasting, Underweight, Overweight, and Obese for female respectively. Conclusively there is high level of malnutrition, especially stunting among the under five children and this could be due to the mother not practicing exclusive breastfeeding, low level of income and unemployment rate among the parent which needs intervention and Federal government of Nigeria, (NGO), while the Nutrition Society, Association of Nigeria Dietitian should encourage mothers to practice exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months.

Page(s): 228-230                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 November 2019

 Akande, Y.O
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State, Nigeria

 Abata, G. D
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State, Nigeria

 Mosimabale, M.M
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State, Nigeria

 Babalola, A.O
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State, Nigeria

 Abata, E. O
Department of Chemistry Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

[1]. Bain, L.E, Awah P.K, GeraldineN, Kindong N.P, Sigal Y, Bernard N, Tanjeko T. T (2013). Malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa: Burden, causes and prospects. Pan Afr Med J 15:120 p1-10.
[2]. BlackB. E, Victora C.G, Walker S.P, BhuttaZ.A,ChristianP, de OnisM (2013). Maternal and child under nutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 82:427-51.
[3]. Martorell R, ZongronenA (2012). Intergenerational influences on child growth and undernutrition. PaediatrPerinatEpidemiol 26 Suppl 1:302-14
[4]. Maziya-Dixon B, Akinyele I.O, Oguntona E.B, Nokoe S, Sanusi R.A, Harris E.2001-2003 Nigeria Food Consumption and Nurition Survey 2001-2003 Summary. Ibadan, Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture; 2003
[5]. National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and International. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS)2013. Abuja, Nigeria, Rockville, Maryland, USA; 2014
[6]. NPC/ORC Macro. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2003. Calverton, Maryland: National Population Commission and ORC Macro; 2004.
[7]. Population Division Ministry of Healthand Population, Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (2011). Preliminary Report. New Era ICF Macro. 2011
[8]. Smith L.C, Ruel M.T, Ndiaye A (2005). Why is child malnutrition lower in urban than in rural areas? Evidence from 36 developing countries. World Dev 33:1285-305.
[9]. United Nations Children′s Fund (UNC). (2015): Improving Child Nutrition: The Achievable Imperative for Global Progress. Availablefrom: http://www.unicef.org/publications/index_68661.html.[Last accessed on 2015 Jul 13].
[10]. World Health Organization (WHO). (2016).What is malnutrition online Q&A page 1
[11]. World Health Organization (WHO). Children: Reducing Mortality. (2015) Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs178/en/. [Last accessed on 2015 Jun 21].

Akande, Y.O, Abata, G. D, Mosimabale, M.M, Babalola, A.O, Abata, E. O “
Nutritional Status of Under Five Children Attending State Hospital Okitipupa Ondo State” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.228-230 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/228-230.pdf

Download PDF


Effect of Point of Sales (POS) Utilization on Effective Demand for Agricultural Commodities in Stores and Supermarket in Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria
Ojuotimi E. Mafimisebi, Tolulope P. Akinbobola, Taiwo E. Mafimisebi, Monday M. Ugbedeojo, Bukola E. Olarinde- October 2019 – Page No.: 231-235

Point of Sales (POS) was one of the promising e-payment methods introduced by the monetary regulatory body (CBN) in Nigeria, following its capability of curbing many challenges of financial bodies and the economy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of point of sales (POS) utilization on effective demand for agricultural commodities in stores and supermarket in Akure Metropolis. Multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting one hundred and sixty (160) consumers paying for agro-commodities through POS for the study. Data were collected through the use of structured interview schedule and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression. The study identified convenience as the main reason for utilizing POS and also found sex, age, household size, monthly income and effect of POS as factors influencing effective demand of agro-commodities using the POS. The study however concludes that the use of POS increases the demand for agro commodities.

Page(s): 231-235                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 November 2019

 Ojuotimi E. Mafimisebi
Department of Agricultural Extension & Management/ Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

 Tolulope P. Akinbobola
Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication Technology/ Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

 Taiwo E. Mafimisebi
Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics/ Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

 Monday M. Ugbedeojo
Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics/ Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

 Bukola E. Olarinde
Department of Agricultural Extension & Management/ Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

[1]. Adeoti, O. O. (2013). Challenges to the efficient use of point of sales terminals in Nigeria, Africa Journal of Business Management, 7(28), 2801-2806.
[2]. Adeoti, O.O., and Oshotimehin, K.O. (2012). Adoption of point of sale terminals in Nigeria: Assessment of consumers’ level of satisfaction. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 3(1), 1-5.
[3]. Akerejola, W.O, 2017. Determinants and Adoption OF Point of Sales of Selected Business Organization in Lagos State, Nigeria. Unpublished thesis, Department of Business Administration and Marketing, School of Management Sciences, Babcock University, Ilisan-remoOgun state, Nigeria
[4]. Barkhordari, M., Nourollah, Z., Mashayekhi, H., Mashayekhi, Y., Ahangar, M. S. (2017). “Factors influencing adoption of e-payment systems: an empirical study on Iranian customers,” Information Systems and e-Business Management, Springer, 15(1), 89-116.
[5]. CBN Report (2007): CBN Annual Report for the Year 2007, Available at: http://www.cenbank.org/documents/annualreports.æsp (Accessed June 2019).
[6]. CBN, (2011). Towards a Cashless Nigeria: Tools & Strategies. Nigerian Journal of Economy. 3(2), 344-350
[7]. Khan, M.A (2010). An Empirical study of Automated Teller Machine Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Pakistani Banks, European Journal of Social Sciences,13(3), 45-56
[8]. Mwiya B., Chikumbi, F., Shikaputo, C., Kabala, E., Kaulung’ombe, B., Siachinji, B. (2017) Examining Factors Influencing E – Banking Adoption: Evidence from Bank Customers in Zambia, American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 7(6), 741- 759.
[9]. Nielsen report 2018. The Quest For Convenience Available at:http://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/nielsenglobal/ua/docs/the-quest-for convinience.pdf (Accessed June 2019).
[10]. Nigeria Inter – bank Settlement System [NIBSS] Plc (2015). PoS Adoption and Usage – A study on Lagos State, April 10, 2015, 1 – 105. (Accessed June 2019).
[11]. Okeke, T.C., Nwatu, B. C., and Ezeh G. A., (2017). Predicting Consumer Adoption of Point Of Sale (Pos) E-Payment System In Nigeria Using Extended Technology Acceptance Model, British Journal of Marketing Studies, 5 (8), 1-11.
[12]. Tella, A. (2012). Determinants of E-Payment Systems Success: A User’s Satisfaction Perspective. Interna¬tional Journal of E-Adoption, 4(3), 15-38.
[13]. Tella A., Abdulmumin, I. (2015). Predictors of Users’ Satisfaction with E-payment System: a Case Study of Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria, Organizacija 48(4), 272-286.

Ojuotimi E. Mafimisebi, Tolulope P. Akinbobola, Taiwo E. Mafimisebi, Monday M. Ugbedeojo, Bukola E. Olarinde “Effect of Point of Sales (POS) Utilization on Effective Demand for Agricultural Commodities in Stores and Supermarket in Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.231-235 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/231-235.pdf

Download PDF


Effectiveness of Composites of Corn Cobs, Coconut Husks and Breadfruit Peels in Purifying Selected Paint Effluents
O. I. Ogidi, J.N. Okereke, E.A. Anyalogbu- October 2019 – Page No.: 236-248

Due to the varying degrees of chemicals used in paint industries, the resulting effluent contains appreciable concentrations of toxic metals and inorganic anions which reduce the quality of the receiving streams, aquatic life and adverse effects on human health. This research aimed at determining the effectiveness of composites of Corn cob, Coconut Husk and bread fruit peels in purifying selected paint effluents through the assessment of their physicochemical properties before and after treatment using column adsorption technique. The experimental conditions observed were pH 4 and 8; adsorbent doses of 1g and 2g. Standard laboratory techniques involving the use of Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometric method were adopted to determine the physicochemical properties of the effluent samples. The physicochemical results showed that the composites were effective in the removal of total solid, turbidity, colour, phosphate, nitrate, chloride, copper and cadmium while the values of COD, BOD, Lead and sulphate recorded noticeable increase on the treated effluent samples. The best experimental conditions according to the adsorption capacity were pH 4 and 1g adsorbent dose. The efficiency removal for heavy metal and inorganic anions in the effluent samples after treatment was in this order: Cl- ˂ Cu˂ NO3– ˂ PO4- ˂ Cd. Considering the values of R2 for the models fits to the experimental data, it can be concluded that all models can be used reasonably well to describe the behaviour of the adsorption of cadmium, copper, chloride, nitrate and phosphate, except for the partly negative values of Bohart – Adams and Thomas models. This research work shows that the use of corn cob, coconut husks and breadfruit peels as composite is more effective in reducing the concentrations of physicochemical properties of paint effluents.

Page(s): 236-248                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 November 2019

 O. I. Ogidi
Department of Biochemistry, Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

 J.N. Okereke
Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

 E.A. Anyalogbu
Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

[1]. Okafor, J.O., Agbajelola, D.O. & Peter, S. (2015). Studies on the adsorption of heavy metals in a paint industry effluent using activated maize cob.Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering, Science and Technology (JMEST). 2(2): 39-46.
[2]. Sharmila, S., Jeyanthi, R.L. &Kowsalya, E. (2016). Biological Treatment of paint industry effluent.Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 9(3): 404-405.
[3]. Saikaew, W. &Kaewsarn, P. (2009). Cadmium ion removal using biosorbents derived from fruit peel waste. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 31 (5):547-554.
[4]. Aksu, Z. (2005). Application of biosorption for the removal of organic pollutants: a review. Process Biochemistry, 40(3–4), 997-1026.
[5]. Demirbas, A. (2008). Heavy metal adsorption onto agro-based waste materials: A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 157(2-3), 220-229.
[6]. Gupta, S., Kumar, D. & Gaur, J.P. (2009a). Kinetic and isotherm modeling of Pb(II) sorption onto some waste plant materials. Chemical Engineering Journal, 148:226–233.
[7]. Gupta, V.K., Carrott, P.J.M., Carrott, M.M.L. &Suhas, R. (2009b). Low-cost adsorbents: growing approach to wastewater treatment—a review. Critical Review on Enviromental Science and Technology, 39:783–842.
[8]. Kumar, U. & Bandyopadhyay, M. (2006) . Sorption ofCadmium from aqueous solution using pretreatedricehusk. Bioresource Technology, 97: 104-109.
[9]. Adak, A., Pal, A. &Bandyopadhyay, M. (2006). Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 277, 63.
[10]. Malkoc, E. &Nuhoglu, Y. (2006). Fixed bed studies for the sorption of chromium (VI) onto tea factory waste. Chemical Engineering Science, 61(13), 4363-4372.
[11]. Garg, U.K., Kaur, M.P., Garg, V.K. &Sud, D.(2007). Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by agricultural waste biomass. Journal of HazardousMaterials, 140(1-2), 60-68.
[12]. Al-aseh, S., Lamarche, G. &Duvnjuk, Z.(2000). Investigation of copper sorption using plant materials.Water quality research journal of Canada.33,167-183.
[13]. Crini, G. (2006). Non-conventional low cost adsorbents for dye removal. Bioresource Technology, 97(9): 1061-1085.
[14]. Ali, S. M., Khalid, A. R., &Majid, R.M. (2014). The removal of Zinc, Chromium and Nickel from industrial waste water using Corn cobs.Iraqi Journal of Science, 55(1):123-131.
[15]. Samiksha, G. & Mane, S. J. (2015). Reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demand by using Coconut Shell Activated Carbon and Sugarcane Bagasse Fly Ash ., International Journal of Science and Research, 4( 7): 642-645
[16]. Thuraiya, M.A., Joefel, J.D., Geetha, D.M., Nageswara, R. &Forez, S. (2015). Treatment of Dairy wastewater using Orange and banana peels. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 7(4): 1385-1391.
[17]. Ashwani, K.S., Mayank, S., Narottam, K. R. &Shikhar, S. (2017). Corn cobs as low cost bio adsorbent for water and wastewater treatment.International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 6(10): 20487-20491.
[18]. Okereke, J. N., Ogidi, O.I. &Obasi, K.O. (2016). Removal of Inorganic Anions in Brewery Effluent using Banana Peels.International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences, 3(6): 192-197.
[19]. Mehdi, A., Hasan, R., Bahman, R. &Babak, K. (2017). Removal of Nitrate from aqueous solution using activated carbon modified with Fenton reagents. Desalination and water treatment. 76(5):265-275.
[20]. Ibrahim, A., Fathy, E. & Ali, A. (2016). Removal of heavy metals from wastewater using corn cob.Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological & Chemical Sciences. 7(2): 239-248.
[21]. Aravind, K.C. & Mahindra, K. (2017). Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater using coconut coir.International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET). 8(4): 1869-1871.
[22]. Osah, O.I. (2018). Performance of some agro-wastes (corn cob, groundnut husk and breadfruit seed hull) in the treatment of Abattoir wastewater in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.M.Sc thesis purblished in futo.com.
[23]. Namal, P., Lim, B., Tennakoon, D.T., Nur H., MuhdKhairud, D. &HeiIng, C. (2013). Breadfruit (Artocarpusaltilis) Waste for Bioremediation of Cu (II) and Cd(II) Ions from Aqueous Medium. Ceylon Journal of Science-Physical Sciences, 17: 19-29.
[24]. Muthusamy, P., Murugan, S. &Manothi, S. (2012). Removal of Nickel ion from Industrial Waste Water using Maize Cob.ISCA Journal of Biological Science, 1(2): 7-11.
[25]. Shipra, S. &Pallavi, M. (2018). Use of different Bioadsorbents for the Nitrate removal from water.International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences & Engineering Technology (IJRASET). 6(4): 2781-2789.
[26]. Srinivas, T., Murthy, K.S. &Rakesh, N.N. (2016). Removal of Cu(II) and Fe(II) from industrial wastewater using orange peel as adsorbent in batch mode operation. International Journal of Chem Tech Research. 9(5):290-299.
[27]. Zainab, A.N. (2016). Sorption of Nitrate Salts from wastewater without and with modification orange peel.Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering. 17(3): 109-116.

O. I. Ogidi, J.N. Okereke, E.A. Anyalogbu “Effectiveness of Composites of Corn Cobs, Coconut Husks and Breadfruit Peels in Purifying Selected Paint Effluents” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.236-248 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/236-248.pdf

Download PDF


A Comparative Study of the Patterns of Hate Speeches During Presidential Campaigns in Nigeria and the United States of America
Waya, David Tarhom Ph.D, Ugwuanyi John Ph.D, Ogbonna Alozie C.- October 2019 – Page No.: 249-258

This study compared the patterns of hate speeches uttered in the 2015 and 2016 presidential electioneering campaigns in Nigeria and USA. The total of 28 hate speeches was sourced from online posts and analyzed using the Dijk’s model of Critical Discourse Analysis. The narratives of the hate speeches were on the question of party affiliation, religion, ethnicity/racism, personality/trust, health, education, and gender/sexual orientations. The examined hate speeches are linked to socio, economic, cultural and political realities in the respective countries. The speeches uttered by Nigeria politicians portrayed the state of intolerance in political differences, question of personality/trust or health status while in the USA, the gladiators focused more on religious intolerance, gender/sexual orientations and personality/trust of the individual candidates. Meanwhile, no attack was recorded on gender, hence the candidates were of the same sex in the case of Nigeria. Comparatively, the candidates in USA recorded more hate speeches than their supporters unlike in Nigeria. The paper therefore recommends issue-based campaigns in order to avoid possible violence often associated with hate speeches in political contests and debates.

Page(s): 249-258                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 November 2019

 Waya, David Tarhom Ph.D
Department of Linguistics and Nigerian languages, University of Nigeria

 Ugwuanyi John Ph.D
Department of Mass Communication, University of Nigeria

 Ogbonna Alozie C.
Department of Mass Communication, University of Nigeria

[1]. Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London, UK: Verso Publishing.
[2]. Adisa, R, Udende P, Abubakar I and La’aro O, (2017). “Media, Politics, and Hate Speech: A Critical Discourse Analysis”. e Academia Journal .6 (1): 23-38.
[3]. Brown, P and Levinson, S. (1978). “Politeness: some Universals in Language. Cambridge Press.
[4]. Barbara et al (2009).”Cyber hate: the Globalization of Hate .Information and International Law”.180 (2): 14-18.
[5]. Butler, J.(1997). Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative, New York: Routledge.
[6]. Carter R. and Simpson G. (1986). Language, Discourse and Literature. Oxford: Oxford Press.
[7]. Calvert G. (1997). Hate Speech and its Harm: a communication theory perspective. Journal of Communication . 47, (1).
[8]. Erik B. (2011). The Rise of Hate Speech and Hate Crime Laws in Liberal Democracies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.37, (6): 917-934.
[9]. Ezeibe C. (2015). “Hate speech and Electoral Violence in Nigeria”. A paper submitted to the Department of Political Science, University of Nigeria Nsukka.
[10]. Fairclough, N. & Wodak, R.1997.Critical discourse analysis. In: Van Dijk. Discourse as Social Interaction. London: Sage.
[11]. Grice, N. (1975). “Logic and Conversation,” Syntax and Semantics, Vol.3 edited by P. Cole and J. Morgan, London: Academic Press.
[12]. Gordon P. (1992). Racist Violence: The Expression of Hate in Europe” in Striking a Balance Hate Speech, Freedom of Expression and Non-Discrimination, University of Essex. U.K.
[13]. Hall, S. (1992). “The West and The Rest: Discourse and Power” in Formations of Modernity Edited by Stuart Hall, Bram Gieben, 275-333 Oxford, UK: Polite Press and Blackwell.
[14]. Kayambazinthu, E. and Moyo, F. (2002). .Hate speech in the new Malawi, in H. Englund (ed.) Democracy of Chameleons: Politics and Culture in the New Malawi. Stockholm:Gotab.
[15]. Laura, L. (2010). “Responses to Internet Hate Sites: Is Speech Too Free in Cyberspace?”www.dx.doi.org(accessed August 20, 2017).
[16]. Matsuda, J.M., Lawrence, C.R., Delgado R., Crenshaw, K.W. (1993). Words That Wound: Critical Race Theory, Assaultive Speech, And The FirstAmendment, Harvard: Westview.
[17]. Mackinnon A. C. (1996). Only Words. Harvard; Harvard University Press.
[18]. Neisser, E. (1994). “Hate Speech in the New South Africa: Constitutional consideration for a land recovering from decades of rational repression and violence”, South African Journal of Human Rights (10): 33-356.
[19]. Nicole A. (2005). Race Riots on the Beach Criminalising Hate Speech? A Case for, University of Tasmania. www.britsoccrim.org (a accessed December, 2, 2017).
[20]. Nicle A. (2008). Race Riots on the Beach A case for Criminalising Hate Speech. The British Society of Criminology, (8): 50‐64.
[21]. Pêcheux, M. (1982). Language, Semantics and Ideology.London: Macmillan.
[22]. Purdy, J. (2009). Languages of Politics in America. In Law and democracy in the Empire of Force (ed.) H. Jefferson Powell and B. White. Michigan. The University of Michigan Press.
[23]. Rapheal C.A. ( 2015). Hate and Racist Speech in the United States: A Critique Philosophy and Public Issues 5,( 3): 77-123.
[24]. Searle, J. R. (1970). Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[25]. Stephen R. (2017). A Study of Hate Speech as a Threat on Nigerian Democracy. Anyangba. Communication Series. Kogi State University.
[26]. Utych, S.M. (2012). “Negative Affective Language in Politics”. Paper presented at the 35th Annual meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology, July 6-9.
[27]. United Nations (2016). General Assembly Resolution.www.un.org (accessed March, 1, 2017).
[28]. Van Dijk, T.A.(2004). Politics, Ideology and Discourse www.discourse-in-society.org (accessed March, 11, 2017).
[29]. Wodak, R. and Meyer, M. (2001).Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis.London: Sage.
[30]. William, B.F. (2002). Hate speech in the Constitutional Law of the United State. University of Missouri School of Law Scholarship Repository www.scholarship.law.missouri.edu.(accessed June 27, 2016).
[31]. Zeynep O. (2014). Introducing Two New Terms into the Literature of Hate Speech: “Hate Discourse” and “Hate Speech Act”. Speech Studies in the era of Web 2.0. 4 (2): 56-67.
Online editorial sources
[32]. Online blog; Vote out PDP. www.issuu.com (accessed December 28 2017) Nigeria editorial; APC campaigns in Osogbo. www.dailytrust.com.ng. (Accessed December 18, 2016).
[33]. Nigeria Daily Trust editorial; NBC keeps Mum as Hate Campaigns Rule the Airwaves.
[34]. www.dailytrust.com.ng(accessed March, 11, 2016).
[35]. Nigeria Premium Editorial. .Kwankwaso Says Jonathan is incompetent.www.premiumtimesng.com(accessed February 2 ,2017).
[36]. Nigeria premium editorial 2015.Jonathan Replies- Kwankwaso Says Governor Low understanding. www.premiumtimesng.com(accessed February 2, 2017).
[37]. Nigeria Premium Editorial Nigerians are Dying. www.premium.com(accessed February, 2. 2017).
[38]. Nigeria Daily Post Editorial. Conduct the debate in the vernacular.www.dailypost.ng (accessed February 1, 2016).
[39]. Naijblog . Jonathan is Confused :Tinubu. www.naij.com. (accessed 4, March 2,1,2017).
[40]. Trine E. Trump Muslims Islamophobia Hate Crime. www.theatlantic.com.(accessed October 2, 2017).
[41]. Caire N. Donald Trump Quotes. .www.marieclaire.co.uk (accessed March, 31 2017).
[42]. Nigeria Punch Editorial. Enough of State Burials.www. punchonline.com (accessed, January, 19, 2017).
[43]. Claire N.Hillary Clinton/Donald Trump Temperament.www.time.com(accessed February, 3 2017).
[44]. Nigeria daily Trust Editorial. Nigerians Deserve to Know Buhari’s Health- Status. www.dailytrust.com.ng(accessed Febrauay 2 2017).
[45]. USA Guardian Editorial. Trump Sexual Life. www.theguardian.com (accessed December, 12 2016).

Waya, David Tarhom Ph.D, Ugwuanyi John Ph.D, Ogbonna Alozie C. “
A Comparative Study of the Patterns of Hate Speeches During Presidential Campaigns in Nigeria and the United States of America” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.6 issue 10, pp.249-258 October 2019 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-6-issue-10/249-258.pdf

Download PDF