Volume VII Issue I

Assessment of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Associated with Industrial Sewing Machines

Ocheni A. U. U., Genesis J. E. – January 2020 Page No.: 01-05

This study assess the level of extremely low frequency magnetic fields associated with industrial sewing machines using the Trifield Metre, and the exposure of tailors was assessed in accordance with the American Congress of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP).The formulation used in this survey is the current density which is an important factor to evaluate the biological effects associated with exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields. In this paper a standard of the human femur is considered. Data analyses were conducted and the maximum arithmetic mean of the magnetic fields from the survey was found to be 10µT and a value of 0.43µT was the minimum. In none of the situations does exposure of tailors to ELF-MF exceed the threshold limits recommended by ACGIH. While the maximum induced current density around the human femur bone from the survey was computed to be 64.3 nA/m2 and the value of 2.8 nA/m2 was the minimum current density. The maximum computed value for induced current density for the human femur bone was found to be far less than the recommended reference value of 10 mA/m2 set by ICNIRP.

Page(s): 01-05                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 January 2020

 Ocheni A. U. U.
Department of Physics, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

 Genesis J. E.
Department of Physics, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

[1] Abd-Allah, A. M. (2006). Interaction of ELF Magnetic Fields with Human Body Organs Model Underneath EHV Transmission Lines. 2006 IEEE PES Power Systems Conference and Exposition.1967-1970.Atlanta, GA, USA. doi: : 10.1109/PSCE.2006.296228
[2] Abujami, M. (2017). Experimental and Numerical Simulation of Mobile Phone Base Station Radiation Effects on Childern Blood Interaction and Theraeutic Role of Olive Oil (Master Thesis). The Islamic University-Gaza, Physics. Gaza: The Islamic University-Gaza Research and Postgraduate Affairs.
[3] D’Angelo, C., Costantini, E., Kamal, M., & Reale, M. (2015). Experimental Model for ELF-EMF Exposure: Concern for Human Health. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 75-84. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2014.07.006
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[6] Elizabeth, W. (1992). Prehistoric Textile: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with Special Reference to the Aegean. United Kingdom: Princeton University Press. Retrieved on 16/11/2018, from Wikipedia: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_clothing_and_textiles
[7] Jalilian, H., Najafi, K., Monazzam, M. R., Khosravi, Y., & Zamanian, Z. (2017). Assement of Static and Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields in the Electric-Power Trains. International Journal of Occupational Hygiene, 9(2), 105-112.
[8] John, C. N., Jack, D. S., Kelsh, A., & Robert, K. (2005). Equipment Grounding Affects Contact Current Exposure: A Case Study of Sewing Machines. British Occupational Hygiene Society, 49, 673–682. doi:doi:10.1093/annhyg/mei031
[9] Kooler, D. (2009). Donna Kooler’s Encyclopedia of Sewing: Hand and Machine Sewing. Leisure Arts. Retrieved on 21/11/2018, from Wikipedia: https://wikipedia.org/wiki/Sewing
[10] Kulkami, G., & Gandhare, W. Z. (2012). Proximity Effects of High Voltage Transformer Lines on Humans. Electrical and Power Engineering, 3, 28-32. doi:01.IJEPE.03.01.11
[11] Maxwell, J. C. (1865). A Dynamical Theory of the Electomagnetic Field. Philosophical Transactions, 459-512. Retrieved from http://rstl.royalsocietypublishing.org/
[12] Ocheni, A. U., & Adam, U. (2015). Assessment of Magnetic Field Effects and Estimation of Association Current Density of Electrical Injection Substations in Kano Metropolis. Advances in Physics Theories and Applications, 50, 1-6. doi:
[13] Ross, C. L., Siriwardane, M., Almeida-Porada, G., Porada, C. D., Brink, P., Christ, G. J., Harrison B. S. (2015). The Effect of Low-Frequency Electomagnetic Field on Human Bone Marrow Stem/Progenitor. Elservier, 15, 96-108.
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[15] Walker, J., Halliday, D., & Resnick, R. (2014). Fundamentals of Physics (10 ed.). United States of America: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions.

Ocheni A. U. U., Genesis J. E. “Assessment of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Associated with Industrial Sewing Machines” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.01-05 January 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/01-05.pdf

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Promoting Reading Culture: The Case of Student-Participation in Selection of Reading Materials in Public Secondary Schools in Kakamega County, Kenya
Solomon Simwa – January 2020 – Page No.: 06-09

Following introduction of Free Tuition Programme (FTP) in Kenyan public secondary schools in 2008, there has been an unprecedented increase in procurement of reading materials (RM) in these institutions. This paper examines the extent to which students participate in selection of RM as a critical determinant of development of reading culture in schools. It is based on a cross-sectional descriptive survey of public secondary schools situated in Kakamega County, Kenya. A total of 372 Form Four students responded to questionnaire and 31 library teachers were interviewed. The participants were selected through stratified, simple random and purposive sampling procedures. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to analyse data. Findings reveal that there is limited student participation in selection of RM in these schools due to weaknesses among teachers namely; poor attitudes towards the concept; and lack of relevant knowledge and skills. The study recommends capacity-building of teachers in effective management of reading programmes in schools.

Page(s): 06-09                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 January 2020

 Solomon Simwa
Department of Curriculum, Instruction and Educational Media, Moi University, Kenya

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[10] Nalusiba, P. (2010). Strategies for the Development of a Reading Culture in Uganda Primary Schools: Case Studies of Four Selected Universal Primary Education Schools in Kampala District. Master of Information Science Dissertation. Kampala: Makerere University, School of Library and Information Science.
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[12] Ryanga, S. (2002). Reading and Writing: The Connection to Personal and Economic Development. International Journal of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2 (1), 110-118.

Solomon Simwa “Promoting Reading Culture: The Case of Student-Participation in Selection of Reading Materials in Public Secondary Schools in Kakamega County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.06-09 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/06-09.pdf

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Co-occurrence of Health Risk Behaviours for Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases among Undergraduates in a Tertiary Institution in South West Nigeria
F. Ogbole and A.O. Fatusi – January 2020 – Page No.: 10-14

Co-occurrence of behaviours that are risk factors for communicable and non-communicable diseases have been reported among young people around the world. However, limited information exist on such co-occurrence among young undergraduates in Nigeria. This study therefore sort to evaluate the prevalence of co-occurrence of health risk behaviours for communicable and non-communicable diseases among undergraduates in a tertiary institution in South West Nigeria as well as identify gender differences and the different patterns of clustering of the selected health risk behaviours. Alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking were selected as risk factors for non-communicable diseases, while having multiple sexual partners and non-condom use were selected as risk factors for sexually transmitted communicable diseases. A cross-sectional design was employed to obtain data from six hundred undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile – Ife, Nigeria. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean age of the respondents was 20 ± 4.0 years. The prevalence of current indulgence in alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, having multiple sexual partners and non–condom use were 50.3%, 19.2%, 24.7%, and 28.5% respectively. Overall, the prevalence of no risk, one risk, and at least two health risk behaviours were: 36.16%; 24.33%;and 39.49% respectively. Eleven clusters of co-occurring health risk behaviours were identified and more males were found in each cluster than females. However, the cluster with the highest prevalence was alcohol drinking and non-condom use (8.8%). This study reports a high prevalence of co-occurrence of health risk behaviours for communicable and non-communicable diseases among young undergraduates. This may have implication for health promotion and education among young people.

Page(s): 10-14                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 January 2020

 F. Ogbole
Biochemistry Unit, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Africa Toru – Orua, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

 A.O. Fatusi
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University. Ile – Ife, Osun Nigeria

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F. Ogbole and A.O. Fatusi “Co-occurrence of Health Risk Behaviours for Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases among Undergraduates in a Tertiary Institution in South West Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp. 10-14 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/10-14.pdf

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Brain Drain among Nigerian Nurses: Implications to the Migrating Nurse and the Home Country

Chiamaka J. Okafor, Caleb Chimereze – January 2020 Page No.: 15-21

There have been a reasonable number of highly skilled and educated professionals migrating from their home countries (developing countries) in search of better economic and social opportunities in developed countries. This paper discussed the concept of brain drain, the causes of brain drain among Nigerian nurses, the positive and negative implications of brain drain to the migrating nurses and the home country, and suggested ways of reversing brain drain and possibly attracting nurse migrants back to the country. The literature review shows that Nigeria has witnessed increased migration of Nurses to developed nations due to push factors (low remunerations, poor governmental policies, poor working conditions) and pull factors (such as good working conditions, better pay); which are offered by developed world. However the positive impacts of brain drain which includes remittance, improved health, quality life etc. are outweighed by the negative impacts of nurse migration as it has resulted to shortage of nurses within the country leaving its citizens to suffer poor healthcare service delivery. Therefore, following the continuous migration of nurses out of the country, it is imperative that the government adopts appropriate measures through increase in workers’ remuneration, improved working conditions, professional autonomy, and regulation policies on migration to reduce migration of Nigerian nurses to developed countries.

Page(s): 15-21                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 January 2020

  Chiamaka J. Okafor
University of Nigeria, Department of Nursing Sciences

  Caleb Chimereze
University of Nigeria, Department of Nursing Sciences

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Chiamaka J. Okafor, Caleb Chimereze “Brain Drain among Nigerian Nurses: Implications to the Migrating Nurse and the Home Country” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.15-21 January 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/15-21.pdf

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Crude Oil Theft in the Niger Delta: The Oil Companies and Host Communities Conundrum
Collins H. Wizor Ph.D, Elekwachi Wali – January 2020 – Page No.: 22-32

This study investigated crude oil theft in the Niger Delta, the oil companies and host communities’ dilemma using the Bayelsa state swamp area operated by Nigerian Agip Oil Company (NAOC) as a case study. The roles and functions of the oil companies and their host communities towards crude oil theft in the Niger Delta was examined to determine the rate of crude oil theft during the resurgence of pockets of militancy, after the declaration of amnesty by the Nigerian government and the period of full implementation of the amnesty programme in the Niger Delta. Secondary data from the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA) and NAOC Swamp area operation in Bayelsa State was used to determine the rate of crude oil theft during these periods in the Niger Delta. The total number of incidences of crude oil spill each year starting from 2010 to 2014 were calculated using statistical tools in determining the average spills per month, and the percentage of spills each year. Chi-square statistical technique was used to complete and analyse the research hypotheses. The results indicate that oil spills through equipment failure, operational errors and corrosion were generally few. Surprisingly, those caused by crude oil theft (sabotage) during the resurgence of pockets of militancy was low when compared with post militancy or amnesty implementation period. The study further reveals that from the later part of 2011 to 2014, the number of spills became constantly high, indicating that amnesty only bridged the gap between the security agencies and other government bodies fighting against oil theft and militants, to join forces in the cause of crude oil theft. Also, the study shows that between 2010 to 2014, sabotage accounted for 1,379 spills out of a total of 1,640 spills. Crude oil theft through sabotage as at 2010 was 5.2%; it rose to 37.4% in 2014 suggesting that five years after the full amnesty implementation, the problem of crude oil theft remained unsolved in the Niger Delta. The study, therefore, recommends among others, an improved developmental plan of the Niger Delta by government and the International Oil Companies (OICs), involvement of the host communities in the management and security of oil installations in their catchment areas, real-time monitoring of the security men and the criminals, using satellite systems, CCTV and other digital instruments and expansion of corporate social responsibility (CSR) by the oil companies.

Page(s): 22-32                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 January 2020

 Collins H. Wizor (Ph.D)
Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Elekwachi Wali
Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

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Collins H. Wizor Ph.D, Elekwachi Wali “Crude Oil Theft in the Niger Delta: The Oil Companies and Host Communities Conundrum” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.22-32 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/22-32.pdf

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Empirical Assessment of Female Director Effect on Tax Aggressiveness of Listed Insurance Firms in Nigeria
Sunday Oseiweh OGBEIDE, Ph.D, Peter Ego Ayunku, Ph.D – January 2020 – Page No.: 33-42

This study empirically examined the effect of female director on tax aggressiveness of listed insurance firms in Nigeria. The main objective of this research was to empirically investigate the effect of female board members on tax aggressiveness, determine the composition and representation of female directors on the board of insurance companies, find out how tax aggressive are listed insurance firms and apply the BLAU (1977) index method to measure female director representation as a departure from conventional approaches specifically in the Nigerian context in the reference period, 2014 to 2018. The population of the study consists of all the quoted insurance firms as at 31st December, 2016. A sample of twenty eight (28) quoted insurance firms was selected and data were collected over the period. Inferential statistic consisting of the General Method of Moment was used for the data analysis. The results obtained reveal that board size is negative and exerts significant impact on tax aggressiveness in insurance firms in Nigeria. Female director is significant and positively related with tax aggressiveness of firms in the insurance sector in Nigeria. Board independence is significant and exerts a positive influence on tax aggressiveness of insurance firms in Nigeria. Firm size exerts negative and non- significant effect on tax aggressiveness of insurance companies in Nigeria. The study therefore recommends that the Federal government has to come up with a policy to respond to the marginalization of female on the insurance firm corporate board in Nigeria. The aim of this policy thrust should be targeted at reducing politics and biasness against women on the corporate boards of listed insurance firms.

Page(s): 33-42                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 January 2020

 Sunday Oseiweh OGBEIDE, Ph.D
Department of Accounting and Finance, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Elizade University, Ilara- Mokin, Ondo State, Nigeria

 Peter Ego Ayunku, Ph.D
Faculty of Management Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

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Sunday Oseiweh OGBEIDE, Ph.D, Peter Ego Ayunku, Ph.D “Empirical Assessment of Female Director Effect on Tax Aggressiveness of Listed Insurance Firms in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp. 33-42 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/33-42.pdf

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Assessing the Impact of Professional Development on Physics Tutors’ Knowledge about the National Teachers Standard and the new Teacher Educational Curriculum Framework in Ghana?

Isaac Sonful Coffie, Godwin Kwame Aboagye, Eugene Adjei Johnson – January 2020 Page No.: 43-48

The purpose of this study was to find out the perception of the physics tutors about the impact of a continuous professional development on their knowledge about the national teachers’ standard, the national teacher education curriculum framework and the 4-year B. Ed curriculum. The study employed descriptive cross sectional survey using an online survey. The population for the study comprised all colleges of education tutors who teach physics. In all 85 tutors took part in the online survey. The data collected was analysed using means, standard deviations and ANOVA. The results indicated that the professional development has had great impact on teacher’s knowledge about the national teachers’ standard, the national teacher education curriculum framework and the 4-year Bachelor of Education curriculum. It was also found that there was no statistically significant difference in the impact of the professional development based on tutors’ qualifications. Implications of the study for practice are drawn.

Page(s): 43-48                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 January 2020

 Isaac Sonful Coffie
Department of Science, Wiawso College of Education, Ghana

 Godwin Kwame Aboagye
Department of Science Education, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

 Eugene Adjei Johnson
Department of Science Education, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

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[2] Luft, J., and Hewson, P. (2014). Research on teacher professional development in science. In N.G. Lederman and S.K. Abell (Eds.), Handbook of Research in Science Education (vol. II,pp. 889-909). New York: Routledge.
[3] Guskey, T. R. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
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[5] Birdman, B.F., Desimone, L., Porter, A.C. and Garet, M. S. (2000). Designing professional development that works. Educational Leadership, 57(8), 28-33.
[6] Klein, E. J. & Riordan, M. (2009).Putting professional development into practice: A framework for how teachers in expeditionary learning schools implement professional development. Teacher Education.
[7] Coffie, I. S. (2019). Transforming Teacher Education and Learning in Ghana: The Impact of a Continuous Professional Development on Physics Teaching at the Colleges of Education. International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation VI (VII), 201-206.
[8] T-TEL (2017). Midline survey. T-TEL: Accra.
[9] Bill & Melinda Gates foundation (2014). Teachers know best: Teachers view on professional development. Retrieved from: www.gatesfoundation.org
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[12] Stevenson, H. (2019). Editorial: professional learning – What is the point? Professional Development in Education, 45(1),1-2.
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[14] National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2015). Science teachers learning: Enhancing opportunities, creating supportive contexts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
[15] Kennedy, M. M (2016). How does professional development improve teaching practice? Review of Educational Research, xx(x), 1-36.
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[17] Banilower, E. R., Heck, D. J., & Weiss, I. R. (2007). Can professional development make the vision of the standards a reality? The impact of the national science foundation’s local systemic change through teacher enhancement initiative. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44, 375-395.
[18] Heck, D. J., Banilower, E. R., Weiss, I. R., & Rosenberg, S. L. (2008). Studying the effects of professional development. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 39, 113-152.
[19] Penuel, W. R., Fishman, B. J., Yamaguchi, R., & Gallagher, L. P. (2007). What makes professional development effective? Strategies that foster curriculum implementation. American Education Research Journal, 44, 921-958.
[20] Price, C. A & Chiu, A. (2018). An experimental study of a museum-based, science PD programme’s impact on teachers and their students. International Journal of Science Education, (40) 9, 941-960
[21] Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational Researcher, 38, 181-200.
[22] Ebert-May, D., Derting, T. L., Hodder, J., Momsen, J. L., Long, T. M., &Jardeleze, S. E. (2011). What we say is not what we do: Effective evaluation of faculty professional development programmes. BioScience, 61(7), 550-558.
[23] Desimone, L. M., Smith, T. M., & Ueno, K. (2006). Are teachers who need sustained, content-focused professional development getting it? An administrator’s dilemma. Educational Administration Quarterly, 42, 179-216.
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[26] .T-TEL (2018). T-TEL professional development programme, Theme 9: Preparing tutors for the delivery of the National Teachers’ Standard-based Bachelor of Education Curriculum- A handbook for Professional Development Coordinators.Accra: Ministry of education

Isaac Sonful Coffie, Godwin Kwame Aboagye, Eugene Adjei Johnson “Assessing the Impact of Professional Development on Physics Tutors’ Knowledge about the National Teachers Standard and the new Teacher Educational Curriculum Framework in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.43-48 January 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/43-48.pdf

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Study on Prevention of Crime in Bangladesh

Dr. Md. Washel Uddin Mollah – January 2020 Page No.: 49-54

Crime prevention is any initiative or policy which reduces or eliminates the aggregate level of victimization or the risk of individual criminal participation. It includes government and community based programs to reduce the incidents of risk factors correlated with criminal participation and the rate of victimization, as well as efforts to change perceptions’ At the present time in Bangladesh, MOHA and Bangladesh police are taking the lead role in establishing a crime prevention and community safety program through its efforts to implement the community Policing Strategy (CPS) throughout the country. In time, other Government Ministries and NGO’s should also incorporate the principles and philosophies of crime prevention and community safety into their respective policies. For example, the ministry of education (MOE) can identify where the principles of crime prevention can apply to its functions and incorporate some aspects to enhance the safety and well being of teachers and students within the school environment. Community safety is a broad concept which can focus on the individual (physical and emotional well-being). The literature on the subject refers to community (economic, environmental and social well-being). The literature on the subject refers to community safety as aspects of ‘quality of life’ that incorporates issues such as crime prevention/reduction, road safety, public health, emergency management and the environment. The discipline of crime prevention and community safety is very broad and responsibility rests with a large range of stakeholders. The framework for the strategy is designed to allow a great deal of flexibility into the process. Bangladesh’s social development is progressing rapidly and the people appear excited by the change. The main emphasis throughout this framework is partnerships, empowerment and acceptance of responsibility. These are philosophical requirements which can only be instilled through cultural change. This is the reason that a national strategy has to be lead and supported by the highest authority, while ownership and implementation rests with the community. This framework shall enable the establishment of the systems and processes needed to develop and implement the overall strategy.

Page(s): 49-54                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 January 2020

 Dr. Md. Washel Uddin Mollah
Advocate, Supreme Court of Bangladesh

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[4] Dr. Shahdeen Malik, “Arrest and Remand: Judicial Interpretation and Police Practice” Special Issue Bangladesh Journal of Law, (Dhaka: Bangladesh Institution of Law and International Affairs, November 2007), pp. 262-3
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[6] Justice Latifur Rahman, The Constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh with Comments & Case-law, 2nd ed. (Dhaka: Mullick Brothers, 2008), p. 8
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Dr. Md. Washel Uddin Mollah “Study on Prevention of Crime in Bangladesh” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.49-54 January 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/49-54.pdf

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Effect of Post-Lethality Thermal Treatment on Log Reduction of Staphylococcusaureus in Balangu Ready-To-Eat Meat Product
Ribah M. I., Jibir M., Jega I. S. and Manga S. S. – January 2020 – Page No.: 55-59

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of post-lethality thermal treatments on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus under three thermal regimes: Low Temperature Long Time-LTLT (52oC at 20 minutes), Moderate Temperature Moderate Time-MTMT (62oC at 12minutes) and High Temperature Short Time-HTSH (72oC at 4 minutes) administered as pre-package surface pasteurization. Twenty balangu samples were produced under good manufacturing practice (GMP) and inoculated with a pre-formulated pure culture of S. aureus earlier isolated from vended balangu samples. One liter of the S. aureus was prepared aseptically by transferring 2.5 ml of pure culture isolate to 1000 ml of presterilized TSB and then incubated at 37°C for 24 h to obtain 1 liter of the S. aureus containing about log 6-7×106S. aureus population. Samples were inoculated by dip method for approximately one minute, removed and equilibrated for three hours. Results showed that a mean S. aureus population was 5.5×106 for the control samples. However, pasteurization had a significant effect (P<0.05) in reducing the population. There was a reduction in S. aureus by 2.0, 3.5 and 4.25 ×106 for LTLT, MTMT and HTST, respectively. It was concluded that prepackage surface pasteurization of balangu at High Temperature Short Time (72oC at 4 minutes) had engendered higher (4.25 ×106) log reduction of S. aureus in balangu. Therefore, it is recommended that balangu should be pasteurized at high temperature for a short time so as to ensure food safety and protect public health.

Page(s): 55-59                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 January 2020

 Ribah M. I.
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, PMB 1144 Birninkebbi, Nigeria

 Jibir M.
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, PMB 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Jega I. S.
Department of Orestry and Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, PMB 1144 Birninkebbi, Nigeria

 Manga S. S.
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science , Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, PMB 1144 Birninkebbi, Nigeria

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Ribah M. I., Jibir M., Jega I. S. and Manga S. S. “Effect of Post-Lethality Thermal Treatment on Log Reduction of Staphylococcusaureus in Balangu Ready-To-Eat Meat Product” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.55-59 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/55-59.pdf

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Influence of packaging Materials and Storage Length on the Physico-Chemical Quality of Balangu: A Nigerian Ready-To-Eat Meat Product

Ribah, M. I., Jibir, M. and I. S. Jega – January 2020 Page No.: 60-64

Physico-chemical qualities of balangu, a traditional ready-to-eat meat (rte-mp), were evaluated in a 3×4 factorial experiment involving three packaging materials (aluminium foil, paper and polythene) and four storage times (0 , 24, 48 and 72 hours). Balangu was prepared using traditional methods, packaged and stored according to the designated treatments. Data obtained from all treatments were analysed using in the general linear model analysis of variance, and means were separated by Tukey test at 5% level of significance. Both packaging materials and storage length had significantly affected (P<0.05) weight loss, pH, moisture, crude protein, ether extract and ash contents during storage. However, pH was not significantly affected by storage length. There was a significant interaction (P<0.01) between packaging materials and storage length on all parameters except weight loss, ether extract and ash. Paper packaging performed better than aluminium foil and polythene packaging while storage length however indicated an order of (0) > 24 > 48 >72 hours and ranked 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th, respectively. Paper packaging had shown better performance and could store balangu up to 48 hours with optimum sensory qualities.

Page(s): 60-64                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 January 2020

 Ribah, M. I.
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, PMB 1144 Birnin kebbi, Nigeria

 Jibir, M.
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, PMB 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria

 I. S. Jega
Department of Forestry and Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, PMB 1144 Birnin kebbi, Nigeria

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Ribah, M. I., Jibir, M. and I. S. Jega, “Influence of packaging Materials and Storage Length on the Physico-Chemical Quality of Balangu: A Nigerian Ready-To-Eat Meat Product” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.60-64 January 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/60-64.pdf

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Fiscal Policy and Sectoral Output Performance in Nigeria
Olanipekun Emmanuel Falade – January 2020 – Page No.: 65-75

In this study, the differential effects of fiscal policy variables on the performance of the key sectors of the economy namely; Industrial, Agricultural and Service sectors were investigated using an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and Error Correction Model (ECM) for the period of 1970-2018. Obtained results indicated that while both domestic and foreign debts have no significant effects on the three sectors examined in the short run, it was observed that foreign debt and government consumption expenditure have incremental effects on industrial sector’s output. Similarly, it was observed that while domestic debt crowd-in agricultural and services sectors’ outputs, it has a crowd-out effect on industrial output in the long run. It is also noteworthy that while government investment expenditure has positive effect on industrial output, its effects on agricultural output is detrimental in the long run. This implies that government can neutralize the negative effects of its domestic debt on industrial sector’s output either by increasing its consumption expenditure or rely more on foreign debt. It is recommended that government should focus more on investing in infrastructure such as irrigation, access road to farm land, storage facilities, processing equipment like milling machine, etc. in other to boost productivity in the sector.

Page(s): 65-75                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 January 2020

 Olanipekun Emmanuel Falade
Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

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Olanipekun Emmanuel Falade “Fiscal Policy and Sectoral Output Performance in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp. 65-75 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/65-75.pdf

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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Competency as an Integral Factor in the Improvement of the Head Teachers` Effectiveness in Record Keeping and School Management

Zuwaira Ahmed, ABDULLAHI, Ahmed, MIJINYAWA, Gambo Alhaji DANLADI – January 2020 Page No.: 76-80

School records are veritable tools that aid the smooth management of the day to day activities of the school. Records give direction to the prompt derivation and computation of all education indicators for evidence based planning, monitoring, evaluation, and administration as well as national and global reporting competitiveness. School records are essential part of school administration as it generates a range of statistics on the entire school activities. These records can also be used to inform the parents and the communities about the school performance, enable school generate information for the monitoring of the education system and also, help in planning and decision making process at the policy level. Despite its enormous importance however, records are poorly kept and managed in most of the Nigerian schools. Poor school records weaken effective school administration which leads to inefficiencies in education management and policy implementation at all levels of education. It is in attempt to address this existing problem of poor record keeping habit by school administrators that this paper haven reviewed researches on same/similar topic conducted elsewhere and the writer’s personal experiences and observations examined how ICT competency of head teachers and school managers will tend to improve their efficiency and effectiveness towards record keeping. The paper also revealed certain factors militating against effective use of ICT by those school heads and managers. Recommendations on how to make the head teachers and school managers become more competent in the use of ICT for effective record keeping and school management was then proffered.

Page(s): 76-80                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 January 2020

 Zuwaira Ahmed, ABDULLAHI
Foundations Department, School of Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Foundations Department, School of Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria

 Gambo Alhaji DANLADI
Foundations Department, School of Education, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria

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Zuwaira Ahmed, ABDULLAHI, Ahmed, MIJINYAWA, Gambo Alhaji DANLADI “Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Competency as an Integral Factor in the Improvement of the Head Teachers` Effectiveness in Record Keeping and School Management” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.76-80 January 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/76-80.pdf

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Synthesis , Characterization and Thermogravimetric Analysis of Cobalt (III) and Zirconium(IV) Complexes With N-(3-Nitrobenzylidene)-N,N’-Dimethyl-4-Aminoantipyrine
Aswathy Sudhakar.S, Anitha Raj.P, Keerthi L.S – January 2020 – Page No.: 81-90

The Schiff base ligand (3-nitrobenzylidiene)-N,N’-dimethyl-4-amino antipyrine was prepared by the condensation between 3-nitrobenzaldehyde and N,N’-dimethyl-4-amino antipyrine. The Co and Zr complexes of the corresponding ligand were prepared and was characterized by different methods like CHN analysis, IR and UV spectra. From CHN analysis and IR spectral data the structures of Co complex and Zr complex are found to be octahedral structure. The complexes were analysed for its thermal stability.

Page(s): 81-90                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 January 2020

 Aswathy Sudhakar.S
Department of Chemistry, Christian College, Kattakada, Kerala, India

 Anitha Raj.P
Department of Chemistry, Christian College, Kattakada, Kerala, India

 Keerthi L.S
Department of Chemistry, Christian College, Kattakada, Kerala, India

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Aswathy Sudhakar.S, Anitha Raj.P, Keerthi L.S “Synthesis , Characterization and Thermogravimetric Analysis of Cobalt (III) and Zirconium(IV) Complexes With N-(3-Nitrobenzylidene)-N,N’-Dimethyl-4-Aminoantipyrine” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.81-90 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/81-90.pdf

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Anti-Plasmodial Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Florida Beggar Weed (Desmodiumtortuosum) on Albino Mice-Infected with Plasmodium Bergheiberghei
Elele, Kingsley and Gboeloh, LeBari Barine – January 2020 – Page No.: 91-101

The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-plasmodia effects of ethanolic extract of Florida beggar weed on albino mice experimentally infected with Plasmodium bergheiberghei Malaria infection in mice was initiated by intraperitoneal (IP) inoculation of 0.5 ml blood, diluted to contain 2 x 107 parasitized red blood cells (PRBC) from a donor mouse infected with P. b. berghei. Controls to malaria-infected mice were given an equivalent volume and dilution of normal uninfected red blood cells inoculation period was for four days. Nine groups in a plastic wire cages were created. Three control groups were created viz: Normal (non-inoculated) negative (inoculated but untreated) and positive control (inoculated and treated with 10mg/kg Chloroquine). Two categories with three sub-groups were created with each category representing the ethanolic extracts of Desmodiumtortuosum leaf and stemrespectively. The three sub-groups in each category represent the three serial dilutions of 100, 200 and 500mg/kg ethanolic extracts each of the leaf and stem administered for four days for the treatment of the parasite. To Measure the parasitaemia levels in the animals, thick and thin film smears were made on slides for microscopic viewing.Slides were viewed under light microscopy with oil immersion (1000x magnification). The average Parasitaemia was calculated as well as the average percentage parasite inhibition (suppressive effect) was obtained. Result showed that the parasitemia level for the treated groups decreased progressively for the five days period. This is indicative in the mean number of the percentage parasitized red cells of 500mh/kg doses as 3.50±1.25 and 4.00±1.22 on the first day post inoculation and 1.50±0.28 and 1.50±0.28 for Desmodiumtortuosum leaf and stem respectively by the fifth day. The decrease is also observed in the 100 and 200mg/kg groups of each sample. Except for the untreated group which showed a progressive increase in parasitemia level showing the mean number of the percentage parasitized red cells as 3.50±0.64 on the first day post inoculation and 13.25±1.31by the fifth day. The hematological result showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in values of RBC, PCV, Hb, and Neutrophils in the inoculated groups especially the untreated group. As compared to the treated groups, these parameters are seen increasing progressively as concentrations increases. The potency of the leaf and stem on the fifth day was observed to be the same. The plant generally showed dose independent behavour. The biochemical assays of the leaf and stem extracts showed no toxicity effects. In conclusion, the ethanolic extracts of Desmodiumtortuosum leaf and stem showed moderate anti-plasmodial properties and are less toxic to the body therefore can be pursued for the development of an antimalarial drug.

Page(s): 91-101                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 February 2020

 Elele, Kingsley
Department of Biology, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni,P. M. B. 5047, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Gboeloh, LeBari Barine
Department of Biology, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni,P. M. B. 5047, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Elele, Kingsley and Gboeloh, LeBari Barine “Anti-Plasmodial Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Florida Beggar Weed (Desmodiumtortuosum) on Albino Mice-Infected with Plasmodium Bergheiberghei” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp. 91-101 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/91-101.pdf

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Soil Properties as Determinant of Woody Trees Distribution in Kanawa Forest Reserve, Gombe State, Nigeria

Abba, H.M; Sawa, F.B.J; Gani, A.M; Abdul,S.D – January 2020 Page No.: 102-109

The present study examined the influence of soil properties on the distribution of woody tree species in the study area. Point CenteredQuarter sampling method was employed to collect soil and vegetation data from six contrasting vegetation types.Composite soil samples were collected at two pre-determined (0-15 and 15-30cm) soil depths. The samples were analysed using standard procedures in the laboratory. The study revealed that soil physico-chemical properties varied from site to site and were dominated by certain plant species (Raphia sudanica, Elaeis guineensis, Senna siamea, Ficus congoensis, Ficus polita, Gmelina arborea, Azadirachta indica, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Vitex doniana and Albizzia lebbeck). Correlations between soil types and vegetation types showed significant and positive correlations within the various soil parameters studied at all the vegetation types. However, there was a negative correlation within some of the vegetation types. From this findings, it was concluded that the variations within soil physical and chemical properties influence the distribution pattern of flora in the area. The differences are therefore indications of the variation in biophysical components such as soil, water, topography among others. It was recommended that this study would act as a basis for making sound ecological predictions and land use decisions.

Page(s): 102-109                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 February 2020

 Abba, H.M
Department of Biological Sciences, Botany Programme, Gombe State University, P.M.B 127, Gombe, Nigeria

 Sawa, F.B.J
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University,P.M.B 0248 ,Bauchi State, Nigeria

 Gani, A.M
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University,P.M.B 0248 ,Bauchi State, Nigeria

 ; Abdul,S.D
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University,P.M.B 0248 ,Bauchi State, Nigeria

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Abba, H.M; Sawa, F.B.J; Gani, A.M; Abdul,S.D “Soil Properties as Determinant of Woody Trees Distribution in Kanawa Forest Reserve, Gombe State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.102-109 January 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/102-109.pdf

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Cost Reduction of Traveling Salesman Problem with an Enhanced Genetic Algorithm

K. B. Ishola, O. E. James – January 2020 Page No.: 110-117

Traveling Salesman Problem is a variation of NP hard problem and that has made it an interesting and challenging problem in the field of computer science, even though many techniques have been proposed to improve the performance of TSP.
Genetic Algorithm is a technique used in computing to search the optimal solution from a various possible solution to a computational problem in order that maximizes or minimizes a particular function and Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) is computational optimization problem. The time to solve TSP grows exponentially as the number of cities increases; if it is to be solved within a reasonable amount of time then it requires optimal solution. This research work examines the solution to improve the performance of TSP by coding it into a genetic form.
The aim of this research work is to use the modified elements of Genetic Algorithm such as chromosomes, selection, crossover, mutation and fitness function to solve the Travelling Salesman Problem where one has to find the shortest or efficient route among the cities from the origin.

Page(s): 110-117                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 February 2020

 K. B. Ishola
Department of Computer Science, Federal University of Lafia, P.M.B 146 Lafia, Nigeria

 O. E. James
Department of Computer Science, Federal University of Lafia, P.M.B 146 Lafia, Nigeria

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K. B. Ishola, O. E. James “Cost Reduction of Traveling Salesman Problem with an Enhanced Genetic Algorithm” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.110-117 January 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/110-117.pdf

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Impact of Outside Fares Culinary Craft on Tourism Development in Calabar, Nigeria

Linus Beba OBONG, Grace Neji OKONGOR – January 2020 Page No.: 118-128

There is a growing body of works on culinary craft in cities and towns of developing nations. Cosmopolites, the unmarried and the childless, the trapped, the deprived and ethnic villagers, often seek opportunities for other income sources other than known paid jobs to cope with urban life. Outside fares culinary craft in Calabar Metropolis was surveyed using field observation and recording, photographic camera and oral interviews in generating data for the study. Results revealed that the highest employments occurred at Ekorimin catchment with a total of 45 percent, 35 percent at the Mobil MCC Road, 13 percent at the RCC Roundabout, while 9 percent was recorded at the Unical Hotel Road. Results equally revealed that the operators of the fares face challenges of high levies by the state government. It was recommended that the state government should adopt inclusive planning to accommodate outside fare culinary craft as a means of boosting tourism and hospitality in the Metropolis.

Page(s): 118-128                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 February 2020

 Linus Beba OBONG
Department of Tourism Studies, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

 Grace Neji OKONGOR
Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

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Linus Beba OBONG, Grace Neji OKONGOR “Impact of Outside Fares Culinary Craft on Tourism Development in Calabar, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.118-128 January 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/118-128.pdf

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Incidence of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension among Women Attending Ante Natal Clinic, In Zone a General Hospitals of Yobe State

H. E. Chime, J.O. Adjene, Gambo, Mohammed Gana – January 2020 Page No.: 129-135

Pregnancy induced hypertension is one of the most common cause of both maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality affecting a sizable number of pregnant women. Hence this study was carried out to investigate incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension among women attending ante natal clinic in general hospital of zone A Yobe state. A survey descriptive study was carried out among pregnant women attending ante natal clinic within the general hospital of Zone A Yobe sate. Using simple random sampling techniques, 343 structured questionnaires were administered, of which 300 were retrieved and used in this study and the data obtained were analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. The response rate was 87%.Four research questions were answered, and four hypotheses tested. The research question 1, 2 and 4 were tested using percentages and frequencies; while research question 3 and the hypotheses were tested using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation. The hypotheses were tested at 95% confidence level. Most of the pregnant women attending ante natal clinic within the General hospital of zone A Yobe state are of the age range 25- 34yrs and 15- 24yrs (37.7% and 28.0%, respectively), most are islam, 266(88.7%); majority possess secondary and tertiary education, 89(29.7%) and 88(29.3), respectively.; no formal education, 63(21.0%); and primary, 60 (20.0%). The incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) among pregnant woman is very low (20.7%). Most of them, 226(75.3%) have heard of PIH; only 75(25.0%) have knowledge of the predisposing factors of PIH. There was a negative but no significant relationship between diet and PIH (r = -0.06, P< 0.05). The identified complications of PIH are: preterm delivery (22%); death (21.3%); eclamsia (18%); and abortion (15%). The possible complications of PIH to fetus are: death (13.3%); preterm birth (10.7%); asphysia (8.3%). There was no significant relationship between age and PIH (P > 0.05); level of education and PIH (P > 0.05); risk factors and PIH (P > 0.05) and between diet and PIH (P > 0.05). Hypotheses one to four were accepted/ not rejected (P > 0.05). More efforts should be put in by health workers and the government to keep it low or even lower by educating the pregnant women in the study area about the risk factors and complications of PIH; those who have been diagnosed to have the disorder should be taught how to effectively manage it.

Page(s): 129-135                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 February 2020

  H. E. Chime
Department of Public and Community Health, Novena University, Ogume, Delta State, Nigeria

  J.O. Adjene
Department of Public and Community Health, Novena University, Ogume, Delta State, Nigeria

  Gambo, Mohammed Gana
Department of Public and Community Health, Novena University, Ogume, Delta State, Nigeria

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[4] Grujic, I. & Milasinovic, L. (2006) Hypertension, preeclampsia and eclampsia-monitoring and outcome of pregnancy. Medicinski Pregled, 59, 556-559.
[5] James, P. R., & Nelson-Piercy, C. (2004). Management of hypertension before, during, and after pregnancy. Heart (British Cardiac Society), 90(12), 1499–1504.
[6] Kahsay, H.B., Gashe, F.E. and Ayele, W.M. (2018). Risk factors for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among mothers in Tigray region, Ethiopia: matched case-control study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 18(482): 1-10.
[7] Lampinen, K.H., Ronnback, M., Groop, P.H., Kaaja, R.J. (2006). Renal and vascular function in women with previous preeclampsia: a comparison of low- and high-degree proteinuria Kidney Int., 70 (10) (2006 Nov), 1818-1822
[8] Lindheimer, M.D., & August, P. (2009). Aldosterone, maternal volume status and healthy pregnancies: a cycle of differing views. Nephrol. Dial. Transpl.24 (6), 1712 – 1714.
[9] Osungbade, K.O. and Ige, O.K. (2011). Public Health Perspectives of Preeclampsia in Developing Countries: Implication for Health System Strengthening. Journal of Pregnancy. 2011,6pp.
[10] Roberts, C.L., Algert, C.S., Morris, J.M., Ford, J.B. & Henderson-Smart, D.J. (2005).Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: a population-based study. Medical Journal of Australia. 182(7), 332-335.
[11] Sorohi, H., Rushi, G., Paras, G., Trupesh, H. and Niraj, P. (2017). Study of Risk Factors for Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (A Hospital Based Case Control Study). NJIRM. 8(3): 49-52.
[12] Tebeu, P.M., Foumane, P., Mbu, R., Fosso, G., Biyaga, P.T. & Fomulu, J.N. (2011). Risk factors for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: a report from the Maroua regional hospital, Cameroon. Journal of Reproduction in Infertility. 12(3), 227-34.
[13] Tesfaye, A. G. and Tilahun, M.R. (2018). Pregnancy Induced Hypertension and Its Associated Factors among Women Attending Delivery Service at Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital, Tepi and Gebretsadikshawo Hospitals, Southwest, Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci. 29(1):831- 840.
[14] Yusuf, S. (2010). Unresolved Issues in the Management of Hypertension. Editorial Commentary. 55, 832–834

H. E. Chime, J.O. Adjene, Gambo, Mohammed Gana “Incidence of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension among Women Attending Ante Natal Clinic, In Zone a General Hospitals of Yobe State” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.129-135 January 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/129-135.pdf

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Extraction and Characterization of Caffeine: A Biochemical Compound Contained In Some Locally Consumed Tea Leaves (Camellia Sinensis)
Yunus, M.M., Nulamuga B. – January 2020 – Page No.: 136-140

This research work involved extraction and characterization of caffeine from a variety of tea leaves locally consumed, using liquid-liquid extraction method. The extraction process involved the following steps; the tea leaves were steeped/boiled at 75oc, followed by evaporation, decantation, filtration and recrystallization. The pure caffeine crystals yield from 30g of each of the four different tea leaves studied are: Chinese refined green tea 46mg, Mambila beverage tea type II 12mg, while Chinese green tea and Mambila beverage tea type I each has a value of 7mg. Literature studies indicates that, caffeine content of tea leaves differ with level of maturity and processing method employed on the tea leaves. The high caffeine content in CRGT makes it popular and most patronized by consumers. The methods applied for purity analysis on the caffeine crystals include; melting point determination and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The caffeine extracted boils at 237oc and the absorption bands generated from the sample caffeine is similar to those reported in literature.

Page(s): 136-140                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 January 2020

 Yunus, M.M.
Department of Chemistry, Yobe State University KM 7 Gujba Road, P.M.B.1144 Damaturu, Nigeria

 Nulamuga B.
Department of Chemistry, Yobe State University KM 7 Gujba Road, P.M.B.1144 Damaturu, Nigeria

[1] Mumin, M.D. Kazi, F. A., Zainal Abedin, M.D., Zakir Hossain, M.D. (2006). Determination and characterization of caffeine in tea, coffee and soft drinks by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography, Malaysian J. of Chem., Vol. 8, No.1, 045 –051.
[2] Aragao, N.M., Veloso, M.C., Bispo, M.S., Ferreira, S.L. and Andrade, J.B.(2005). Multivariate optimization of the experimental conditions for determination of three methylxanthines by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, Talanta, 67: 1007-1013.
[3] Andra P. and Sean W. (2013). Isolation of caffeine from tea leaves via acid-base liquid extraction. Plant physiology, 68, 275-281.
[4] Barone, J.J., Roberts, H.R.(1996).Caffeine Consumption. Food Chemistry and Toxicology, McGraw-Hill, New York, 34,119.
[5] Belay, A. (2011).Some biochemical compounds in coffee beans and methods developed for their analysis. Int.J. of the Physi, Scie. Vol. 6:28. Pp.6373—6378.
[6] Betty kovacs. (2017). Caffeine newsletter; medicine net. Retrieved from https://www.medicinenet.com/Coffee. Accessed on 11/07/2017.
[7] Debas, H. T. Cohen, M. M. Holubitsky, I. B. and Harrison, R. C. (2009). Caffeine-Stimulated Acid and Pepsin Secretion: Dose-Response Studies, candinavian Journal of Gastroenterology.
[8] Drug bank University of Alberta (2013). Retrieved from http://www.camptox.epa.gov/dashboard/ chemical-list/drugbank. Accessed on 10/09/2017.
[9] Fuller, T. (2008). A Tea from the jungle enrichesa placid village. TheNew York Times, New York pg 48.
[10] Gebely, (2017). World of Tea. Retrieved from http://www.world of tea.org/tea-Leary-oxidation. Accessed on 27th Nov. 2017.
[11] Islam, M. S., Rahman, M. M., Abedin, M.Z. (2002) Isolationof caffeine from commercially available tea andtea waste, Jahangirnagar. Uni. J. Sci., 25, 9.
[12] Kevin Browsky. (2010). Caffeine Extraction’. Retrieved from https://www.thewhistlingkettle.com/9/info/blog/caffeine- and-matcha. Accessed on 13/09/2017.
[13] Komes, D., Horzic, D., Belscak, K., Kovacevic, and Baljak, A.(2009). Determination of Caffeine content in tea and mate tea by using different methods; journal of food and science (czech) vol. 27, 213-215.
[14] Lindsey, H. and Kerrigan S.(2005). Fatal caffeine overdose: Two case report, Forensic Sci. Int., 153: 67-69. 6378 Int. J. Phys. Sci.
[15] Matcha-Tea.com (2015). Caffeinated foods; Safe or Risky.Retrieved from https://www.gotmatch.com accessed on 19/02/2018.
[16] Moroydor, E.;, Kipcak, A. S., Dere, O., Ozdemir, D., Karakoc, M., Nehlig, A., Daval, J.L, Debry, G. (2013) “Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effect” Brain Res. Rev. 17(2) 13970
[17] Pradeep, S., Rameshaiah, G.N. and Hadagali, A. (2015). Caffeine Extraction and Characterization. Int.J. Cur. Res. Rev. Vol. 7, 9: 16—19.
[18] Rachel, R., McCusker, B., Goldberger, A. and Edward, J. (2003). Caffeine content of specify coffees, journal of analytical toxicology, Vol. 27.
[19] Richling, E., Bernherd, W., Peter, S. and Corinna, H. (2003). Authentication analysis of caffeine containing food via elemental analysis combustion/pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EAC/p-RMS). Journal of European Food Research and Teaching; 216(6) Pg 544-548.
[20] Royal society of chemistry (2017). Retrieved from https://www.chemspider.com/chemical-structure. 57697.html. Accessed on 10/11/2017.
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Vallombroso L. (2006). The fact about caffeine (drugs) Benchmark Books (NY), p.43.
[22] Williams, K. and Katherine M. (2011). Macro scale and micro scale organic. Experiment, 6th ed. Brook/cole, pg 213. www.spider.com/chemical-structure.2424.html, accessed 30th May, 2017.
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Yunus, M.M., Nulamuga B. “Extraction and Characterization of Caffeine: A Biochemical Compound Contained In Some Locally Consumed Tea Leaves (Camellia Sinensis)” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.136-140 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/136-140.pdf

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3-Factors of 3-Factorization of K3,3,3,…,3 with n-Partite Sets for All Even Integers n≥2
M.D.M.C.P. Weerarathna, D.M.T.B. Dissanayake and A.A.I. Perera – January 2020 – Page No.: 141-142

A factorization of a graph G is a set of spanning sub-graph of G that are pairwise edge-disjoint and whose union is G. Factorization is one of the most active research areas in Graph Theory. In our previous work, 2-factors of 2-factorization of K(2,2,2,…,2) and K_(2r,2r,2r,⋯,2r) has been constructed by using degree factors. In this work, by considering degree factorization, a theorem has been proved to obtain 3-factors of 3-factorization of the complete multipartite graphs K(3,3,3,…,3).

Page(s): 141-142                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 January 2020

 M.D.M.C.P. Weerarathna
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

 D.M.T.B. Dissanayake
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

 A.A.I. Perera
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

[1]. Akiyama, J. and Kano, M. (1985). Factors and Factorizations of Graphs, Journal of Graph Theory, Vol. 9, pp 1-42.
[2]. Anstee, R. and Nam, Y. (1998). More sufficient conditions for a graph to have factors, Discrete Mathematics, Vol. 184, pp 15-24.
[3]. Jonathan L.G. and Yellen J. (2003). Handbook of Graph Theory, CRC Press.
[4]. Plummer, D.M. (2007). Graph Factors and Factorization: 1985-2003, ScienceDirect, Discrete Mathematics, Vol. 307, pp 791-821.
[5]. Straight, H.J. (1993). Combinatorics, An Invitation, Cole Publishing Company, Pacific Grove, California.
[6]. WeerarathnaM.D.M.C.P., Dissanayake D.M.T.B., Dehigama D.G.S.D. and Perera A.A.I. (2019). k-Factors of k-Factorization ofK_(2^r,2^r,2^r,⋯,2^r ) with n-Partite Sets for k = 1,2 andn ≥ 2,n,r∈Z^+,International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation, Vol. VI, Issue IX, pp 34-38.
[7]. Wilson, J.R.(1996). Introduction to Graph Theory, Longman.

M.D.M.C.P. Weerarathna, D.M.T.B. Dissanayake and A.A.I. Perera “3-Factors of 3-Factorization of K3,3,3,…,3 with n-Partite Sets for All Even Integers n≥2″ International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.141-142 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/141-142.pdf

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Experimental of Flexural and Hardness Property of Palm-Sisal Reinforced Epoxy Resin Hybrid Composite Materials
Asmamaw Tegegne, Melese Shiferaw – January 2020 – Page No.: 143-153

Hybrid Natural fiber composite material is made from two or more natural fibers to achieve better mechanical properties than single fiber composites. In Ethiopian large amount of unused natural fibers resources including palm, sisal and others are available. These can replace synthetic fiber composite materials. Carry out research to change the natural fibers in to use full engineering products is essential for industrial development. Experimental methodology of research was conducted to develop palm and sisal fibers reinforcements with epoxy resin matrix hybrid composite for the purpose of determining the flexural and hardness property that is required in vehicle internal body parts. In the production of hybrid composite specimens  for flexural and hardness tests, various parameters including sequence of fiber layers effect (palm-sisal-sisal-palm (PSSP), palm-sisal-palm-sisal (SPSP), and sisal-palm-palm-sisal (SPPS)), angle orientation of fibers(0o-45o -0o -45o, 0o -0o -0o -0o, 0o -90o -0o -90o), weight concentration of fibers (weight ratio) and also  different alkali (NaOH 6% and 10%)concentration treated fiber effect were considered. Flexural strength test was conducted on three point sampling size universal testing machine and hardness testing was conducted using Rockwell scale “A” hardness tester. From test results, the 6% NaOH treated chopped composites showed higher flexural strength (66MPa.) with weight concentration of 5%palm-20%sisal- and 75% epoxy. The hardness number of 6% NaOH alkali-treated fiber with weight concentration of 5%palm, 20%sisal and 75% epoxy chopped fiber number was110.344 and was the highest hardness comparing to hardness of other specimens.  From the research results it is possible to conclude that using palm-sisal hybrid fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix could successfully develop a composite material with high strength to weight ratio and rigidity for automobile interior parts applications and the naturally obtained fibers may play a great role in economic development.

Page(s): 143-153                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 January 2020

 Asmamaw Tegegne
Department of Manufacturing Technology, Federal Technical Vocational Education and Training Institute, Ethiopia

 Melese Shiferaw
Department of Manufacturing Engineering, University of Gondar, Ethiopia

[1] N.R. And All, Natural Fiber For Green Technology In Automotive Industry: A Brief Review IOP Conference Series, 2018.
[2] K. Senthilkumar, N. Rajini, M. Chandrasekar, M. Jawaid, SuchartSiengchin, Mechanical Properties Evaluation of Sisal Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites: A Review. Construction And Building Materials, 2018,pp 713–729.
[3] G.M. Arifuzzaman Khan, M. Terano, M.A. Gafur, M. ShamsulAlam, Studies on the Mechanical Properties of Woven jute fabric Reinforced Polymer(l-lactic acid) Composites. Engineering Sciences, 2016,pp. 69 –74.
[4] M. Sanjay, G. Arpitha, and B. Yogesha, Study on Mechanical Properties of Patural-Glass fibre Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composites: A review. Materials today: proceedings,2(4-5):2015, pp.2959-2967.
[5] J. M Rajesha, N Rajini, Free Vibration Characteristics of Banana/Sisal Natural Fibers Reinforced Hybrid Polymer Composite Beam. Procedia Engineering 144, 2016, pp. 1055 – 1059.
[6] R.S. Soma Dalbehera, Industrial Design, Study on Mechanical Properties of Natural Fiber Reinforced Woven Jute-Glass Hybrid Epoxy Composites. Advances in Polymer Science and Technology, 2015: p. 1 -6.
[7] D.O.B. and all, Effect of Alkali Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Sisal Woven Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Composites.American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), 6(6): 2017, p. pp-93-96.
[8] H.S. SyafiqahNurAzrieSafri, Mohammad Jawaid, KandasamyJayakrishna, Impact behviour of hybrid compo sites for structural applications: A review Composites Part B, 2018. Part B 133: p. 112-121.
[9] M. AjithGopinath, Elayaperumal A, Experimental Investigations on Mechanical Properties of Jute Fiber Reinforced Composites With Polyester ond Epoxy Resin Matrices. Procedia Engineering,97: 2014, p. 2052 – 2063.
[10] D. S.Yazhini, Studies on Bond And Flexural Strength of Sisal Fibre Rope Reinforced Concrete. IJESC, .8(3):2018.
[11] K. Srivastava, Properties Of Sisal Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composite. Indian Journal of Fibre& Textile Research, 41: 2016, pp. 235-241.
[12] M.A. MohamHamdyGheith, WaheedullahGhori ,Naheed Saba, Flexural, Thermal and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Date Palm Fibres Reinforced Epoxy Composites.journal of material research tectnology, 1: 2019. Pp. 853–860.
[13] E.R. Pradeep P, Suthan R. and Jayakumar V, Characterization of Palm Fibers For Reinforcement In Polymer Matrix,vol.11( 12), 2016: pp. 1819-6608.
[14] P.C. Saha, N. Modak, Three Point Bending Test Of Fibre Reinforced Particulate Composites.7(4): 2016.pp. 2229-5518.
[15] M.H. Tao Yang, XuejuanNiu and Yu Du, Experimental Investigation of The Three-PointBending Fatigue Properties of Carbon Fiber Composite Iaminates. AMS1(1): 2016.
[16] M. Berthelot, Mechanics of Composite Material and Structures, 2015.
[17] J.M. Berthelote, Mechanics of Composite Material and Structures, 2017.
[18] R.N. ChandanChawan, Analysis of Impact & Hardness Behavior and Comparison Study of Sisal and Jute Hybrid Composite,IJSRD3(07): 2015pp. 2321-0613.
[19] G.M. Sivakandhan, N. Tamiloli, L. Ravikumar, Studies on Mechanical Properties of Sisal and Jute Fiber Hybrid Sandwich Composite Materials Today,10 : 2019.
[20] D.T.R. KotreshSardar, Shivakumar, Fabrication and Investigation of Bending Test on Hybrid (Sisal and Banana) Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composite Material3(6):2014.

Asmamaw Tegegne, Melese Shiferaw “Experimental of Flexural and Hardness Property of Palm-Sisal Reinforced Epoxy Resin Hybrid Composite Materials” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.143-153 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/143-153.pdf

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International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Adoption and Short-Term Liquidity of Firms in Nigeria
Lucky Izobo ENAKIRERHI, Emmanuel A. L. IBANICHUKA & Clifford O. OFURUM – January 2020 – Page No.: 154-157

The study has the primary aim of examining the impact of IFRS adoption on the liquidity position of firms quoted on the floor of the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Short-term liquidity is measured by current ratio and the paired sample t-test measures the statistical difference between the mean of liquidity in pre-IFRS and mean of liquidity in post-IFRS periods. Using descriptive statistics to measure the mean of both periods, the results show that the mean of liquidity is lower in post-IFRS adoption period indicating a negative impact of International Financial Reporting Standards adoption in Nigeria. Furthermore, the paired sample t-test shows that there is difference between the mean of both periods and the difference is significant at 1% level. Thus, the study concludes that the adoption of IFRS has had a significant but negative impact on the short-term liquidity position measured by current ratio of firms. The study, therefore, recommends that managers should find a way to improve the liquidity position of firms and as adoption should have led to more transparency, openness and greater flexibility, there should be a new study to examine whether the reduction in liquidity is solely caused by adoption of IFRS or the economic recession which hampered the Nigerian economy in the year 2015.

Page(s): 154-157                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 January 2020

Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Emmanuel A. L. IBANICHUKA
Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria

 Clifford O. OFURUM
Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria

[1] Agyei-Mensah, B.K. (2015). The determinants of financial ratio disclosures and quality: Evidence from an emerging market. International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, 5(1), 188 – 211.
[2] Aljifri, K., Alzarouni, A., NG, C. & Tahir, M.I. (2014). The association between firm characteristics and corporate financial disclosures: Evidence from uae companies. The International Journal of Business and Finance Research, 8(2), 101 – 123.
[3] Amihud, Y., (2002). Illiquidity and stock returns: Cross-section and time series effects. Journal of Financial Markets, 5, 31-56.
[4] Amr, A.M.(2016). Analyzing the effect of firm liquidity on the quality of financial reporting. An empirical study on firms listed in the Egyptian stock exchange. International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research, 1 (10),1604 – 1628.
[5] Bardos, K.S. (2011). Quality of financial information and liquidity. Review of Financial Economics,20(2), 49-62.
[6] Belkaoui, A., & Kahl, A. (1978). Corporate financial disclosure in Canada, Research Monograph No. 1 of Canadian Certificate General Accountants Associations, June.
[7] Cooke, T. E. (1989a). Disclosure in the corporate annual reports of swedish companies. Accounting and Business Research, 19(74), 113 – 124.
[8] Cooke, T. E. (1989b). Voluntary corporate disclosure by swedish companies. Journal of International Financial Management and Accounting, 2, 171 – 195.
[9] Echobu, J., Okika, N.P. & Mailafia, L. (2017). Determinants of financial reporting quality: evidence from listed agriculture and natural resources firms in Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific Research in Social Sciences & Management Studies, 2 (1), 66 – 82.
[10] Hamidzadeh, S. & zeinali, M. (2015). The asset structure and liquidity effect on financial reporting quality at listed companies in tehran stock exchange’. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (OMAN Chapter), 4 (7), 121 – 127.
[11] Hassan, S.U. & Farouk, M.A. (2014). Firm attributes and earnings quality of listed oil and gas companies in Nigeria. Research Journal of Finance and Accounting, 5(17), 10 -18.
[12] Lin, Z., Jiang, Y., Tang, Q., & He, X. (2015). Does high-quality financial reporting mitigate the negative impact of global financial crises on firm performance? Evidence from the United Kingdom. Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal, 8(5), 19-46.
[13] Omaliko, E., Uzodimma, A. & Okpala, N. (2017). Effect of international financial reporting standard adoption on financial performance of listed money depositing banks in Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Management, 9(17), 11-17
[14] Shehata, N. F., Dahawy, K., & Ismail, T. (2014). The relationship between firm characteristics and mandatory disclosure level: when Egyptian accounting standards were first adopted. Mustang Journal of Accounting and Finance, 5, 85-101
[15] Takhtaei, N., & Mousavi, Z. (2012). Disclosure quality and firm’s characteristics: evidence from Iran. Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting, 4(2), 290-300.
[16] Wallace, R.S.O and Naser, K. (1995). Firm specific determinants of comprehensiveness of mandatory disclosure in the corporate annual reports of firms on the stock exchange of Hong Kong, Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 14, 311 – 368.
[17] Wallace, R.S.O; Naser, K and Mora, A. (1994). The relationship between comprehensiveness and corporate annual reports and firm attributes in Spain, Journal of Accounting andBusiness Research, 25(97), 41 – 53.

Lucky Izobo ENAKIRERHI, Emmanuel A. L. IBANICHUKA & Clifford O. OFURUM “International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Adoption and Short-Term Liquidity of Firms in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.154-157 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/154-157.pdf

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Nigerian Environmental Regulations and Environmental Degradation in Niger Delta
Aduku Abdul Ainoko – January 2020 – Page No.: 158-167

This article analyses Nigerian environmental laws and how effective they are in regulating the activities of oil multinational companies (MNC’s) in the NDR, and protecting the environment and the people of the region. Right to environment is gaining increasing prominence globally. In some jurisdiction’s this right is guaranteed and enforceable constitutionally. The article presents an argument in favour of making the right to environment enforceable. The article examines the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the environment, Nigeria laws on oil and gas as well as the environment, common law and the problems militating the effective enforcement of environmental laws in Nigeria.

Page(s): 158-167                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 January 2020

 Aduku Abdul Ainoko
LLM International Human Rights Law, University of Liverpool (as a commonwealth shared scholar), LLB Kogi State University, BL Nigeria Law School, Nigeria, currently works as an Attorney at O G Aleji and Partners (a private law firm in Lokoja, Kogi state Nigeria)

References are not available

Aduku Abdul Ainoko “Nigerian Environmental Regulations and Environmental Degradation in Niger Delta” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.158-167 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/158-167.pdf

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History and Development of Guidance and Counselling in Nigerian Educational System: The Bottlenecks
Dr Dorcas Oluremi FAREO – January 2020 – Page No.: 168-172

This paper examined the concepts of Guidance and Counselling, History and development of Guidance and counselling in Nigeria, principles of guidance and counseling are highlighted. The bottlenecks in the growth of Guidance and Counselling in Nigeria educational system include: All schools from primary to all tertiary institutions should be equipped with adequate counsellors in order to render quality guidance and counseling services that will help the students to realize their potentials in life. Counsellors should work hand in hand with other professionals in schools to achieve success. All stakeholders of education should collaborate together in removing the bottlenecks hindering the growth of guidance and counselling in Nigeria educational system as non-clarification of counsellor’s roles in a school setting; time allocation; location of counselling offices; shortage of counselling personnel; lack of recognition; confidentiality; problems inherent in counselling personnel; insufficient psychological testing; lack of fund; and lack of occupational information. It is recommended that fiscal support should be given to the establishment of guidance services by both the Federal and State government like other arms of educational support institutions. This would assist in the effective running of the programme.

Page(s): 168-172                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 February 2020

 Dr Dorcas Oluremi FAREO
Department of Educational Foundations, Adamawa State University, Nigeria

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[6] Olayinka, M. S. (2005). Guidance and counselling for Nigerian schools. Lagos, Literamed Publications Limited
[7] Omoniyi, M. B. I. (2016). History and development of guidance and counselling: The missing dimension in Nigeria school counselling services. International Journal of Education and Research, 4(11), 413-424.
[8] Owuamanam,, T. O. (2007). A handbook of guidance and counseling (revised edition). Lagos, Bolabay Publications.
[9] Willey, K. & Andrew, N. G. (2011). Guidance and counselling, What is counseling? Meaning, need and significance. [Online] http://teachereducation guidance and counselling.
[10] Blgspot.com/2019/07/what is counselling meaning need and html (July 2019).

Dr Dorcas Oluremi FAREO “History and Development of Guidance and Counselling in Nigerian Educational System: The Bottlenecks” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.168-172 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/168-172.pdf

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Gender Inequality among Nigerian Students
Tabitha Markus VANDIMA- January 2020 – Page No.: 173-178

Education is a centrepiece for progress in every aspect of human life. Education is therefore expected to be equally accessible for everyone, all those seeking education should have the ideal choice and women should participate in higher education. The purpose of this paper is therefore to assess the existence of gender inequality among students in Nigerian institutions. Measures such as public enlightenment campaigns, involving the communities in planning and monitoring of schools, plan for the location of schools, increase in the number of female teachers, more schools need to be built in giving some aids/incentives to the girls at most in primary school level will have to be considered to bridge the gap between male and female. It is considered a collective responsibility and effort of government, parents, community and stakeholders to ensure this. It is in view of the above; the paper discusses the concept of gender inequality, gender inequality Education, causes of gender discrimination, challenges of gender inequality in basic education, ways of checking gender discrimination in education and theories of gender inequality. The study finally proffers possible suggestions.

Page(s): 173-178                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 February 2020

 Tabitha Markus VANDIMA
Department of Science Education, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria

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[3] Ahmed, U.B. (2010). Promoting the education of married adolescent girls in Northern Nigeria. Nigerian Academy of Education Year Book, (6); 191 – 206.
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[5] Amedu, O. I. (2015). The effect of gender on the achievement of students in biology using the jigsaw method. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(17), 176-179.
[6] Anho, J.E. &Onojetah, S.O. (2007). Education reform and national development: Gender issues, access and equity in university education. A paper presented at the 25th Annual Conference of the Philosophy of Education Association of Nigeria (PEAN) held at the Delta State University, Abraka, 16th – 21st October.
[7] Anikweze, C. M. (2010). Measurement and evaluation for teacher education (2nd Edition). Enugu: SNAAP Press Ltd.
[8] Ekeh, P. U. (2004). Gender bias and achievement in science and mathematics among primary school pupils: implications for human resource development. Journal of Curriculum Organisation, Niger, 11(2), 30-33.
[9] Ene, A.C. (2007). Access to and equity in university education. In J.B. Babalola, G.O. Akpa, A.O. Ayeni and O. Adedeji (eds) Access, Equity and Quality in Higher Education. NAEAP Publication.
[10] Evans, P. (2001). Sex and gender: A world of difference. DFID Developments. I13; 32 – 34.
[11] Federal Republic of Nigeria (2014). NationalPolicy on Education. Lagos: Government Printer.
[12] . Gambari, A. I. (2004). The development of computer aided learning software for individualized instruction of physics in senior secondary schools in Niger State, Nigeria. Unpublished M. Tech. Thesis, Department of Science Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna.
[13] Lumumba, NT (2000) educational and economic reform, Gender, Equity and access to school in Africa, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 41 (89),12-14.
[14] Nwajiuba, C.A. (2011). Culture and sex imbalance in higher education in Nigeria: Implications for development. Educational Research. Retrieved on 26th March, 2013 from http://www.interejournals.org/ER
[15] Obielumani, IO (2010). Gender Stereo Typing and the Optimisation of Access to Education in Nigeria. Journal of Research in Education, 17;1,
[16] Oyebade, S.A. (2008). Gender participation in university education in Nigeria and some commonwealth countries. Retrieved on February 10, 2013 from http://nigeriaworld.com/articles/html
[17] Rufa’I, R. A (2000): Gender inequality in education as revealed by the 1991 census data: Implication to curriculum planning”. Journal of Research in Special Education. 4,1
[18] Rufa’I, R. A. (2000) “Strategies for Effective Implementation of the Universal Basic Education in Nigeria”. In Journal of Education and Human Development.12, 4
[19] Tonwe, U.A.C. (2005). Accessibility and equity in secondary school education in Delta State in a deregulated school system. In G.O. Akpa, S.U. Udoh & E.O. Fagbamiye (eds) Deregulating the provision and management of education in Nigeria. Jos: The Nigerian Association for Education Administration and Planning (NAEAP).
[20] UNESCO (2003). Progress and future direction in higher education in Africa. UNESCO – Dakar Office New. Retrieved April 5th 2013 from breda@unesco.org
[21] World Book (2002). Gender. Chicago: The World Book Inc.

Tabitha Markus VANDIMA “Gender Inequality among Nigerian Students” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.173-178 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/173-178.pdf

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Gambling among Nigerian Youths; Implications for Counselling
Charles Tumba LUNGU- January 2020 – Page No.: 179-183

This paper describes gambling and its Implications among students in Nigeria. It explores the concept, theories, types, dynamics, consequences and educational implications of gambling to students in Nigerian educational institutions. On the one hand, gambling has helped gambling agents (who are sometimes students of some higher institutions) to be gainfully employed and increase the social capital of those in the business. On the other hand, there has been increase in crime and other social vices as well as a rise in reported cases of delinquent behaviours associated with gambling. Some of the recommendations made by the study include; The University, through its entrepreneurial centre should empower students on vocational training, with the aim of profit making and educational institutions should also organize and orientation program to educate the students on the effect of peer influence on the or academics and social behaviour.

Page(s): 179-183                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 February 2020

 Charles Tumba LUNGU
Department of Science Education, Adamawa State University, P.O. Box 411, Mubi, Nigeria

[1] Adewuya, A. O., Ola, B. A., Aloba, O. O., Mapayi, B. M., and Oginni, O. O. (2006). Depression amongst Nigerian university students. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology,-41(8), 674-678.
[2] Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to action: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl& J. Beckman (Eds.), Action control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11-39). New York: Springer.
[3] Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211. doi:10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
[4] Ajzen, I., &Fishbein, M. (1980).Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[5] Atkinson, J., Sharp, C., Schmitz, J., &Yaroslavsky, I. (2012).Behavioral activation and inhibition, negative affect, and gambling severity in a sample of young adult college students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28, 437-449.
[6] Barnes, G. M., Welte, J. W., Hoffman, J. A., & Tidwell, M. O. (2010). Comparisons of gambling and alcohol use among college students and noncollege young people in the United States. Journal of American College Health, 58, 443-452.
[7] Blinn-Pike, L., Worthy, S. L., &Jonkman, J. N. (2007).Disordered gambling among college students: A meta-analytic synthesis. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 184-189.
[8] Chiu, J., & Storm, L. (2010).Personality, perceived luck and gambling attitudes as predictors of gambling involvement. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 205-227
[9] Delfabbro, P., Lambos, C., King, D., &Puglies, S. (2009). Knowledge and beliefs about gambling in Australian secondary school students and their implications for education strategies. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25, 523-539.
[10] Faloye J O. (1996). Abnormal Psychology, DemiladeOmotayo PublishersOregun Nigeria.
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[13] Gainsbury, S., Wood, R., Russell, A., Hing, N., &Blaszczynski, A. (2012). A digital revolution: Comparison of demographic profiles, attitudes and gambling behavior of Internet and non Internet gamblers. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 1388-1398.
[14] Gupta, R., Nower, L., Derevensky, J. L., Blaszczynski, A., Faregh, N., &Temcheff, C. (2013).Problem gambling in Adolescents: An examination of the pathways model. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29, 575-588.doi:10.1007/s10899-012-9322-0
[15] King, S. M., Abrams, K., & Wilkinson, T. (2010).Personality, gender, and family history in the prediction of college gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 347-359.
[16] Larimer, M. E., &Neighbors, C. (2003).Normative misperception and the impact of descriptive and injunctive norms on college student gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 235-243.
[17] Lostutter, T. W., Lewis, M. A., Cronce, J. M., Neighbors, C., &Larimer, M. E. (2012).The use of protective behaviors in relation to gambling among college students.Journal of Gambling Studies, 1 -20.
[18] Moore, S. M., &Ohtsuka, K. (1997). Gambling activities of young Australians: Developing a model of behaviour. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13,207-236.
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[20] Okon, E. O. (2015) Small and Medium Scale Enterprises, Employment and Income Generation in Nigeria: A Focus on Professional Sports Viewing and Betting Centers.
[21] Olayinka Akanle and Fageyinbo Taiwo Kolade (2015) Miscellanea Anthropologica et sociological 2015, 16(4): 4663
[22] Orford, J., Griffiths, M., Wardle, H., Sproston, K., &Erens, B. (2009). Negative public attitudes towards gambling: Findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey using a new attitude scale. International Gambling Studies, 9, 39-54.
[23] Samuel AlegwuOmanchi, Kelly Osariemen and Okpamen(2017):The Changing Patterns of Gambling in Benue State: The Case of Emerging Role of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) in Contemporary Makurdi Metropolis
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[28] Wardle, H., Moody, A., Spence, S., Orford, J., Volberg, R., Jotangia, D., &Dobbie, F. (2011). British gambling prevalence survey 2010. Retrieved from http://www.official- documents.gov.uk/ gambling in a sample of university students. Journal of Gambling Issues, 16, 1- 14.
[29] Wood, R. T. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2004). Adolescent lottery and scratchcard players: Do their attitudes influence their gambling behaviour? Journal of Adolescence, 27, 467-475. doi :10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.12.003

Charles Tumba LUNGU “Gambling among Nigerian Youths; Implications for Counselling” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.179-183 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/179-183.pdf

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Drug Abuse among In-School Adolescents in Nigeria
Agatha Francis ZIRRA- January 2020 – Page No.: 184-189

The most susceptible and deeply engaged group in the social menace of drug abuse are in school adolescents. However, in the mainstream media, drug abuse among school teenagers has lately dominated debate. In Nigeria, the threat of drug abuse has reached an appalling level and every fibre of culture has been penetrated. Teachers, parents, religious officials and other stakeholders have tried to identify the causes and methods to manage it. This emphasis the need for the vice to be curbed. This article therefore seeks to examine drugs abuse among in-school adolescents and the implications for counselling. It examined a range of topics such as the concept of drug abuse, drug abuse theories, causes of drug abuse among teenagers in schools, drug abuse impacts on school adolescents’ learning and investigated methods of preventing or controlling curved drug abuse. Finally, some recommendations were made that could help curb the threat of drug abuse among in-school adolescents in Nigeria if adopted.

Page(s): 184-189                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 February 2020

 Agatha Francis ZIRRA
Department of Science Education, Adamawa State University, Nigeria

[1] Abot, I. (2005). Substance Use among Students and Out of School Youth in Urban Area of Nigeria. W.H.O. Geneva.
[2] Bamaiyi’s Magic Wand (2007), “Battle Against Drugs Scourge”. A publication of the Press Relations Unit of the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA)
[3] Bandura, A. (2006). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: Social Cognitive Approach. Eaglewood Cliff, N.J: Prentice Hall.
[4] Blandford, S. (2008). Managing Discipline in Schools. London: Routledge.
[5] Escandon, R., & Galvez, C. (2006). Free from Addictions. Madrid: Editorial safeliz.
[6] Haladu, (2003). Drug Abuse and Nigerian Youth, cited in Fatima, S. A. In Daily Truth 12th 2003 pp 13
[7] Haladu, A.A. (2003). Outreach strategies for curbing drug abuse among out-of-school youth in Nigeria: A challenge for community Based Organization (CBOS).
[8] Hawkins, J. D. &Catalano, R. F. (2002). Communities that care: Action for Drug Abuse Prevention, San Francisco: CA: Jossey-Bass.
[9] Hawkins, J. D., R. F. Catalano, and J. Y. Miller. (2002). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin112 (1): 64105.
[10] Kikuvi, R. N. (2009). Determination of Juvenile Delinquency Development among Pupils in Machakos Rehabilitation Schools. Unpublished Maters Degree Thesis. Kenyatta University.
[11] Maithya, R. (2009). Drug Abuse in Secondary Schools in Kenya: Development a Programme for Prevention and Intervention. Kenya: University of South Africa.
[12] Miller, B. J. (1974) Good Health: Personal and Community. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia,
[13] NAFDAC (2004). A hand Book on Prevention of Drugs and Substance Abuse in Nigeria,
[14] NAFDAC (2008). Do Drugs Control Your Life? Know the Risks.
[15] NAFDAC (2012) Drug and Substance Abuse in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria. Abuja.
[16] National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA); (2013). Drug data collection and research, Lagos: Drug Demand Reduction Unit, National Drug Law Enforcement Agency.
[17] National Institute on Drug Abuse (2015) The Science of Drug Abuse and Addiction 39(3), 461-492.
[18] Obiamaka, V.O. (2004). “Problem behaviours in Nigerian secondary schools”, Nigeria Society for Education Psychologists (NISEP), pp. 69-75.
[19] Odejide, A.O. (2000). “Research, prevention and treatment of alcohol and drug abuse in Nigeria: Problem and prospects”, Paper Presented at the 10th Anniversary Lecture of CRISA. Jos (5th October).
[20] Olugbenga-Bello, A. I., Adebimpe, W. O., Abodunrin, O. L. (2009). Sexual risk behaviour Among in-School Adolescents in public secondary schools in a southwestern city in Nigeria, International Journal of Health Research, 2, (3), 243-251
[21] Ponyon, R. (2009); Substance Abuse in Adolescents; An expert panel. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association. 11(4). 35-39.
[22] Rew, L. (2005). Adolescent Health. A multidisciplinary Approach to Theory Research and Intervention. California: Sage Publications.
[23] Ryan, A. M. & Patrick, H. (2001). The Classroom Social Environment and Changes in adolescents”. American Educational Journal.
[24] Staff, K. (2012). “Drug use on the rise among Nigerian youths”. http://newsonlinenigeria.com/news/top-stories144286-drug-use-on-the-rise-among-youths.html.
[25] Ubom, I. U (2004) “Behaviour problems of children counselling interventions” Nigeria society for Educational Psychologists (NISEP) 47-58.
[26] UNICEF & WHO (2006). Global School-based Health Survey Report Geneva. Retrieved September 3, 2012 from http://www.who.int/chp/gshs/UNICEF-GSHC-Report-Oct-07.pdf.
[27] United Nations (2005). World Drug Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
[28] United Nations Office Drug and Crime (UNODC), (2004). Global Illicit Drug Trends. New York: United Nations.

Agatha Francis ZIRRA “Drug Abuse among In-School Adolescents in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.184-189 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/184-189.pdf

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Influence of Continuous Assessment on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Biology in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria
Dr Dorcas Oluremi FAREO- January 2020 – Page No.: 190-196

This study examined the influence of continuous assessment on academic performance of secondary school students in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State. The population of the students was all teachers in public secondary schools in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, out of which a sample size of two hundred was drawn through stratified sampling technique. The research instrument for data collection was adopted from Falaye and Adefioye (2016). The validity of the instrument titled Perception of Teachers on Influence of Continuous Assessment on Academic Performance of Senior Secondary School Students Questionnaire was carried out by an expert in Counselling Department, while t-test reliability method was used to carry out the reliability of the instrument, and the reliability co-efficient was 0.76. Data were analyzed using mean, Pearson moment correlation coefficient and t-test statistics. Continuous assessments were frequently administered in senior secondary schools in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State. There was a significant relationship between continuous assessment scores and academic performance of students in Biology. There was no significant difference between the perception of male and female teachers on attitude of students towards continuous assessment. There was no significant difference between continuous assessment scores of male and female students. It was concluded that the continuous assessment had critical impact on academic performance of secondary school students in Biology. It was recommended that teachers who are well versed in evaluation and assessment techniques should be encouraged and their expertise should be utilized for the said purpose.

Page(s): 190-196                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 February 2020

 Dr Dorcas Oluremi FAREO
Department of Educational Foundations, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria

[1] Abbas, AG. (2009). Problems of continuous assessment. Journal of Teachers Education, 8(2): 9-17.
[2] Abejehu, SB. (2016). The practice of contuous assessment in primary schools: The case of Chagni, Ethiopia. Journal of Education and Pratice, 7(13): 7-10.
[3] Adeneye, O., Awofala,A., Veronica, F.& Babajide, T. (2013). Examining attitude towards continuous assessment practicesamong Nigerian preservice STM teachers. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(13): 37-49.
[4] Adeyemi, B. A. (2008). Enhancing academic excellence in social studies through authentic assessment and portfolio assessment. International Journal of African & African American Studies, 7(1): 34-42.
[5] Ahukanna, R. A., Onu, M. I. & Ukah, P. N. (2007). Continuous assessment in primary and secondary schools: issues and problems. Journal of Teacher Perspective, 5(2): 489-495.
[6] Aina, J. K. (2014). Students’ academic performance and importance of continuous assessment [CA] in basic and digital electronics. American Journal, 1(3): 9-16.
[7] Aina, J. K. (2010). Relationship between students’ performance in theory and practical physics in colleges of education, Kwara State, Nigeria. (Unpublished Master thesis) University of Ilorin.
[8] Alausa, Y. A. (2005). Continuous assessment in our schools: advantages and problems. Namibia: Kolin Foundation Arandis.
[9] Cola, A. J. (2013). Students’ academic performance and importance of continuous assessment [CA] in basic and digital electronics. American Journal, 1(3): 7-16.
[10] Faleye, B. A. &Adefisoye, B. T. (2016). Continuous assessment practices of secondary school teachers in Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 4(1): 44-55.
[11] Faleye, B. A. & E. R. I. Afolabi (2007). Continuous assessment practices in Osun State (Nigeria) secondary schools: From policy to practice. International Journal of Learning, 12 (12), 11-16.
[12] Federal Republic of Nigeria (2014). National Policy on Education. Abuja: NERDC.
[13] Hooge, E. (2016). Parental involvement in children’s education: A review study about the effect of parental involvement on children’s school education with a focus on the position of illiterate parents. Journal of the European Teacher Education Network, 6: 143-157.
[14] Idowu, A. I., & Esere, M. O. (2009). Assessment in Nigerian schools: A counsellor’s viewpoint. Edo Journal of Counselling, 2(1): 17-27. An Official Publication of Edo State Chapter of Counselling Association of Nigeria.
[15] Ige, O.O. (2007). Statistical analysis of relationship between students’ performance in English and mathematicsin some selected secondary schools in Osun state, Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Education, 4(1):164-171.
[16] Joseph, A., John, O., Eric, I. Yusuf, S. & Olubunmi, A. (2015). Effect of gender on students’ academic performance in computer studies in secondary schools in New Bussa, Borgu Local Government of Niger State. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(33): 1-7.
[17] Kenni, A. M. (2011). Continuous assessment, mock results and gender as predictors of academic performance of chemistry students in WASCE and NECO examination in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Unpublished Masters Thesis. University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
[18] Samiullah, I. M. & Anjum, A. (2017). Effect of continuous assessment techniques on students’ performance at elementary level. Bulletin of Education and Research , 39(1): 91-100.
[19] Taylor, L. & Parsons, J. (2011). Improving student engagement. Current Issues in Education, 14(1). Retrieved from http://cie.asu.edu/

Dr Dorcas Oluremi FAREO “Influence of Continuous Assessment on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Biology in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.190-196 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/190-196.pdf

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Prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis among Primary School Pupils in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria
OKOH, Jocelyn Cletus; KWAGHBEE, Eren; ADIE, Ambrose Ashibel; GBANDE, Mimi Sandra- January 2020 – Page No.: 197-200

Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic infection of public health concern and a great burden in Nigeria. It affects a wide range of vertebrates including humans. Cryptosporidium spp is a ubiquitous obligate intracellular parasite of many vertebrate species that is responsible for diarrhoeic conditions which can be either self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals or severe in immunocompromised individuals. This study was carried out to identify Cryptosporidium oocysts from faecal samples of primary school pupils in Gboko, Benue state and determine its prevalence in the study area. A total of 280 samples were collected from school-aged pupils including those with diarrheic faeces, who consumed water from public supplies and eat unsuspectedly contaminated food, who had contact with companion animals, visited endemic areas, swam, did not wash their hands after eating or toilet use amongst other factors studied, and analyzed using modified Ziehl-Neelson staining technique for presence of oocyst. 82 samples were positive, giving a prevalence of 29.29%. It was observed that promotion of public and personal hygiene, drinking of portable water and health education is strategic to ensuring management and prevention of Cryptosporidium infection among the study subjects going forward.

Page(s): 197-200                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 February 2020

 OKOH, Jocelyn Cletus
Department of Biological Sciences, (Microbiology Unit), University of Mkar, Mkar, Benue State, Nigeria

Department of Biological Sciences, (Microbiology Unit), University of Mkar, Mkar, Benue State, Nigeria

 ADIE, Ambrose Ashibel
Department of Biological Sciences, (Microbiology Unit), University of Mkar, Mkar, Benue State, Nigeria

 GBANDE, Mimi Sandra
Department of Biological Sciences, (Microbiology Unit), University of Mkar, Mkar, Benue State, Nigeria

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[5] Banwat EB, Egah DZ, Onile BA, Angyo IA, and Audu ES. (2003). Prevalence ofCryptosporidium infection among undernourished children in Jos, central, Nigeria. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 10 (2): 84-87.
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[13] Xiao L, Fayer R, Ryein U and Upton SJ. (2004). Cryptosporidium taxonomy: Recent advances andimplications for public health. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 17, 72-97.

OKOH, Jocelyn Cletus; KWAGHBEE, Eren; ADIE, Ambrose Ashibel; GBANDE, Mimi Sandra “Prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis among Primary School Pupils in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.197-200 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/197-200.pdf

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A Review of Essential Sustainable Development Principles in Housing: The Case of Nigeria
Olusola Oladapo Makinde PhD – January 2020 – Page No.: 201-211

The paper examined why the idea of sustainability had been brought into housing discourses and how sustainable development principles benefits housing. This was carried out by examining how has sustainability been interpreted in the context of housing. The research adopted exploration of secondary data by a concise review of literature. The paper highlights how the sustainability principles has become imperative as a basis in housing and the built environment and shows housing, as a key component of the built environment, which plays an important role in all aspects of sustainable development. The study concludes that a sustainable housing development should not only have environment friendly and energy efficient buildings, it should be affordable, accessible to facilities and public transportation and be manageable. It must facilitate social inclusion and not a mechanism of social exclusion. Such development must enhance resident quality of life from generation to generation.

Page(s): 201-211                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 February 2020

 Olusola Oladapo Makinde PhD
Department of Architecture, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Oyo State, Nigeria

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Olusola Oladapo Makinde PhD “A Review of Essential Sustainable Development Principles in Housing: The Case of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.201-211 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/201-211.pdf

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The Role of Hanns Vischer (Dan Hausa) On the Development of Secular Education in the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria
Muṣṭapha Garba, Muḥammad. (PhD.)- January 2020 – Page No.: 212-215

Many People, today do not know the historical perspective of how western education introduced in the provinces of northern Nigeria. Hanns Vscher, was the first European white man appointed in the provinces of northern Nigeria to introduced western secular education system. This paper “The role of Hanns Vischer, on the Development of secular education in the protectorate of northern Nigeria” explored extensively the work of Hanns Vischer on the various aspects of education. The paper, expressed that Sudan education department appeared to Vischer to be achieving genuine success. At the same vein it critically discussed how he actively started the training of local teachers in Kano. The methodology used in this study is analytical study, which identified the major works done by Hanns Vischer in the history of developing secular education in the province of northern Nigeria. The findings show the principles curriculum design and development in the protectorate of northern Nigeria. The paper recommends the further expansion of this work to covered the other aspects of technical class at Nasarawa Kano and PE class at Katsina of the post primary curriculum and it preparation of scheme of work.

Page(s): 212-215                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 January 2020

 Muṣṭapha Garba, Muḥammad. (PhD.)
Senior Lecturer, Department of Islamic Studies, Faculty of Arts and Education, Bauchi State University, Gadau, Nigeria

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[5] Sonia, F. Graham, (2013), reviewed, Government and mission Education in Northern Nigeria, with special reference the work of Hanns Vischer, Ibadan University press. Web.

Muṣṭapha Garba, Muḥammad. (PhD.) “The Role of Hanns Vischer (Dan Hausa) On the Development of Secular Education in the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.212-215 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/212-215.pdf

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Environmental Friendly Low Cost Housing and Sustainable Development in Bangladesh
Dr. Engr. Masuda Siddique Rozy – January 2020 – Page No.: 216-221

Natural disasters- flood, cyclonic tidal/storm surge, land slide, river bank erosion, drought and earthquakes are the main hindrance to the sustainable development of Bangladesh. In recent years, these have caused extra burden for the marginal people of the country jeopardizing country’s economic growth as a whole. Although it is a small country, its culture, disaster types, availability of building materials are diverse and the housing practices in different regions vary widely too. A large number of rural houses are damaged due to disaster on a regular basis and cause economic losses and sufferings to the people. Repetitive constructions of such houses also impart deterioration of the environment as much of the construction materials are obtained locally from surrounding nature and thus sustainable development is also hampered significantly. To develop the design, at first the local practices and availability of local materials were studied. Besides, it was considered essential to understand and accommodate the need and culture of the community. At the same time it is important to consider environmental issues. Three-stage community level meetings attended by people, leaders and local masons were held to gather their views, demand and experience. Properties of the local construction materials were ascertained from laboratory tests. Respecting local affordability and considering the service and environmental loads, designs were finalized based on FEM analyses. Model houses were constructed at the selected locations to demonstrate them to the local community with an aim that new design or at least some features would be replicated. Different treatment schemes for increasing the durability of materials were employed to study their effectiveness.

Page(s): 216-221                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 February 2020

  Dr. Engr. Masuda Siddique Rozy
Managing Director, Rasa Construction & Development Ltd., Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Dr. Engr. Masuda Siddique Rozy “Environmental Friendly Low Cost Housing and Sustainable Development in Bangladesh” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 1, pp.216-221 January 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-1/216-221.pdf

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