Volume VII Issue IX

Influence of Nutrition Knowledge on Healthy Food Choices among Pupils in Nyeri County, Kenya

Waithaka Simon Runo, Dr Kirimi Kiara, Dr Rubai Mandela – September 2020 Page No.: 01-09

In Kenya, nutrition education is included in the school curriculum as recommended in the year 2009 national school health policy. Nevertheless, policy advocacy and communication strategies on nutrition are relatively weak, and there is insufficient focus on operational research on nutrition. In addition, nutrition education is not taught as a standalone subject and is only infused in science subjects. Consequently, the malnutrition problem is not as well understood as it could be. Modern malnutrition consists in over-consumption of energy dense and fatty foods. These have led to an upsurge of non-communicable and lifestyle diseases such as cancer, diabetes, bone and heart conditions. Therefore, there was need to explore the impact of nutrition education on eating habits in order to help pupils acquire discriminative skills that can enable them make healthy food choices. The pupils can act as agents of change in the community through the symbiotic relationship that exists between the school and the society. This will be the first stage towards curbing the food- related health problem. The purpose of this study was to determine the contributions of nutrition education in enabling pupils to make healthy food choices. The Health Belief Model as a predictor of preventive health behaviour was the guide theory for this research. The study was mainly descriptive in design with purposive sampling as the key sampling technique. The target population was pupils in Nyeri County with their teachers and parents. Data collection tools were semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions, food diary, and FFQ. Data was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively guided by the themes from research objectives. Quantitative data was analyzed using basic descriptive statistics and presented in form of tables, pie charts, graphs, and percentages. The Qualitative analysis involved narrative records and respondents’ quotations. The study findings showed that nutrition education was absent from people’s lives and healthy eating was not sustained. The study findings may be used by the Ministry of education to inform nutrition education content in the school curriculum.

Page(s): 01-09                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 September 2020

 Waithaka Simon Runo
Masters student, School of Education, Department of Education Foundations (Health Education) , Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr Kirimi Kiara
Lecturer, Department of Education Foundations, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr Rubai Mandela
Lecturer, Department of Education Foundations, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

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Waithaka Simon Runo, Dr Kirimi Kiara, Dr Rubai Mandela “Influence of Nutrition Knowledge on Healthy Food Choices among Pupils in Nyeri County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.01-09 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/01-09.pdf

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Enhancing RSA Security Capability Using Public Key Modification
Sarjiyus, O. – September 2020 – Page No.: 10-15

This research, Enhancing RSA Security Capability Using Public Key Modification is basically a modification of the public key parameter in the existing RSA in order to enhance the security and performance of the algorithm, all in an effort to secure the confidentiality, authenticity and integrity of sensitive data during internet transactions. The purpose is to design an RSA technique that accords faster key generation and raises security to a more secure, higher level ahead of the existing RSA technique by the ‘e’ to ‘f’ transformation. Factorization attacks are very common and have a devastating effect on RSA by compromising the privacy of data. These have been overcome in the improved RSA algorithm by choosing two prime numbers, p and q so large enough to make it hardly possible for attackers to factor out the components of the modulus n, and freely, get the exact value of the totient function, Փ (n) for which they can possibly, easily use to deduce the value of the private key‘d’. For the performance parameter, inputs were captured primarily from the prime numbers p and q used to define the modulus n, the public key value, e; while the outputs range from designated data sizes in (kb), encryption and decryption times (in Secs) for the two algorithms. The result show that in the context of security, the improved RSA technique based on public key transformation produced more complex ciphers than the existing RSA technique during encryption process thereby enhancing the security of the modified RSA. For performance, the improved RSA shows a slight increase in time complexity in the encryption process, but not in decryption. Hence, the new RSA technique is most suitably used for systems desiring high security but less speed of execution.

Page(s): 05-12                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 September 2020

  Sarjiyus, O.
Department of Computer Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria

[1] Obaid, T. A. S. (2020). “Study a Public Key in RSA Algorithim”. European Journal of Engineering Research and Science. 5(4), 396-397.
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[4] Obaid T. A. S. Khami M. and Shehab L. G. (2017), “Hiding Secured key in digital media”, Int. Jo. Eng. Res. A. www.ijera.com 7(9), 58-63.
[5] Nisha S., and Farik M., (2017). “RSA Public Key Cryptography Algorithm – A Review”, International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. 6(7). ISSN 2277-8616.

[6] Al-Lehiebe A., (2015), “Ciphered Text Hiding in an Image using RSA algorithm”, Journal of College of Education for Women. 26(3).
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Sarjiyus, O. “Enhancing RSA Security Capability Using Public Key Modification” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.10-15 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/10-15.pdf

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Assessment of Corporate Governance Practice among Listed Conglomerate Companies in Nigeria
Ahmed Ishaku ACA, Mubarakatu Garba & Farida Musa – September 2020 – Page No.: 16-21

This study examines the level of compliance with 2011 SEC code of corporate governance among listed conglomerate companies in Nigeria. Expost-facto research design was used, a corporate governance compliance index was employed and data was extracted from annual report and account of the companies. It was found that corporate governance initiatives are embedded on the boards of listed conglomerate companies in Nigeria and that there is high compliance with SEC code of corporate governance in the listed conglomerate companies in Nigeria. Modern corporation plays a major role in the economic development of any nation, hence the need to ensure good governance of these corporations cannot be overemphasized. Therefore, to avoid the incidence of corporate failure in the listed conglomerate companies in Nigeria, this study recommends 100% compliance with the SEC code of CG in Nigeria. This will go in length to ensure the future survival of these companies.

Page(s): 13-17                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 September 2020

 Ahmed Ishaku ACA
Department of Accounting Gombe State University

 Mubarakatu Garba
Department of Accounting Gombe State University

 Farida Musa
Department of Accounting Gombe State University

[1] Akinkoye, E. Y. & Olasanmi, O. O. (2014). Corporate governance practice and level of compliance among firms in Nigeria: Industry analysis Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) 9(1)
[2] Alo, O. (2007). Corporate Governance in Nigeria: An Overview. Bullion, Publication of the Central Bank of Nigeria, 31(3)
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[9] Joshua, O., Joshua, S. G. & Tauhid, S. (2013). Corporate Governance Principles Application and the Financial Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria: An Impact Assessment Research Journal of Finance and Accounting 4(2) www.iiste.org
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[12] Marshall, J. B. (2015). Corporate Governance Practices: an overview of the evolution of corporate governance codes in Nigeria International Journal of Business & Law Research 3(3):49-65.
[13] Miko, N. U. & Kamardin, H. (2016). Prospect and Challenges of Corporate Governance Development in Nigeria: Pre- and Post- Independence Academic Journal of Management Science Research, 1(1);
[14] Monks, R. A. G., & Minow, N. (2004). Corporate Governance. US: Blackwell
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[16] Okike, E. N. M. (2019). Corporate Governance in Nigeria: the status quo Article in Corporate Governance An International Review •
[17] Sanda, M. (2008). Board Independence, and Firm Financial Performance: An Evidence from Nigeria. Journal of Management Studies, University of Sokoto, Nigeria, 3(1)
[18] Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. W. (1997). A Survey of Corporate Governance. The Journal of Finance, 52(2), 737 – 783.
[19] Solomon, J. (2007). Corporate Governance and Accountability. USA: John Wiley & Sons.Stephen, A. E. & Benjamin, U. E. (2013). Corporate governance issues and its implementation: The Nigerian experience Journal of Research in International Business Management 3(2) 53-57
[20] Tanko, M., & Kolawole, O. (2010). Corporate Governance and Firm Performance in Nigeria. International Journal of Business Administration.

Ahmed Ishaku ACA, Mubarakatu Garba & Farida Musa “Assessment of Corporate Governance Practice among Listed Conglomerate Companies in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.16-21 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/16-21.pdf

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Components of the Teachers’ Ethics in Senior Secondary Students: An Exploratory Study from the Dance Teachers Perceptions

Dr (Mr) W.B.A.Vitharana – September 2020 Page No.: 22-27

The quality of education and performance of students depend on the teachers as reflected in the discharge of their duties. Teaching should be regarded as a profession: it is a form of public service which requires teacher’s expert knowledge and specialized skills, acquired and maintained through rigorous and continuing study; it calls also for a sense of personal and corporate responsibility for the education and welfare of the pupils in them accuse. Teachers’ professional ethics have significant relationship with students’ performance. Such professional ethics include teachers’ knowledge of the subject matter, communication ability, emotional stability, good human relationship and interest in the job. In Sri Lanka, considering government great investment in education, its output with regard to the quality of students has not been commensurate with the expenditure. The senior secondary students’ performance such as discipline, academic achievement and values has been declining at an alarming rate. But sufficient qualified teachers are there in Sri Lanka. Teachers’ professional ethics have been known to have important influence on students’ performance and they also play a crucial role in educational attainment because the teacher is ultimately responsible for translating educational policies and principles into actions based on practice during interaction with the students. Both teaching and learning depend on teachers: no wonder an effective teacher has been conceptualized as one who produces desired results in the course of his duty as a teacher. Therefore, the major purpose of the study was to identify components of the teachers’ ethics in senior secondary students, from the teachers’ perceptions in Sri Lanka. The study was mainly qualitative and used the inductive approach. Questionnaire was used to gather data from 1400 participants. Numbers of teachers were considered three main Contextual themes such as Student and Teacher Relationships and the Effect on Student Learning, Teacher efficacy and classroom management and Teaching Method. The findings of the study showed that there were several factors; conducted to teachers’ ethics, that contribute towards students’ performance. The study, recommends that teacher’s Ethics, availability of resources involvement are critical for the attainment of high quality education in secondary schools in Sri Lanka.

Page(s): 22-27                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 September 2020

 Dr (Mr) W.B.A.Vitharana
Senior Lecturer, Department of Languages, Cultural Studies & Performing Arts, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

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[3] Centre for the Study of Human Rights (2004) the vulnerable Child: Research Project on Institutions which Protect Children’s Rights, CSHR Series 2004/1, Colombo: University of Colombo (unpublished).
[4] Central Bank of Sri Lanka (2013) Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka Colombo: Central Bank of Sri Lanka.
[5] Central Bank of Sri Lanka (2009) Annual Report, Colombo: Central Bank of Sri Lanka.
[6] Gunawardena, C. and Jayaweera, S. (2004) National Survey on Non-Schooling and Absenteeism, Colombo: Save the Children Sri Lanka.
[7] Gunawardena, C. (2009) Inclusive Education in Sri Lanka, Colombo: National Education and Research Evaluation Centre, University of Colombo and UNICEF.
[8] Hamre, B.K., Pianta, R.C., Burchinal, M., Field, S, Crouch, J.L., Downer, J. T., Howes, C., LaParo, K., Little, C.S. (2012). A course on effective teacher-child interactions: Effects on teacher beliefs, knowledge, and observed practice. American Educational Research Journal, 49:1, 88-123.
[9] Kularathne, N. G. (2003) An Evaluation of the Divisional Schools Development Project and the Program to Revamp Central Schools, Colombo: National Education Commission.
[10] McCaul, T. (2007) Study of the Implementation of Mathematics and Science Curriculum in Grades 6 and 10, Colombo: World Bank.
[11] National Education Commission – NEC (2003) Envisioning Education for Human Development: Proposals for a National Policy Framework on General Education in Sri Lanka, Colombo: NEC.
[12] Tharmaseelan, N, (2007) “Tertiary Education in Sri Lanka: Issues and Challenges”, Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy, Vol. 1 (1) p. 173-190.
[13] World Bank (2011) Transforming School education in Sri Lanka: From Cut Stones to Polished Jewels, Colombo: World Bank Office.
[14] Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Dr (Mr) W.B.A.Vitharana “Components of the Teachers’ Ethics in Senior Secondary Students: An Exploratory Study from the Dance Teachers Perceptions” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.22-27 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/22-27.pdf

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Analysis of Various Major Contributing Factors of Cost Overrun in Construction Projects

Smiritee Srivastava, Dr. Satish B. Allampallewar – September 2020 Page No.: 28-33

Cost is among the major considerations throughout the project management and can be viewed as amongst the most vital parameters of a project and the main thrust of project success. Cost overrun is a very important and it’s almost associated with nearly all projects in the construction industry. India is confronting basic project management related issues among which cost overrun is very noticeable. There are a several factors that are responsible for cost overruns. This paper distinguishes the significant cost overrun in the development division of country, which can serve as the future work in adapting to these overruns. This study is conducted to investigate the cost overwhelms in construction projects and to identify the causes of cost overwhelms. In total 60 factors were short-listed to be part of the survey questionnaire and the survey was conducted with delegates from nearby general contracting firms. An extra finding is that medium measured development firms encounter a more prominent rate of cost overruns owing to expect greater risk for the purpose of business development. Real suggestions include: balancing out cost of materials, expanding supply of materials and apparatus, more included cost estimation forms, careful venture arranging, close recognition and documentation of cost variation trends in the sector and the nation, selection of alternative procurement methodologies, for example, design build contracts, and best value procurement.

Page(s): 28-33                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 September 2020

 Smiritee Srivastava
ME Construction Management, Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Technology, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India

 Smiritee Srivastava
ME Construction Management, Dr. D.Y. Patil Institute of Technology, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India

[1]. Aftab Hameed Memon, Ismail Abdul Rahman, Ade Asmi Abdul Aziz, (2012) “THE CAUSE FACTORS OF LARGE PROJECT’S COST OVERRUN: A SURVEY IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA”, International Journal of Real Estate Studies, Volume 7, Number 2
[2]. Assaf, S. A., and Al-hejji S. (2006). “Causes of delay in large construction projects”. International J. Project Mgmt., Science Direct, 24, 349-357.
[3]. Chan, S. and Park, M. (2005)” Project coast estimation using principal component regression”, Construction Management and Economics, 23, 295-304.
[4]. Chitkara, K.K. (2011), “Construction Project Management – Planning, Scheduling and Controlling”, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw Hills’
[5]. Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University. (2004). Cost Control, Monitoring and Accounting
[6]. Elchaig, T., Boussabinaine A., and Ballal T. (2005) “Critical determinants of construction tendering costs: Quantity surveyors’ standpoint”, International Journal of Project Management.
[7]. Gould, F. E. (2002). Managing the Construction Process: Estimating, Scheduling, and Project Control. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[8]. Harris, E.C. (2011), “Construction Sector Poised for Further Growth as Indian Economy Forges Ahead”, viewed 2 April 2013
[9]. Ibrahim Mahamid, Amund Bruland (2011), ‘Cost Overrun Causes in Road Construction Projects: Consultants Perspective’, International Conference on Construction and Project Management IPEDR Vol.15.pp.6-10.
[10]. ICRA (2013), “Indian Construction Sector: Opportunities Expand but Execution Remains a Concern”, ICRA, India
[11]. KASIMU, M. A (2010), ‘Significant Factors that causes Cost Overruns in building construction project’ Nigeria, Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, Vol. 3, pp.775-779.
[12]. Syed M. Ahmed, Rizwan U. Farooqui, Nida Azhar ,(2008), “Cost Overrun Factors In Construction Industry of Pakistan”, First International Conference on Construction In Developing Countries (ICCIDC–I), August 4-5, 2008
[13]. Susana Gomez Arcila, (2012), Avoiding Cost Overrun Overruns In Construction Projects In The United Kingdom, August, 2012
[14]. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/finance/infra-projects-cost-escalated-by-rs-1-23-lakh-crorein-11th-plan/articleshow/18868951.cms

Smiritee Srivastava, Dr. Satish B. Allampallewar “Analysis of Various Major Contributing Factors of Cost Overrun in Construction Projects” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.28-33 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/28-33.pdf

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Investigating Agricultural Risks in Maize Value Chain under the Anchor Borrowers’ Programme in Cross River State, Nigeria
Aniefiok A. Umoren, Victor E. Inim – September 2020 – Page No.: 34-40

Maize value chain as agribusiness is susceptible to the changes of nature and exposed to arrays of hazards, risks and uncertainty pest infestation, diseases infection, yields variability and price fluctuation. Several risks mitigation strategies have been incorporated into the Anchor Borrowers’ Programme as to induce investors’ appetites. The objective of study is to examine the adopted risk mitigation strategies under the Anchor Borrowers’ Programme in Cross River State. Qualitative research design which focused on interview and in-depth focussed group discussion used in collecting information from the committed participants purposively drawn from the stakeholders. The results showed that the risks identified in maize value chain in State included production, market price, environmental/climate change and government policy. Risks mitigation strategies adopted by stakeholders included loan process monitoring, confirmation of prepaid insurance premium, equity contributions by farmers, adoption of best agricultural practices and irrigation facilities, certification of inputs supplied and financial capacity of anchors. Results also showed that adopted risk mitigation strategies incorporated risks transfer and coping remediation activities which provide an efficient economic option for increased return on investment. The study recommends improvement in loan officer ratio to loan beneficiary in order to ensure efficient monitoring of the loan process, confirming prepaid insurance premium coupled with appropriate agro-entrepreneurs’ identity management as well as timely cash disbursements. These would not only minimize credit risk but also stimulate increased bank participation in financing investments in maize value chain in the State.

Page(s): 34-40                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 September 2020

 Aniefiok A. Umoren
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

 Victor E. Inim
Department of Accounting, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria

[1] Ambarawati, G. A., Wijaya, M. A. and Budiasa, I. W. (2018). Risk Mitigation for Rice Production through Agricultural Insurance Farmers 0erspectives, Journal of Management & Agribusiness 15(2): 128-135
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[9] National Bureau of Statistics (2018), 2017 Demographic Statistics Bulletin, Abuja. Nigeria
[10] Nigerian Population Census (2016) Nigeria Population Commission Headquarters, Abuja
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[14] Ukeje, R. O. (2003) Macroeconomics: An Introduction. Davidson publication Port Harcourt, Nigeria Pp 6-18
[15] Umoren, A. A., Akpan, S. B. and Udoh, E. J. (2014). Analysis of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Loans Default among Beneficiaries in Akwa Ibom State from 1990-2005. African Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, 2(2):121-128.
[16] Umoren, A. A. Akpan, S. B and. Ebong V.O. (2015). Non-performing Loans in the Nigerian Banking System and Livestock Sub-Sector Productivity. Proceedings of the Forty-Ninth Annual Conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria (ASN), held in Delta State University, Asaba on November 9th to 13th 2015: Page 42 – 49 (7) (PDF) Non-Performing Loans in the Nigerian Banking System and Livestock Sub sector Productivity. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336871464_Non-Performing_Loans_in_the_Nigerian_Banking_System_and_Livestock_Sub_sector_Productivity [accessed May 30 2020].
[17] Population Statistics,Charts https://www.citypopulation.de/php/nigeria-admin.php?%20adm1id=NGA009Cross River (State, Nigeria) with population statistics, charts, map and location.

Aniefiok A. Umoren, Victor E. Inim “Investigating Agricultural Risks in Maize Value Chain under the Anchor Borrowers’ Programme in Cross River State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.34-40 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/34-40.pdf

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Maximum Cooling Loads for Solar Vapour Compression AC Refrigeration System Operating Under Varying Solar Insolation
Patrick Mbuthia wainaina, Michael W. Okoth, George Owino – September 2020 – Page No.: 41-45

Solar energy is readily available in mid-day and unavailable in the early and late time of the day, and fluctuates with the seasons of the year in many. Due to this fluctuation, there exists a mismatch between solar energy availability and cooling load energy demands in solar technology, which make them inefficient and unreliable. Sufficient harnessing and storage of solar energy for use in solar energy applications, is critical for improvement of efficiency and reliability of solar technologies. This is only possible if the solar driven refrigeration system utilizes the maximum solar energy available at a specific site, and stores some of the energy in form of ice thermal load systems.
This study has analyzed three different sizes of solar vapour compression refrigeration systems, each fitted with an AC compressor. Four PV panels each of 200Wp were connected to the systems and exposed to different levels of solar isolations for the same period of time. The maximum cooling loads from each system, was established by the temperature drop of the water in the cooling can and the mass of ice formed in a jacket of cooling water for each of the system. An innovative control unit controlled the running of the compressors, depending on the solar insolation required by each compressor. The number of hours each compressor ran per day was recorded and by a datalogger. Results showed that solar refrigeration systems with AC compressors exhibited a maximum cooling load for different refrigeration system AC compressors, which is dependent on the solar insolation of the a specific location.

Page(s): 41-45                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2020

 Patrick Mbuthia wainaina
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Egerton University, Kenya

 Michael W. Okoth
Faculty of Food and Science Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya

 George Owino
Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Egerton University, Kenya

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[2]. Pilatowsky I., Rivera W. and Romero J. R. (2004), Performance evaluation of a monomethylated-water solar absorption refrigeration system for milk cooling purposes. Applied Thermal Engineering (24), 1103-1115
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[4].Torres- Toledo, Victor T, Klaus, and Coranas (2015), Performance characterization of a small milk system with ice storage for PV application. International Journal of Refrigeration (60) 57-63.
[5]. Victor Torres T, Klaus M, Phillip T, and Santiago M., (2016), Design and performance of a small-scale solar ice-maker based on a DC -freezer and an adaptive control unit. Solar Energy (139), 433-443
[6]. Axaopoulos, Petros J. Theodoridis Y. and Michael P., (2009), Design and Experimental performance of a PV ice maker without battery. Solar Energy (83), 1360-1369.

Patrick Mbuthia wainaina, Michael W. Okoth, George Owino “Maximum Cooling Loads for Solar Vapour Compression AC Refrigeration System Operating Under Varying Solar Insolation” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.41-45 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/41-45.pdf

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Bedridden Elderly: Factors and Risks
Normala R., & Lukman Z.M.- September 2020 – Page No.: 46-49

Health problems among the elderly will occur if their healthy-living needs are not met or achievable. The implications, if left unchecked, can affect the patients’ quality of life and lead to them suffering from social dysfunction. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss the factors that cause the elderly to be bedridden and the possible risks arising from this problem.

Page(s): 46-49                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2020

  Normala R
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences,Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 21300 Terengganu, Malaysia

 Lukman Z.M
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Nerus, 21300 Terengganu, Malaysia

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Wada, Otsuka, R., Matsushita, K., Zhang, H., Murata, Kondo, K. dan Toyoshima1, H. (2006). Factors related to frequency of engaging in outside activities among elderly persons living an independent life at home. Nagoya journal of medical science, 68(3/4), 121.
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Normala R., & Lukman Z.M. “Bedridden Elderly: Factors and Risks” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.46-49 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/46-49.pdf

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The Influence of Cross-Cultural Language and Background on Climate Change Perception – An Empirical Investigation
Iwowari Beatrice Dute- September 2020 – Page No.: 50-55

There is a crucial importance of looking at climate change from the perspective of cultures and of individuals in order to implement adaptation and mitigation strategies that are appropriate at local scale. Cognizant to this, this paper employed a focus on the local scale and on individuals in bringing to light the variety of climate change meanings within the same physical space using respondents from two geopolitical zones in Nigeria (South-South and South-West). Empirically, this paper presented the results of in-depth interviews and data analysis from survey (questionnaire) with South-south and South-west respondents who are resident in Port Harcourt city. This approach permitted the investigation of the ways that construal levels inform climate change meanings across cultures. The empirical findings disclose the role that culture plays in climate change´s perception in terms of values, experiences, understandings of nature and trust in the self and in others as agents of change. The findings from the tested hypotheses reveal that there are significant relationships between geopolitical zone and cultural background, and climate change perception of people. This paper highlights the importance of taking into account society and individuals in the climate change debate and of recognizing the role of culture in individuals´ climate change meanings. Only by so doing, will it be possible to effectively tackle climate change and to convert it from threat into social opportunity.

Page(s): 50-55                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 September 2020

 Iwowari Beatrice Dute
Department of English and Literary Studies, Niger-Delta Universitya

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Iwowari Beatrice Dute “The Influence of Cross-Cultural Language and Background on Climate Change Perception – An Empirical Investigation” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.50-55 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/50-55.pdf

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Assessment of Effectiveness of Equalization Funds Transfer Program in Poverty Reduction by the Devolved Governments in Kenya: A Case Study of Kilifi County
Samwel Kazungu Kambi, Corazon Tangonan Banaga, Omondi Richard Mc’Otieno – September 2020 – Page No.: 56-66

Despite the Kenyan government developing and implementing numerous development plans, strategies and reports aimed at alleviating poverty, it is apparent that the poverty levels in the country have continue to escalate and still remains an elusive affair despite the government’s effort in initiating various developments to curb poverty levels in the country. Additionally, the poverty levels in the country have been on an increasing trend due to poor economic performance which has led to many Kenyan households leaving below the recommended one dollar a day leading to most households being unable to afford decent meals and nutrition, lack of access to basic education, health and sanitation and decent housing. Despite the entrenchment of the devolved governance structure in the Kenya constitution 2010 so as to enhance democratic institutions and enhance accountability in governance and power for the citizens, as well as ensuring equitable distribution of resources to address the needs at the grassroots, certain regions of the country still lag behind in terms of development and the poverty levels are still on the rise. This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of poverty reduction strategies as adopted by the devolved system of governance in Kenya. The findings of this study points out that county government should enhance the involvement of the public in decisions related to poverty reduction and more specifically, they should enhance the involvement of the public on decisions involving major decisions on which poverty reduction projects to undertake, identification of key poverty reduction programs, resource allocation and utilization decisions. In order to foster a good working relations and continuity of the poverty reduction initiatives, the government should improve on the public involvement in the County government development committees as well as in the poverty reduction project monitoring and evaluation.

Page(s): 56-66                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2020

 Samwel Kazungu Kambi
University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, P.O. Box 2500 – 30100, Eldoret, Kenya

 Corazon Tangonan Banaga
University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, P.O. Box 2500 – 30100, Eldoret, Kenya

 Omondi Richard Mc’Otieno
University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, P.O. Box 2500 – 30100, Eldoret, Kenya

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Samwel Kazungu Kambi, Corazon Tangonan Banaga, Omondi Richard Mc’Otieno “Assessment of Effectiveness of Equalization Funds Transfer Program in Poverty Reduction by the Devolved Governments in Kenya.” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.56-66 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/56-66.pdf

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Histological Pattern of Cervical Malignancies in South-South Nigeria.
Sapira-Ordu Leesi, Sapira Monday Komene- September 2020 – Page No.: 67-70

Background: Cervical malignancies are common among women in the developing countries of the world. They are thought to be sexually transmitted and they contribute significantly to reproductive ill-health and mortality among women. Their histological patterns however vary with differences in their clinical characteristics and prognosis.
Objective: This was to determine the histological pattern of cervical cancers as they presented at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Alakahia between 2005 and 2010.
Materials and Methods: The data was collected retrospectively from the surgical day book and the original request forms of the Anatomical Pathology Department of UPTH. All cervical biopsies and hysterectomy specimens (from which a diagnosis of malignant tumour of the cervix was made) were assessed.
Results: This showed that out of the 227 cervical biopsies and hysterectomy specimens taken over the period of study, 60 (26.43%) were malignant. The age range of the patients was 10 to 89 years with a single patient who had cervical cancer at 18 years of age. The peak age incidence was 50-59 years. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histological pattern, constituting 81.67% with a preponderance of large cell keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma in 43.33% of cases, large cell non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma in 20% and small cell non-keratinizing type in 8.33% of cases. 10% of the squamous cell carcinomas were not further classified. Adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma were seen in 8.33% and 3.33% respectively while the rare neuroendocrine carcinoma was seen in 1.67% of cases.
Conclusion: Squamous cell carcinoma was the predominant histological type with preponderance of the large cell keratinizing variety, and the peak age incidence from this study is 50-59 years.

Page(s): 67-70                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2020

  Sapira-Ordu Leesi
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Alakahia, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Sapira Monday Komene
Department Urology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Sapira-Ordu Leesi, Sapira Monday Komene “Histological Pattern of Cervical Malignancies in South-South Nigeria.” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.67-70 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/67-70.pdf

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Fire Risk Assessment of Residential Buildings Based on Fire Statistics from Selangor
Noraini Manan, Nurhasniza Idham Abu Hasan, Nor Mariyah Abdul Ghafar, Nur Faezah Jamal – September 2020 – Page No.: 71-76

Fire risk becomes an important issue in building fire safety. In consequence, the incidents kill and injure thousands of people every year, besides the significant damage and loss. This research aims to identify the fire risk for different types of buildings in Selangor using Brushlinsky’s Approach. Data regarding fires between 2012 and 2017 was collected from fire investigation reports prepared by the Selangor Fire and Rescue Department. The results showed that most fire cases occur at residential buildings and commercial buildings in which terrace house recorded the highest number with a total of 1,458 cases out of 6,015 cases. Meanwhile, the probability of the fire occurrences building in Selangor is increasing from 0 to 2 case per day. However, the probability of 3 or more fire occurrences in a day is decreasing for each year. The year of 2012 recorded the highest probability of a person facing a fire accident as compared to other years. But the risk of death from the fire fluctuated over the study period. Whereas 2015 had the highest possibility of death for a person in a fire by recorded respective 29 fire deaths per 6.178 million people in Selangor. In conclusion, fire incidents need to be considered as a serious issue by all parties. The findings from this study can be used by the Fire and Rescue Department of Malaysia, government, public and private sectors to curb more fire incidents from happening and develop suitable measures..

Page(s): 71-76                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2020

 Noraini Manan
Center for Actuarial Sciences Studies, Faculty of Computer & Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia

  Nurhasniza Idham Abu Hasan
Department of Statistics, Faculty of Computer & Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch, Tapah Campus,35400 Tapah Road, Perak, Malaysia

  Nor Mariyah Abdul Ghafar
Department of Actuarial Science, Faculty of Computer & Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch, Tapah Campus,35400 Tapah Road, Perak, Malaysia

  Nur Faezah Jamal
Department of Statistics, Faculty of Computer & Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch, Tapah Campus,35400 Tapah Road, Perak, Malaysia

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Noraini Manan, Nurhasniza Idham Abu Hasan, Nor Mariyah Abdul Ghafar, Nur Faezah Jamal “Fire Risk Assessment of Residential Buildings Based on Fire Statistics from Selangor: A Review” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.71-76 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/71-76.pdf

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Exploration of the Practice of Retention Strategies to Address Employees’ Turnover rate In County Assembly of Kilifi
Ngala Lilian Gabriel, Banaga Corazon Tangonan, Shimba Chris Ochieng, Omondi Richard Mc’Otieno – September 2020 – Page No.: 77-86

Employee retention strategies refers to systematic programs, practices and policies created to address the diverse employee needs by an organization that are targeted at developing employee loyalty. Effective human resource management is key in securing and retaining highly qualified and competent employees. Organizations make great efforts to attract workers and sustain their workforce. This study aimed to undertake an exploration of the practice of retention strategies to address employees’ turnover rate in county assembly of Kilifi by adopting a cross –sectional study based on the following set of research objectives; to establish the trends of voluntary and involuntary turnover of employees; to discover the extent of employees satisfaction their job and the retention strategies and the discover how retention strategies are designed and implemented. The study concludes that the rate of turnover in the Kilifi County Assembly is generally low and the employees of the assembly are generally satisfied with their jobs.

Page(s): 77-86                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2020

 Ngala Lilian Gabriel
Department of Management, University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, P.O. Box 2500 – 30100, Eldoret, Kenya

 Banaga Corazon Tangonan
Department of Management, University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, P.O. Box 2500 – 30100, Eldoret, Kenya

 Shimba Chris Ochieng
Department of Management, University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, P.O. Box 2500 – 30100, Eldoret, Kenya

 Omondi Richard Mc’Otieno
Department of Management, University of Eastern Africa, Baraton, P.O. Box 2500 – 30100, Eldoret, Kenya

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Ngala Lilian Gabriel, Banaga Corazon Tangonan, Shimba Chris Ochieng, Omondi Richard Mc’Otieno Exploration of the Practice of Retention Strategies to Address Employees’ Turnover rate In County Assembly of Kilifi” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.77-86 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/77-86.pdf

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Enhancing Academic Visibility of Faculty Members in Nigerian University Community: The Role of Institutional Repositories
Chukwuemeka Chukwueke, Chizoba D. Nnadozie & Dr. Victoria N. Okafor- September 2020 – Page No.: 87-94

This paper focused on the role of institutional repositories in enhancing the academic visibility of faculty members in Nigerian university community. It began with a brief clarification of the concept of Institutional Repository (IR) before delving into its origin, spread, contents and mode of population of contents. This smoothened the ground for a detailed analysis of the role which IRs can play as enablers of information provision in Nigerian universities. Subsequently, attention was drawn to the potentials of IRs as avenues through which tertiary institutions of learning can increase access to, and visibility of, the academic outputs of their scholars and researchers. Notwithstanding the challenges to the optimal performance of the few repositories available in Nigerian universities, the paper posits that the prospects and fortunes of these IRs would change for the better with sustained efforts and commitment of various stakeholders. It is on the basis of this conclusion that several recommendations were made, including sustained awareness and advocacy, adequate funding of universities in Nigeria and their libraries, provision of better training opportunities for librarians to improve their IT competency, as well as increase in the rate of population of content deposition.

Page(s): 87-94                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 September 2020

 Chukwuemeka Chukwueke
Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

  Chizoba D. Nnadozie
Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

  Dr. Victoria N. Okafor
National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike

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Chukwuemeka Chukwueke, Chizoba D. Nnadozie & Dr. Victoria N. OkaforEnhancing Academic Visibility of Faculty Members in Nigerian University Community: The Role of Institutional Repositories International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.87-94 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/87-94.pdf

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An Asessment Of Influence Of Suspension As Teachers’ Discipline Management Strategy On Kenya Certificate Of Secondary Examination In Public Secondary Schools In Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya
Jacob Kinoti Nkarichia, Dr. Jepkemboi Choge, Dr. Mwaura Kimani – September 2020 – Page No.: 95-112

Discipline in schools is about positive behavior change in order to create conducive environment for learning. When discipline is achieved in secondary schools, it becomes instrumental in students academic performance. This study focused on assessment of the influence of suspension as discipline management strategy on KCSE performance in public secondary schools in Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya. The objective of this study was to establish the influence of suspension, on KCSE performance. The county has had a trend of grade wastage from KCPE to KCSE. The study adopted descriptive survey research design which used mixed method approach. The study targeted 104 public secondary schools in Tharaka Nithi County, with 10 boys schools, 17 girls schools and 77 mixed schools. Stratified random, purposive sampling method and Krejcie & Morgan population sample table was used to determine the sample size. Principals and teachers were the respondents in this study. Interview schedule for 21 principals and 346 questionnaires for teachers were used as tools for data collection. The study sampled 42 schools, which constituted 40% of the total population size. The researcher prepared the instruments with expert judgment by supervisors. Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient (α) was employed in determining the reliability of the instruments. A pilot study of 10% of the sample schools and respondents was carried out from each of school category. Alpha index of 0.869 was obtained for the teachers’ questionnaires. The reliability of the interview schedule was ensured by the consistency of the questions and the order in which they were administered. The study used descriptive statistics which included frequencies, measures of central tendencies (mean) and measures of dispersion (standard deviation). Inferential statistics Pearson r was used to test the relationships of the hypotheses with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) in analyzing the data. The data from the interview guide was arranged thematically, transcribed and then presented verbatim in order to triangulate the results. The results revealed that suspension of indisciplined students influence KCSE Performance negatively. The findings of this study are expected to be of benefit to different stake holders, who are sensitized with new information on alternative disciplinary strategies to be used on students’ discipline in schools, the policy makers are assisted to come up with a new policy on use of alternative disciplinary methods in schools.

Page(s): 95-112                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2020

 Jacob Kinoti Nkarichia
Doctorate Student, Department of Educational Management ,Policy and curriculum Studies School of education, Maasai Mara University, Kenya

 Dr. Jepkemboi Choge
Senior Lecturer, Department of Educational Management Policy and curriculum Studies, School of education
Maasai Mara University, Kenya

 Dr. Mwaura Kimani
Senior Lecturer, Department of Educational Management Policy and curriculum Studies, School of education
Maasai Mara University, Kenya

[1] Adams, A. (2003). Public High School: The uses of Rehabilitative and punitive forms of discipline: A final report office of Educational Research and Improvement, Washington, D.C 1992.
[2] Aggarwal, J.C., (2007). “Educational Vocational Guidance and Counselling”, Doaba House Booksellers and Publishers, Delhi
[3] Andero, A. A., & Stewart, A. (2002). Issues of corporal punishment: Re-examined. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 29, 90–96.
[4] Atkins, M.S., McKay, M.M., Frazier, S, L., Jakobsons, L.J., Arvantis, P., Cunningham, T., Brown, C., & Lambrecht, L., (2002). Suspensions and Detentions in an Urban, Low- Income School: Punishment or Reward? [Electronic version]. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 4, 361-371
[5] Awan, R, Noureen, G., Naz, A. (2011). A Study of Relationship between Achievement Motivation, Self-concept and Achievement in English and Mathematics at Secondary level. International Education Studies, 4(3), 72 – 78.
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[17] Wu, S., Pink, W., Crain. R., & Cole, M. (1982). Student Suspension: A Critical Reappraisal. The Urban Review, 14, 4, 245-303

Jacob Kinoti Nkarichia, Dr. Jepkemboi Choge, Dr. Mwaura Kimani “An Assessment of Influence of Suspension as Teachers’ Discipline Management Strategy on Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examination in Public Secondary Schools in Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.95-112 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/95-112.pdf

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Student Teacher Perception of Microteaching in Developing Skills for Teaching: A Case of Selected Groups of Third Year Students: School of Education, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya

Kimwarey, C. Margaret – September 2020 Page No.: 113-119

The main purpose of this study was to explore student teacher perception of microteaching in developing teaching skills among third year Bachelor of Education students at the university level. At this level all students are expected to attend a microteaching course where they are trained on requisite teaching skills. In preparation for this student teachers attend common lectures on teaching skills followed by a practical sessions where each and every individual must participate under the guidance of a supervisor. The objectives of the study to determine the components of preliminary preparations student teachers were exposed to before micro-teaching, to determine student teacher perception on preliminary preparation and use of selected skills, to explore how student teachers utilized selected skills before and during micro teaching and to determine the impact of microteaching on student teachers performance on preparation and utilization on selected skill. The participants comprised of (320) three hundred and twenty participants from four groups selected to represent the undergraduate students from Moi University, School of Education. aThe study was an action research a case type of research and it adopted a mixed method approach where qualitative and quantitative techniques were used to collect the data. Instruments used to collect data included questionnaire, interview and content analysis. The results showed that a number of student teachers did not attend common lectures although it was a requirement. On the development and use of selected graphics a number of them either prepared and used or not used. Most of them believed micro teaching method gave a chance to evaluate their strong and weak aspects in teaching, they achieved various skills although they were candid on the challenges they faced and finally reported that if each one of them were addressed with the help of the supervisor and peers this would go a long way to improve in micro teaching.

Page(s): 113-119                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2020

 Kimwarey, C. Margaret
Moi University: School of Education; Department of Curriculum Instruction and Educational Media, Eldoret, Kenya

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Kimwarey, C. Margaret “Student Teacher Perception of Microteaching in Developing Skills for Teaching: A Case of Selected Groups of Third Year Students: School of Education, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.113-119 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9//113-119.pdf

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Comparative Studies on Bacteriology and Antibiogram of Isolates from Ready-To-Eat and Raw Meat Samples
N.P.Akani, Chinonyerem Chikwendu Jr. and S.A. Wemedo- September 2020 – Page No.: 120-128

This research looks at the comparative studies on bacteriology and antibiogram of isolates from raw and ready-to-eat (RTE ) meat samples in Port Harcourt Nigeria. Ninety (90) samples were collected from three markets in Port Harcourt and subjected to microbiological procedures. The results recorded no significant difference (p˃0.05) of Total heterotrophic bacteria count (THBC) in RTE from various locations. THBC ranged between 7.50±1.94 and 5.74±1.35 at Mile 1 market and 6.98±2.15 and 6.04±1.55 at Rumueme market. The Salmonella-Shigella count of the ready to eat meat ranged from 3.26±.69 to 3.16±.98 at Mile 3 market and 2.40±.66 to 2.04±.84 at Rumueme market and indicates no significant difference (p˃0.05) The coliform count of beef across the location showed significant differences (p≤0.05). While counts of beef in Rumueme market was higher and ranges (3.38±.86 -2.20±.78) than those of the Mile 1 and Mile 3 market. Total Staphylococcal count (TSC) showed no significant difference (p≥0.05) with counts of RTE ranging Mile 1 market ( 7.50±1.94to 7.22±2.25) Mile 3 (7.68±1.60 to 7.02±2.00) and Rumueme (6.98±2.15 to 6.04±1.55) and a total of 52 bacterial isolates with vary percentage of occurance such as Staphylococcus sp 12(23.07%), Bacillus sp 9(17.30%), E. coli 5(9.61%) ,Enterobacter sp 4(7.69%), Jeotgalicoccus pinnipedialis 7(13.46%), Macrocuccus caseolyticus 2(3.38%), Klebsiella sp 3(5.76%), Morganella morgani 3(5.76%), Pragia fontium 3(5.76%), Tatumella ptyseos 2(3.84%), Pectobacterium wasabiae 2 (3.84%). Consequently, Staphylococcus sp, Bacillus sp, E. coli, and Enterobacter sp showed high resistance to antibiotics such as, Augumentin, vancomycin, ceftazidine, cloxacillin, Erytromycin, cefuroxine, and ceftriaxone while Staphylococcus was susceptible at (66.67%) to gentamycin and ofloxacin (88.33%) and other isolates were 100% susceptible to ofloxacin. Molecular identification of 3 isolate using PCR confirmed S. aureus at 65.8% and Lycinibacillus macroides at 100%. The megaA, and VanB genes were indentified in 2 Staphylococcus spp while AAIC gene was identified in Lycinibacillus macrolides. All three isolates had plasmid at 10kbp. The 52 isolates had 100% multidrug resistance index of more than 0.2. and were 100% multidrug resistant. Public health awareness campaigns are advocated to sensitize meat sellers and consumers in order to mitigate or eliminate several health issues emanating from unhygienic meat slaughtering, preparation and consumption.

Page(s): 120-128                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2020

Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu- Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

 Chinonyerem Chikwendu Jr
Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu- Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

 S.A. Wemedo
Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu- Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

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[2] Akani N. P. , I. O. Hakam and T. Sampson (2019). South Prevalence and Antibiogram of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from West African Mud Creeper (Tympanotonus fuscatus) Asian Journal of Research in Microbiology 5(2): 1-8,; Article no.SAJRM.53408 ISSN: 2582-1989.
[3] Bello OO, Bello TK, Fashola MO, Oluwadun A. (2014). Microbiological quality of some locally-produced fruit juices in Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria. E3 Journal of Microbiology Research 2(1): 001-008.
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[26] Seighazi Regina Egege1*, Nedie Patience Akani and Chidiebele Emmanuel Ikechukwu Nwankwo. Detection of Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ready-to-Eat Shellfish (Corbiculid heterodont) in Bayelsa State, Nigeria Microbiology Research Journal International 30(3): 22-35, 2020; Article no.MRJI.56147ISSN: 2456-7043
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N.P.Akani, Chinonyerem Chikwendu Jr. and S.A. Wemedo “Comparative Studies on Bacteriology and Antibiogram of Isolates from Ready-To-Eat and Raw Meat Samples” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.120-128 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9//120-128.pdf

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The Relationship between work Environment and employee Performance towards service quality in Malaysia public sector.
Vemala Maduraiveeran, Masri Bin Abdul Lasi – September 2020 – Page No.: 129-135

Introduction: The aim of this study is to have better quality of service provided in service quality of Malaysia public sector. The dependent variable of this study is about employee performance. The dependent variable are appreciation factor to motivate employee on stress, reward and incentive, training and development, salary and promotion are significant for the study. A research framework design was use in this study.
Methodology: As discussed in chapter one and chapter two, the summary of the specific issues that will analyses in detail are supervisor’s support and motivation and the co-workers support. Also the impact of these issues to the towards employees performance. The nature of industry that was identified to access these two issues are service sector. The method to carry out this research this research will be further described in detail in next session.
Findings: The following sections will present the findings and also to relate with the studies. Questionnaire was distributed to respondents as discussed in chapter 3. The total of respondent for this study is 209 respondents. Questionnaire was distributed to all public sector employee of Klang valley. Data given by respondent is data which will be used to collect information to be analysed in this chapter. And the result will be useful to provide better relationship between employees and organization and also to give quality services to public. This data also will be benefit to employees and organization to improve their weakness.
Conclusion and recommendations: In order to decide if the five research framework does not have impact on employee performance in organization in Malaysia public sector. There are other main factors than independent variables given in research framework which actually effect employee work performance in organization. Through this study, several recommendations to improve on providing better quality of service towards public from public sector employees has been discussed further in this chapter.

Page(s): 129-135                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2020

 Vemala Maduraiveeran
City graduate School, City University, Malaysia,

  Masri Bin Abdul Lasi
Faculty of Business, City University, Malaysia

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Vemala Maduraiveeran, Masri Bin Abdul Lasi “The Relationship between work Environment and employee Performance towards service quality in Malaysia public sector.” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.129-135 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9//129-135.pdf

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Using Fair-trade to Advance Sustainable Procurement among Small-Scale Farmers in Ghana: Challenges and Prospects
Ograh Tonny, And Joshua Ayarkwa- September 2020 – Page No.: 136-142

Abstract: In integrating environmental and social issues in public procurement, labels are essential instruments because of the knowledge they convey on environmental and social credentials of products, work or services in a standardized way. Indeed, labels such as Fairtrade certification schemes are regarded as facilitators of social and environmental public procurement. Therefore, this study used a qualitative approach to illustrate the prospects and barriers hampering efforts in promoting Fairtrade among small-scale farmers in the mainstream Sustainable Public Procurement in Ghana.

Page(s): 136-142                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 September 2020

 Ograh Tonny
Department of Construction Management and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

 Joshua Ayarkwa
Department of Construction Management and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

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Ograh Tonny, And Joshua Ayarkwa “Using Fair-trade to Advance Sustainable Procurement among Small-Scale Farmers in Ghana: Challenges and Prospects” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.136-142 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9//136-142.pdf

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Psychosocial Factors Influencing the Wellbeing of Persons Living with Mental Illness in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria
Rita Nkiruka Ezeokoli, PhD , Olanrewaju Seun Adegbite, Sharon-Halleluyah Oluwasanya,Oluwafikayomi Opeyemi Banjo – September 2020 – Page No.: 143-148

Background: Mental illnesses are generally characterized by a combination of abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotions, behaviour, and relationships with others. Persons with mental illness often experience both psychological and social issues in different areas and are stigmatized in many countries and cultures. The shame and fear associated with mental illness remain substantial obstacles to help seeking, to diagnosis, and to treat worldwide.
Aims: The purpose of the study was to examine the psychosocial factors influencing the wellbeing of people living with mental illness in Abeokuta North Local Government, Ogun State Nigeria.
Methods: The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design and stratified and proportional simple random sample was used to select 400 respondents. The study used a self-developed questionnaire tagged “Psychosocial Mental Illness Scale” with reliability test score of 0.76. The demographic characteristics and research questions were analyzed using the descriptive statistics of simple percentage and frequency distribution while Pearson product correlation was used to analyze the research hypotheses at p=0.00.
Results: The results revealed that there is a significant influence of low self-esteem on wellbeing of persons living with mental illness (r = 0.611, n=400, p(0.01)<.05), also there is a significant influence of identity confusion on wellbeing of persons living with mental illness (r = 0.836, n=400, p(0.01)<.05), equally, there is a significant influence of stigmatisation on wellbeing of persons living with mental illness (r = 0.731, n=147, p(0.01)<.05) and finally, there is a significant influence of lack of access to services on wellbeing of persons living with mental illness in Abeokuta North Local Government, Ogun State (r = 0.851, n=147, p(0.01)<.05).
Conclusions: The study concluded that all the psychosocial variables like stigmatization and low self-esteem, lack of access to services and identity confusion influence the wellbeing of persons living with mental illness. Thus, the need for the government to provide services that are designed to support mentally ill persons to enhance self-efficacy, as well as other diverse attributes and roles in the community.

Page(s): 143-148                                                                                                                   Date of Publication:02 October 2020

 Rita Nkiruka Ezeokoli, PhD
Department of Social Work & Human Services, Babcock University, Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Olanrewaju Seun Adegbite
Department of Social Work & Human Services, Babcock University, Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Sharon-Halleluyah Oluwasany
Department of Social Work & Human Services, Babcock University, Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria

 Oluwafikayomi Opeyemi Banjo
Department of Social Work & Human Services, Babcock University, Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria

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Rita Nkiruka Ezeokoli, PhD , Olanrewaju Seun Adegbite Sharon-Halleluyah Oluwasanya,Oluwafikayomi Opeyemi Banjo”Psychosocial Factors Influencing the Wellbeing of Persons Living with Mental Illness in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.143-148 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/143-148.pdf

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Assessment of Two Toposequences in Forest- Savanna Transition Area for the Cultivation of Yam, Cassava and Maize in Eastern Nigeria

Asadu C.L.A., Okoro, E. K. – September 2020 Page No.: 149-156

The soils of two toposequences in the sub-humid tropical climate of Southeastern Nigeria were characterized and assessed for yam (Dioscorea spp.), cassava (Manihot esculenta) and maize (Zea mays) production in this study. Data were obtained following standard field and laboratory analytical procedures. Six profile pits were dug three on each toposequence described and samples from the pedogenic horizons were collected, processed and analyzed. The profiles located at Ekpe village toposequence were designated EUP, EMP, ETP for upper- , Mid- and Toe- slopes respectively. The corresponding profiles at Amadia village toposequence were designated AUP, AMP and ATP. The soils were generally deep, loose, slightly sticky and non-plastic. The dominant textural was sandy loam or loamy sand. The soils were generally acidic (pH < 5.6); The total nitrogen and available phosphorus contents exchangeable bases were generally low; soil organic matter contents were low to moderate but decreased down the profile depth. The soils met the morphological and physical requirements for the production of the three crops but chemical requirements were deficient with total N, available P and exchangeable K being the limiting nutrients. Thus, the soils were classified into S2f subclass due to these fertility constraints. Therefore for optimum production of the crops, application of compound mineral fertilizers such as NPK 20:10:10 or 15:15:15 at the rate of at least 300 kg ha-1 for yam, 250 kg ha-1 for cassava and 200 kg ha-1 for maize is recommended.

Page(s): 149-156                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 October 2020

 Asadu C.L.A.
Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

 Okoro, E. K.
Department of Soil Science and Land Resources Management, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria

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Asadu C.L.A., Okoro, E. K. “Assessment of Two Toposequences in Forest- Savanna Transition Area for the Cultivation of Yam, Cassava and Maize in Eastern Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.149-156 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/149-156.pdf

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Sources of Arsenic Distribution at Obuasi in Ghana

Alexander Kwaku Banson, Richard Kwasi Amankwah, Samuel Agyarko Ndur – September 2020 Page No.: 157-166

There have been various studies to establish the potential sources of arsenic responsible for pollution of surface water and groundwater in the Obuasi Municipality of Ghana. This study seeks to provide better understanding of the identified sources and their characteristics in the study area. In the study rock and soil samples were taken from identified active and inactive arsenic storage structures for analyses of their photomicrographs and selected metal content. Results of photo-micrographic study indicate geologic features of arsenic source minerals such as pyrite, arsenopyrite in different states of oxidation. Other minerals present were pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, stibnite and galena. It suggests significant potential for acid-mine drainage in the study area. Majority of gangue minerals contain acid-buffering or carbonate-bearing rocks/alterations relevant to control the AMD effect they generate whilst others do not and will therefore rely on the acid-buffering effect of the surface water or groundwater constituents. Arsenic and trace element analysis of tailings dams and tailings footprints around surface water and groundwater suggests that the oxidation of arsenic rich minerals reduces as you move away from the water sources and underscores the importance of water to the oxidation and mobility of arsenic in the study area. Acid base accounting of tailings material from Anglogold Ashanti Obuasi Mine Oxide Treatment Plant (OTP) and Sulphide Treatment Plant (STP) confirms the likelihood of acid mine drainage from the tails of the OTP and STP.

Page(s): 157-166                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2020

 Alexander Kwaku Banson
Perseus Mining Ghana Limited, Ghana

 Richard Kwasi Amankwah
University of Mines and Technology, Ghana

 Samuel Agyarko Ndur
University of Mines and Technology, Ghana

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[4] Banson, A.K., Amankwah, R.K., and Ndur, S.A. (2016), ‘Relationships between Arsenic Concentrations and some Microbiological Agents in Surface and Groundwater of Obuasi Municipality’, 4th International Conference on Mining and Innovation, Tarkwa, Ghana.
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Proterozoic basement rocks of Burkina Faso, Applied Geochemistry, 22, pp. 1074-1092
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[23] Navarro-Torres, V.F., Aduvire, O., and Singh R.N. (2012). Assessment of natural attenuation of acid mine drainage pollutants in El Bierzo and Odiel basins: A case study, Journal of the Mining Environment, Vol.2, No.2, 2011, pp.78-85.

Alexander Kwaku Banson, Richard Kwasi Amankwah, Samuel Agyarko Ndur, “Sources of Arsenic Distribution at Obuasi in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.157-166 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/157-166.pdf

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Zakat Behavior Factors with Approach Theory of Planned Behavior of Purbalingga District
Anton Hindardjo, Sarwo Edy Handoyo, Muhammad Doddy, Adrial, Asrul Sani and Nurul Ummah – September 2020 – Page No.: 167-174

This study aims to examine the behavior of zakat compliance in Purbalingga District using Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). This study uses a questionnaire and data analysis used Structure Equation Model. The Questionnaire was distributed and 104 data were obtained, but only 99 data could be analyzed. The results of the study stated that subjective norms and perceived behavioral control significantly influence the intention of zakat behavior. While attitudes toward behavior are not included as determinants of the intention of zakat behavior. The perceived behavioral control can directly influence the behavior of paying zakat. And intentions are mediations of behavior.

Page(s): 167-174                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 October 2020

 Anton Hindardjo
School of Islamic Economic – SEBI, Jakarta, Indonesia

 Sarwo Edy Handoyo
Tarumanegara University, Jakarta Indonesia

 Muhammad Doddy
School of Islamic Economic – SEBI, Jakarta, Indonesia

Muhammadiyah Tangerang University, Jakarta Indonesia

 Asrul Sani
School of Management and Computer Science, Jakarta Indonesia

 Nurul Ummah
School of Islamic Economic – SEBI, Jakarta, Indonesia

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[6] Dinkominfo. (2019b). Bupati tiwi himbau ASN salurkan zakat melalui baznas. Retrieved from https://www.purbalinggakab.go.id/v1/bupati-tiwi-himbau-asn-salurkan-zakat-melalui-baznas/
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[16] Rubin, J., and Chisnell, D,. (2008). Handbook Of Usability: How to Plan, Design, and Conduct Effective Test. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
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[19] Sani, A., Rahman, T. K. A., Budiyantara, A., & Doharma, R. (2020). Measurement of readiness in IT adoption among SMEs manufacturing industry in Jakarta. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1511, 012002. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1511/1/012002
[20] Sani, A., Rahman, T. K. A., Subiyakto, A. a., & Wiliani, N. (2019). Combining Statistical and Interpretative Analyses for Testing Readiness and IT Adoption Questionnaire.
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Anton Hindardjo, Sarwo Edy Handoyo, Muhammad Doddy, Adrial, Asrul Sani and Nurul Ummah “Zakat Behavior Factors with Approach Theory of Planned Behavior of Purbalingga District” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp. 167-174 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/167-174.pdf

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A Quality of Experience (QOE) Based Estimate of Bandwidth Requirement for Computer Networks
Haruna Bege, Aminu Yusuf Zubairu- September 2020 – Page No.: 175-182

This paper centers on making proper estimate of the bandwidth requirement of a network (which has a specified user population) with the help of Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) – a statistical tool for analyzing stochastic processes. This was done to overcome the challenge of poor Quality of Experience (QoE) resulting from insufficient bandwidth. Three MCS scenarios: fully loaded scenario (FLS), irregular pattern scenario (IPS) and regular pattern scenario (RPS) which are synonymous to high, normal and low traffic periods respectively. A model based bandwidth estimation technique was adopted which involved observing network traffic, classification of the contents accessed on the network, determination of the minimum bandwidth requirement for accessing each class of content that guarantees good QoE is met, lastly obtaining the popularity factor (likelihood) of viewing each content. These served as input data for the simulations from which estimates were obtained.

Page(s): 175-182                                                                                                                   Date of Publication:07 October 2020

 Haruna Bege
Department of Computer Engineering, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria

 , Aminu Yusuf Zubairu
Department of Computer Engineering, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

[1]. B. Mikavica, V. Radojičić, and A. KostićLjubisavljević, “estimation of optical access network bandwidth demand using Monte Carlo simulation,” International Journal for Traffic and Transport Engineering, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 384-399, 2015.
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[12]. M. Kassim, A Azmi, R Ab.Rahman, M. I. Yusof, R. Mohamad, A. Idris “Bandwidth Control Algorithm on YouTube Video Traffic in Broadband Network,” vol. 10, no. 1-5, pp. 151-156, 2018
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[14]. V. Ribeiro, R. Riedi, R. Baraniuk, J. Navratil, and L. Cottrell, “PathChirp: efficient available bandwidth estimation for network paths,” in Proceedings of the Passive and Active Measurements Workshop, 2003.
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[21]. J. Wittwer, “Monte Carlo Simulation Basics,”. [Online].Available:https://www.vertex42.com/ExcelArticles/mc/MonteCarloSimulation.html

Haruna Bege, Aminu Yusuf Zubairu “A Quality of Experience (QOE) Based Estimate of Bandwidth Requirement for Computer Networks” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.175-182 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/175-182.pdf

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Mergers & Acquisitions: Blockchain
Julio Rionaldo A.- September 2020 – Page No.: 183-189

The Mergers & Acquisitions process are characterized by the fact that companies rely so much on attorneys, external deal advisors, auditors, tax consultants and other sorts of professional intermediaries. This results in both, high costs and considerable time expenditure. The lengthy and cost-intensive process makes it particularly difficult for enterprises to profit from any Mergers & Acquisitions transactions. In However, with the advent of Cryptocurrencies, Initial Coin Offerings, and Blockchain implementation, Blockchain and Machine-Learning as technology can be used across the whole bandwidth of the Mergers & Acquisition process, from letters of intent, asset to equity sales, through all stages of the due diligence into post-transactions integration. In this article, the researcher will explore and further elaborate on the comprehensive Mergers & Acquisitions process within the Blockchain

Page(s): 183-189                                                                                                                   Date of Publication:08 October 2020

 Julio Rionaldo A.
Information Communications Technology and Intellectual Property Law Department Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor, Indonesia 45363.

[1] Accenture & Economist Intelligence Unit. (2006). Global M&A survey. Report
[2] Buterin, V. (2015). A Next Generation Smart Contract & Decentralized Application Platform. Ethereum.org. Retrieved from https://www.ethereum.org/ pdfs/EthereumWhitePaper.pdf/.
[3] Calipha, R., Tarba, S., and Brock, D. (2010). Mergers and Acquisitions: A Review of Phases Motives and Success Factors. Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions, 9, 1–24. doi: 10.1108/S1479-361X(2010)0000009004.
[4] Christidis, K. and Devetsikiotis, M. (2016). Blockchains and Smart Contracts for the Internet of Things. IEEE Access, 4, pp. 2292-2303. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2566339.
[5] Deloitte Insights. Blockchain: A Technical Primer. Deloitte Consulting. Retrieved from https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/insights/us/articles/4436_Blockchain-primer/DI_Blockchain_Primer.pdf.
[6] De Filippi, P. (2015). Legal Framework for Crypto-Ledger Transactions. P2P Foundation. Retrieved from http://p2pfoundation.net/Legal_Framework_For_Crypto-Ledger_Transactions
[7] Freiland, D., Middelhoff, D., and Waßmann, A. (2019). The Potential of Blockchain and Smart Contracts in M&A. Clairfield International. Retrieved from http://www.clairfield.com/wp-content/uploads/Blockchain-and-Smart-Contracts-in-MA-2019.03.12.pdf.
[8] Gopinath, C. (2003). When acquisitions go awry: Pitfalls in Executing Corporate Strategy. The Journal of Business Strategy, 24, 22–27.
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[15] Yaga, D., Mell, P., Roby, N., and Scarfone, K. (2018). Blockchain Technology Overview. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. doi: 10.6028/NIST.IR.8202

Julio Rionaldo A. “Mergers & Acquisitions: Blockchain” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.183-189 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/183-189.pdf

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Sensitizer + Activator + Disperser. Time-based arts Under Scrutiny
Sergio Patricio Valenzuela Valdés and John David – September 2020 – Page No.: 190-194

The primary goal of this paper is to add information to the classification of Time -based arts in mixed media art, performance, experimental film and music, video art and video-installation. What makes this category possible is not only how artists manage time as a concept, but also due to the fact that time becomes a problem as well. Somehow, the analysis and observation of some particular examples of time-based arts today requires more sophisticated lenses to scrutinize every factor involved in the art practice within an experience that involves beholders. Art practices today are exhibited in many stages and layers from the process itself; some of them in early conceptualization while others just before exhibit or actual broadcast. This paper proposes to add Sensitizer, Activator and Disperser to the basket of analysis factors where there already exist factors like: “effect, efficiency, context, sense-making and strange attractors”. This paper adds these classifications of attractors; Attractor as a force of distension, discontinuation, distraction into one time-based experience that has to be considered. Therefore, this is the first approach to the “Sensitizer-attractor” related source of sensitivity and understanding. “Activator-attractor” is the action that drives the performance. “Disperser- attractor” is what disrupts the time-chain and makes it into fragments of multiple experiences. The authors use one example to attempt to exemplify the model; all the concepts will be applied into the one performance exhibited in Physical Poetics 4 in ERG- Brussels, Belgium 2020.

Page(s): 190-194                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 October 2020

 Sergio Patricio Valenzuela Valdés
University of Applied Arts Vienna, Austria

 John David
University of Applied Arts Vienna, Austria

[1] Valenzuela, Sergio and John David. 2019. Strange Attractor Factor beyond Performance Art in a Time – Based Media Context. Dheli: IRJSS Vol. 3. Issue 11. http://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-3-issue-11/153-164.pdf?x49905
[2] http://www.physicalpoetics.com/
[3] http://www.thefreedictionary.com/sensitizer
[4] http://www.thefreedictionary.com/activator
[5] Dexter, D.L .1953. _A theory of Sensitized Luminescence in Solids. _J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836.
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[7] http://wiki.erg.be/w/Physical_Poetics_4_Micro_Gravities
[8] Thomas Olbrechts, Sound Cloud – Hear the world’s sounds. 01.11.2020.
[9] Portfolio, Hugo Bonnet-Massip.01.11.2020. http://hugobonnetmassip.art/aspire
[10] Sergio Patricio, Microgravity- Delivered body from a private space.22.02.2020.01:56. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1lTSGHLKWsA.
[11] ERG, Erg École de recherche graphique. Physical poetics #4 : Micro-gravities. April 2020. 1h:51:16. http://vimeo.com/400876015
[12] http://medicaldictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Dispersion+(physics)

Sergio Patricio Valenzuela Valdés and John David “Sensitizer + Activator + Disperser. Time-based arts Under Scrutiny” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.190-194 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/190-194.pdf

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Corporate Governance Practices and Financial Performance of Firms Listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange
Takuriramunashe, Famba, Yusheng Kong, Ophias Kurauone, Grace Chituku-Dzimiro – September 2020 – Page No.: 195-205

Purpose: This study examines how corporate governance practices influence performance of firms listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange.
Design/methodology/approach: The fixed effects (FE) model is estimated on a panel of 29 non-financial firms listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange for the period between 2010 and 2016. Firm performance was measured using dependent variables return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) calculated from the firms’ financial reports available online. The panel data include fixed effects (FE) and random effects (RE) estimators. The Hausman test framework is used to select the most efficient and consistent alternative.
Findings: The study finds evidence to support the need for good corporate governance practices in Zimbabwe. Board independence and board gender diversity were found to have a significant positive relationship with ROA. The study further finds a positive significant relationship between board independence, board gender diversity, board size and ROE.
Originality/value: Although many previous studies have studied this relationship, the current study is the first to investigate the impact of good corporate governance practices with a specific focus on the Zimbabwe stock exchange.

Page(s): 195-205                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 October 2020

 Takuriramunashe, Famba
School of Finance & Economics, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang, PRC2 Yusheng Kong, Jiangsu University, School of Finance & Economics, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang, PRC

 Yusheng Kong
School of Finance & Economics, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang, PRC2 Yusheng Kong, Jiangsu University, School of Finance & Economics, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang, PRC

 Ophias Kurauone
Ophias Kurauone, School of Finance & Economics, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang, PRC

 Grace Chituku-Dzimiro
4Grace Chituku-Dzimiro, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Department of Accounting & Finance, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe

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Takuriramunashe, Famba, Yusheng Kong, Ophias Kurauone, Grace Chituku-Dzimiro “Corporate Governance Practices and Financial Performance of Firms Listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp. 195-205 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/195-205.pdf

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Effect of Small Denominations of Kenyan Currency on the Economy

Nyanamba, Steve Ondieki,- September 2020 Page No.: 206-210

For a long time, money has been used as a medium of exchange in most parts of the world. Most countries have developed their money in a currency which is distinct from that of the rest of the world. Most countries’ denominations range from small denominations to large denominations. The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of small denominations of the Kenya currency on the economy. The study used survey research design. The target population of the study was all the consumers, retailers and Supermarkets in Kisii County and Homabay County from which a sample of 225 was drawn from the two Counties under study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results were presented in tables and figures. The findings from the study revealed that majority (78%) of the supermarket shoppers own debit cards; 61% of the shoppers were not given the actual change as per the value purchases and that lack of small denominations of currency has led to purchase of goods not budgeted for; it has led to increase in prices of some goods and that lack of small denominations has led to selling of goods in bundles. The study recommended that the government should ensure continuous and adequate circulation of small denomination of currency for this will curb unnecessary increase of prices hence leading to inflation, besides controlling unnecessary purchase of goods not budgeted for.

Page(s): 206-210                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 October 2020

 Nyanamba, Steve Ondieki,
Kisii University.

Evaluation of Effects of Environmental Pollution by Small Scale Gari Processors in Anambra State of Nigeria
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Nyanamba, Steve Ondieki,”Effect of Small Denominations of Kenyan Currency on the Economy” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.206-210 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/206-210.pdf

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Evaluation of Effects of Environmental Pollution by Small Scale Gari Processors in Anambra State of Nigeria
Ume, S I, Adeoye – Agomoh, Q C, Onuh, N C and Achebe, U. September 2020 – Page No.: 211-218

Effect of gari processing to the environment in Anambra State of Nigeria was studied. One hundred processors were purposively selected from three out of five agricultural zones of the state. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect information needed for the study. The objectives of the study were addressed using percentages, multiple regression, gross margin analysis and factor analysis. The results show that most gari processors were aged, fairly educated, well experienced, high number of household size and membership of organization. The effect of gari processing to the environments were littering of the processing surroundings with cassava peels, effluents, noise, fibrous waste and cyanide vapour and ash. The determinant of processors’ socio economic characteristics to the rate of environmental pollution were years of processing experience, membership of organization, level of education and access to extension services. Gari processing is profitable in the study area with net profit of N65, 050 and Benefit cost ratio of 1; 2;8.The constraints to gari processing in the study area were shortage of raw materials, high cost of labour, high cost of processing and storage equipment and high cost of energy. There is need to ensure farmers’ access to educational programs, credit and extension services.

Page(s): 211-218                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 October 2020

 Ume, S I,
Department of Agriculture and Extension and Management, Federal College of Agriculture Ishiagu, Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria

  Adeoye – Agomoh, Q C
2Department of Home and Rural Economics. Federal College of Agriculture Ishiagu, Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

 Onuh, N C
Department of Agriculture and Extension and Management, Federal College of Agriculture Ishiagu, Ivo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria

  Achebe, U.
National Root Crop Research Institute (NRCRI), Igbariam Sub – Station, Anambra State, Nigeria

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Ume, S I, Adeoye – Agomoh, Q C, Onuh, N C and Achebe, U. ” Evaluation of Effects of Environmental Pollution by Small Scale Gari Processors in Anambra State of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.211-218 September 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/211-218.pdf

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Evaluation of Lower Usuma Dam Water Quality for Domestic Supply (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria

Emmanuel Samuel Danbauchi- September 2020 Page No.: 219-224

Dams are physical attempt of human being to reserved water for distribution in period of scarcity. Lower Usuma Dam was constructed to meet to the demand of quality water supply to the inhabitant of FCT, Abuja. This study evaluates the water quality of Lower Usuma dam for domestic supply. Qualitative research design was used for ten (10) samples that were collected covering specific points of procurement, processes and delivery of quality water supply which were analysed accordingly in a laboratory base on standard measurement for physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters. Using National Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) standard to evaluate water quality of Lower Usuma Dam, the result revealed acceptance in the physical and chemical parameters in a large extent but high concentration in bacteriological parameters above the maximum recommendation given by NSDWQ. Thus, the water quality of Lower Usuma Dam in Abuja has not met the acceptable standard for drinking at random but can be used for other domestic purpose.

Page(s): 219-224                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 October 2020

 Emmanuel Samuel Danbauchi
Department of Geography and Environmental Management University of Abuja, Nigeria

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Emmanuel Samuel Danbauchi, “Evaluation of Lower Usuma Dam Water Quality for Domestic Supply (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.219-224 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/219-224.pdf

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The Relationship between historyand nationalism in the Arab-Israeli conflict

Chloé Bernadaux- September 2020 Page No.: 225-229

Adopting an “historical sociological” approach, this piece investigates the role of historical narratives in the formation of identities in the context of the Arab-Israeli conflict. As a “linguistic device”, traditional narratives are framed within a specific paradigm, according to which the “nation” is seen as the only valid expression of senses of belonging. Why and how historical narratives have played a major role in the formation of collective identities in both national movements is the core question of this study. This piece investigates both the “positive” historical narratives as well as the negative identity elements at the core of the building of the national Self. This research shows that the formation of a hegemonic narrative by the conventional Israeli historiography has prevented the reconciliation of both nationalist processes and any future prospects for the resolution of the conflict.

Page(s): 225-229                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 October 2020

 Chloé Bernadaux

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Chloé Bernadaux, “The Relationship between historyand nationalism in the Arab-Israeli conflict” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.225-229 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/225-229.pdf

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Nutritional Composition and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat Flour using Coconut Milk as Partial Substitute for Water

Elochukwu, Chinwe. U. – September 2020 Page No.: 230-233

The use of wheat flour in combination with coconut milk in the production of bread was studied. The coconut milk was used to substitute water in different ratios of water: coconut milk, which is 100:0; 80:20; 50:50; 20:80 and 0:100. The bread loaves were produced using the straight – dough procedure and subsequently evaluated for proximate analysis, physical characteristics and sensory attributes. From the results of the proximate composition of bread samples, it was revealed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) in all the parameters analyzed. The moisture content of the bread samples fall within the range of 24.01% to 30.36%. The other nutrients includes protein, fat, crude fibre and ash were in the ranges of 7.66% to 14.01%; 5.01% to 24.59%; 2.08% to 6.27% and 1.02% to 3.01% respectively. From the results, is was observed the protein content, fat content, fiber content and ash content of the bread samples increased with increasing substitution of water with coconut milk, while carbohydrates decreased. In the same vein, the energy content of the bread samples increased as the level of fortification with coconut milk increased from 288KJ to 389.86KJ. The physical characteristics of the bread samples revealed a decrease in dough expansion from 410.00cm to 375.40cm as the level of substitution increases while that of the loaf weight increases with the increase in the level of substitution with coconut milk. In the sensory analysis, it was observed that the panelists liked all the bread samples although bread samples produced with 100% coconut milk was best preferred in terms of aroma and taste.

Page(s): 230-233                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 October 2020

 Elochukwu, Chinwe. U. ,
Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria

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Elochukwu, Chinwe. U. ,”Nutritional Composition and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat Flour using Coconut Milk as Partial Substitute for Water” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.230-233 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/230-233.pdf

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Effect of Multiple Representation–Based Instructions (MR-BI) On SHS Students’ Ability To Solve Problems On Linear Functions And Their Applications

Ernest. K. Ofosu, Isaac Owusu-Darko, Gyedu Alhassan Abubakar- September 2020 Page No.: 234-239

This study investigated the effect of Multiple Representation-Based Instructions (MR-BI) on students’ ability to solve problems on linear functions and their applications among SHS 3 students in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Two schools were selected one at Koforidua in the Koforidua municipality and the other in the Kwaebibrem Municipality. The research method used was quasi-experiment. One intact group of students from each school (N=60, n1=30, n2=30) was used. In the experiment, the Control group was exposed to traditional teaching and learning of linear functions and their applications while in the experimental group, MR-BI teaching and learning were used. Pre and Post Tests were conducted to collect primer data. Interview guide was also used in this study. Quantitative data analysis showed the experimental group with MR-BI performed better while the control group performed poorly. The results from the quantitative data indicated that the use of MR-BI had a positive impact on senior high school students’ proficiency in solving problems on linear functions and their applications after the experiment. The means of the treatment group (M=44.10; SD=14.084) and control group (M=20.00; SD=10.850) were found to be statistically significant in the post-test (t=-7.425; P<0.05). The interviews and their transcriptions were carried out to triangulate the quantitative findings from Pre and Post Test results.

Page(s): 234-239                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 October 2020

 Ernest. K. Ofosu SDA College of Education P. O. Box 18 Asokore, Koforidua Ghana, West Africa

  Isaac Owusu-DarkoSDA College of Education P. O. Box 18 Asokore, Koforidua Ghana, West Africa

  Gyedu Alhassan AbubakarAshaiman Senior High School P. O. Box 304 Ashaiman Ghana, West Africa

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Ernest. K. Ofosu, Isaac Owusu-Darko, Gyedu Alhassan Abubakar “Effect of Multiple Representation–Based Instructions (MR-BI) On SHS Students’ Ability To Solve Problems On Linear Functions And Their Applications” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.234-239 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/234-239.pdf

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Assessment Of The Level Of Pesticide Residue In Cocoa Beans From Selected Mega Stores In Ado Metropolis, Ekiti State, Southwestern, Nigeria.

Shegun Victor Oluwatuyi; Henry Olawale Sawyerr; Ayinla Lateefah Olajumoke ,- September 2020 Page No.: 240-250

Introduction: Approximation of 30%-40% of cocoa produced are lost to either pest or disease hence the dependence on the use and application of pesticides to boost productivity.
Objective: This study was carried out to assess the level of pesticide residue in cocoa beans from selected mega stores in Ado metropolis of Ekiti State, Nigeria.
Methodology: Dry cocoa beans were sampled from nine largest cocoa stores in Ado Metropolis using a composite sampling technique. Sample results were analyzed using AAS spectrometer. Data obtained were analyzed using T-test, ANOVA, simple percentage method, frequency table, charts and graphs.
Result: Concentrations of the pesticide residues in each cocoa bean samples were calculated (in mg/kg). A total of nine (9) pesticide residues were detected in cocoa bean samples drawn, Pesticide residues identified in the cocoa beans were Lindane, Dieldrin, Aldrin, Gamma HCH, DDE, DDD, DDT, Beta HCH and Heptachlor.
Conclusion: From this study it was concluded that heptachlor is the most widely used pesticides of all the chemicals analyzed in cocoa samples from Ado metropolis of Ekiti State. It is suggested that relevant agencies should educate Cocoa farmers on the approved a pesticides and safe application of pesticide in such a way that it will be within EU permissible level while also instituting a monitoring mechanism to ensure that

Page(s): 240-250                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 October 2020

 Shegun Victor OluwatuyiDepartment of Environmental Health Science, Kwara State University, Malete, Ilorin
Department of Public Health, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero

  Henry Olawale SawyerrDepartment of Environmental Health Science, Kwara State University, Malete, Ilorin.

  Ayinla Lateefah olajumokeDepartment of Environmental Health Science, Kwara State University, Malete, Ilorin.

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Shegun Victor Oluwatuyi; Henry Olawale Sawyerr; Ayinla Lateefah olajumoke ,”Assessment Of The Level Of Pesticide Residue In Cocoa Beans From Selected Mega Stores In Ado Metropolis, Ekiti State, Southwestern, Nigeria.” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.240-250 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/240-250.pdf

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The Attitudes on Consumer Perceptions towards Viral Marketing: A Study on Foodpanda Food Delivery in Malaysia

Mohd Aswad Ahmad, Masri Abdul Lasi – September 2020 Page No.: 251-259

Introduction: Consequence of the development of social network, viral marketing has become a new popular pattern of consumption for Subang Jaya consumers. Foodpanda is the German mobile food delivery market headquartered in Berlin, Germany, which operates in a few countries and territories including Malaysia.
Methodology: The data was collected using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed following a wide review of the literature n viral marketing. It was divided into four parts. The first part was based on personal profile of the consumers. (M Eltaj, 2017).
Findings: The five factors; i) perceived informativeness, ii) perceived entertainment, iii) irritation perception, iv) perceived source credibility and v) incentive perception, have significant effects on attitudes of consumers towards viral marketing in Subang Jaya.
Conclusions / and Recommendations: Online business website companies need to propose some rules or regulations to protect costumers’ rights. When conflicts occur, e-vendors can follow these rules to provide solutions that are reasonable and satisfying for consumers.
Keywords: Attitudes of Consumers, Viral Marketing, Subang Jaya, Foodpanda, Perceived Informativeness, Entertainment, Irritation Perceptions, Source Credibility and Incentive.

Page(s): 251-259                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 October 2020

 Mohd Aswad Ahmad City Graduate School, City University, Malaysia

  Masri Abdul LasiCity Graduate School, City University, Malaysia

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Mohd Aswad Ahmad, Masri Abdul Lasi “The Attitudes on Consumer Perceptions towards Viral Marketing: A Study on Foodpanda Food Delivery in Malaysia” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.251-259 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/251-259.pdf

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Soil Stabilization by Alkali Activated Fly Ash: A Review

Abhijat Vikram Singh, Dr.B.S.Singhvi, Virendra Singh Jakhar and Dr. Vishu Singhvi- September 2020 Page No.: 260-266

The construction industry has attained new heights because of research work and its applications. Not only development in concrete technology but also importance of soil has been realised and has greater impacts in construction industry. As soil is the ultimate load bearer so it’s stability is a necessity and hence many efforts have been done for its stabilization. The performance of any structure depends upon the behavior of underlying soil mass and on the bearing capacity of soil. Expansive soil is catastrophic to construction as it swells and shrinks frequently and thereby it needs stabilization with different materials. Soil stabilization with various combinations of chemical, physical and biological methods has been employed to improve soil properties to make it adequate for intended engineering purpose. There is a huge generation of fly ash by thermal power plants which contribute to about 57% of power generation in India. There have been efforts to stabilize expansive soil using fly ash which is activated by alkali as it serves the dual purpose of sustainable development and fly ash disposal issues as fly ash poses hazardous threat to environment. Literature survey on this subject shows the importance of investigations on fly ash and alkali activated fly ash to stabilize expansive soil. It also shows variation in properties of expansive soil after its stabilization by fly ash and alkali activated fly ash. It also contains various additives to curb expansive behavior of soil by different combinations. This overall leads to sustainability in construction industry. This paper reviews behavior of Expansive Soil after stabilization with alkali activated fly ash on the basis of available literature..

Page(s): 260-266                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 October 2020

 Abhijat Vikram SinghDepartment of Civil Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, India

  Dr.B.S.SinghviProf and Head, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, India

  Virendra Singh Jakhar Mtech. Structures

  Dr. Vishu Singhvi,Product Development Associate Acnovate Technologies Pvt Ltd.

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Abhijat Vikram Singh, Dr.B.S.Singhvi, Virendra Singh Jakhar and Dr. Vishu Singhvi,”Soil Stabilization by Alkali Activated Fly Ash: A Review” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.260-266 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/260-266.pdf

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Life Writing in the Victorian Age: Aurora Leigh (1856) by Elizabeth Barrett Browning

Bello Usman- September 2020 Page No.: 267-270

Life writing in the Victorian Age took the form of Biography, Autobiography and memoirs which was written in different genres of literature. It also took the form of letters, journals, and diaries. Some of the great Victorian writers wrote about themselves using an indirect method so that they can present an aspect of their lives and that of their contemporaries to their readers. An example of this is Charles Dicken’s David Copperfield. Life writing provides critical information about the Age. Most of the writers engage in this form of literary enterprise because they feel a sense of duty or in order to give themselves satisfaction that a record of their lived lives is available to future generations. Aurora Leigh is a novel in verse form and regarded as an example of Victorian life writing in verse. The heroine, Aurora, in the epic poem exemplifies some selective aspects of the life of Elizabeth Barret Browning and indeed, the situation of women in Victorian England. The ‘Woman Question’ is a core concern of Elizabeth Barrett Browning in this epic. The view and the place of a woman in the Victorian Age became an urgent concern for Browning.

Page(s): 267-270                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 October 2020

  Bello Usman Senior Lecturer, Department of General Studies, the Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Nigeria

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Bello Usman,”Life Writing in the Victorian Age: Aurora Leigh (1856) by Elizabeth Barrett Browning” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.267-270 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/267-270.pdf

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Nutrition Composition of Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia Volubilis L.)

Gomathy Sethuraman, Nur Marahaini Mohd Nizar, Fatin Nadia Muhamad, Peter J. Gregory, Ebrahim Jahanshiri, Sayed Azam-Ali- September 2020 Page No.: 271-277

We investigated the macronutrient, selected mineral and fatty acid composition of Sacha inchi (SI) (Plukenetia volubilis L.) seeds harvested from the grounds of Crops for the Future, Malaysia. Macronutrient analysis was carried out on both fresh and roasted (160°C for 6 mins) SI seeds. Both fresh and roasted seeds were rich in crude fat (56.2%, 49.8%) and crude protein (23.8%, 25.0%) respectively. Fatty acid and some selected minerals analyses were carried out for the roasted SI seeds. Fatty acid analysis showed that the 18.6% of saturated fat was mainly made up of palmitic (4.64%) and stearic (12.9%) acids. The polyunsaturated fat amounted to 81.3% and was contributed mainly by linolenic (35.9%) and linoleic (44.8%) acids. The main minerals found were potassium (5179 mg/kg), phosphorus (3868 mg/kg), magnesium (3439 mg/kg) and calcium (1142 mg/kg). Comparison with other crops highlights SI’s potential as a plant source of omega -3 and omega-6 fatty acids, its macronutrient and mineral contents.

Page(s): 271-277                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 October 2020

 Gomathy Sethuraman
Crops For the Future Research Centre (CFFRC), Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia

  Nur Marahaini Mohd Nizar
Crops For the Future Research Centre (CFFRC), Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia

  Fatin Nadia Muhamad
Crops For the Future Research Centre (CFFRC), Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia

  Peter J. Gregory
Crops For the Future Research Centre (CFFRC), Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia
School of Agriculture, Policy & Development, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading,RG6 6AR, UK

 Ebrahim Jahanshiri
Crops For the Future Research Centre (CFFRC), Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia

 Sayed Azam-AliCrops For the Future Research Centre (CFFRC), Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia

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Gomathy Sethuraman, Nur Marahaini Mohd Nizar, Fatin Nadia Muhamad, Peter J. Gregory, Ebrahim Jahanshiri, Sayed Azam-Ali “Nutrition Composition of Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia Volubilis L.)” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.271-277 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/271-277.pdf

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Derivative Securities and Its Impact on the Nigerian Stock Market

Efanga, Udeme Okon, Hanson, Uwem Effiong, Ekanem, Boniface Christopher – September 2020 Page No.: 278-285

This study was carried out to ascertain the impact of derivative securities on the Nigerian stock market between 2014 and 2019. Data employed for this study was elicited from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin of 2018 and Security and Exchange Commission statistical Bulletin of 2019. This study employed All Share Index and Market Capitalization as measure of productivity of the Nigerian stock market, while Foreign Exchange Derivative was employed as the regressor and Exchange Rate was employed as a controlled variable. This study employed Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag ARDL Model to analyze data. Inferential results pointed out that Foreign Exchange Derivative had positive impact on productivity of the Nigerian stock market within the period under review. The study recommended that monetary authorities in Nigeria should lay emphasis on the deepening of the Nigerian derivative market through the introduction and trading of derivative instruments such as swaps, options, futures and forwards amongst others as applicable in the financial systems of advanced countries. If this is done, the productivity of the Nigerian stock market would be greatly enhanced.

Page(s): 278-285                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 October 2020

 Efanga, Udeme Okon
Department of Banking and Finance, Faculty of Management Sciences, University of Calabar, Nigeria

 Hanson, Uwem Effiong
Department of Banking and Finance, College of Management Science, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria

 Ekanem, Boniface Christopher
Department of Insurance and Risk Management, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

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[3] Efanga, U. O, Umoh, E. A, Essien, A. I. and Umoh, U. E. (2019) Impact of Derivative Instruments on Risk Management in the Nigerian Banking Sector – Saudi Journal of Economics and Finance, Vol. 3. , Issue 8, ISSN 2523-6563 (Online), ISSN: 2523-9414 (print). Scholars Middle East Publishers, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, pp. 323-330.
[4] Kolapo, T. F., Ayeni, R. K. and Oke, M. O. (2012). Credit risk and commercial banks‟ performance in Nigeria: a panel model approach. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 2(2), 31-38.
[5] Lenee, T. L. and Oki, J. (2016). Financial derivatives and firm performance: empirical evidence from financial and non financial firms. British Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, 16(4), 1-36.
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[7] Olawale, L. S (2015). The effect of credit risk on the performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. African Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance, 4(1), 10-22.
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[9] Osaze, E. B. (2011). The historical evolution of the Nigerian capital market [Online] Available from:http://www.proshareng.com/articles/2349/The-Historical-Evolution-of-the-Nigerian-Capital-Market
[10] Osuoha, J. I. (2013). Transforming Nigeria Economy Through the Use of Derivatives, Advances in Applied Economics and Finance (AAEF), Vol. 4, No.1, pp 45-54 ISSN 2167-6348.
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[15] Vashishtha, A. and Kumar, S. (2010). Development of financial derivatives market in India: a case study. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 37, Available at http://www.eurojournals.com/finance.htm.

Efanga, Udeme Okon, Hanson, Uwem Effiong, Ekanem, Boniface Christopher “Derivative Securities and Its Impact on the Nigerian Stock Market” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.278-285 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/278-285.pdf

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Seasonal and Temporal Distribution of Arsenic

Alexander Kwaku Banso, Richard Kwasi Amankwah, Samuel Agyarko Ndur – September 2020 Page No.: 286-294

In this study seasonal and temporal distribution of arsenic was assessed over a period of one year.During the study water and soil samples were taken from streams, rivers, old and active process ponds, tailings dams, tailings footprints, heap leach sites, arsenic trioxide storage sites, waste rock dumps as well as gold processing plants which treat arsenic ores. The study concluded the temporal distribution of arsenic in surface water follows a linear seasonal trend whereas all year round it generally follows a polynomial trend. It is not advisable to attempt to predict the concentration of arsenic in groundwater on the basis of the Fe contents alone. However, the presence of high Fe is a possible indication of high arsenic in groundwater. It is noted however that wells with low Fe will tend to have low arsenate concentration. There is a temporal nonlinear relationship between As and Fe concentrations which proposes a natural remediation of the polluted water source and indicates how long it may take for the water to revert to a compliant concentration when measures are taken to stop activities that mobilize arsenic. This suggests that if the current anthropogenic activities releasing arsenic is halted and with the appropriate concentration of iron in solution, the surface water may demobilize arsenic back into the host mineralogy. There are seasonal changes in arsenic content of the monitoring boreholes in Arsenic-trioxide Storage Area (ASA) suggesting the mobility of arsenic with infiltrating water as an important transport pathway to groundwater.

Page(s): 286-294                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 October 2020

 Alexander Kwaku Banso
Perseus Mining Ghana Limited, Ghana

 Richard Kwasi Amankwah
University of Mines and Technology, Ghana

 Samuel Agyarko Ndur
University of Mines and Technology, Ghana

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[4]. Anon. (2011). Arsenic in Drinking Water, Background Document for Development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, World Health Organization, 16p, WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/75/Rev/1.
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[7]. Banson, A.K, Amankwah, R.K., Asiam, E.K., and Ndur, S.A. (2018a), ‘Geochemical Water Dynamics and Arsenic Distribution in Surface Water and Groundwater of Obuasi Municipality’, 5th Biennial International Mining and Mineral Conference, Tarkwa, Ghana.
[8]. Banson, A.K, Amankwah, R.K., Asiam, E.K., and Ndur, S.A. (2018b), ‘Hydrogeochemistry and Arsenic Distribution in Groundwater of Obuasi Municipality’, 5th Biennial International Mining and Mineral Conference, Tarkwa, Ghana.
[9]. Banson, A.K, Amankwah, R.K., and Ndur, S.A. (2018c), ‘Surface Water and Groundwater Characteristics of the Obuasi Municipality’, 5th Biennial International Mining and Mineral Conference, Tarkwa, Ghana.
[10]. Banson, A.K., Amankwah, R.K., and Ndur, S.A. (2016), ‘Relationships between Arsenic Concentrations and some Microbiological Agents in Surface and Groundwater of Obuasi Municipality’, 4th International Conference on Mining and Innovation, Tarkwa, Ghana.
[11]. Ewusi, A., Obiri-yeboah, S., Voigt, H.J., Asabere, S.B., and Bempah, C.K. (2013). Groundwater Quality Assessment for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes in Obuasi Municipality of Ghana, A Preliminary Study, Research Journal of Environmental Earth Science, 5(1), pp. 6-17.
[12]. Foli, G., Nude, P.M., Amedjoe, C.G., and Kyei, L. (2012). Arsenic Leaching in Mill Tailings at the Anglogold Ashanti-Obuasi Mine, Ghana: Management of Contamination in the Related Water Environment, West African Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 20(1), pp. 11-23.
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[15]. Kesse, G.O. (1985). The Mineral and Rock Resources of Ghana, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 610p.
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[17]. Zhu, M., Paul, K.W., Kubicki, J.D., and Sparks, D.L. (2009). Quantum Chemical Study of Arsenic (III, V) Adsorption on Mn-Oxides: Implications for Arsenic (III) oxidation, Environmental Science Technology, 43(17), 6655-6661, 33p.

Alexander Kwaku Banso, Richard Kwasi Amankwah, Samuel Agyarko Ndur “Seasonal and Temporal Distribution of Arsenic” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.286-294 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/286-294.pdf

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Green Computing:Techniques and Challenges in Creating a Friendly Computing Environments in Developing Economies.

Kadima Victor Chitechi- September 2020 Page No.: 295-302

The adoption of ICT’s has currently realised advancements in technologies such as faster internet connectivity has changed the way we live, work, learn and play , it is affecting our environment in several ways. Today use of ICT has enabled and created many opportunities for employment round the globe, as the computer literacy becomes a prerequisite condition for sustenance in almost every sector. Besides this, ICT has impacted both positively and negatively on our environment. To grow awareness about environmental impact of computing, green technology is gaining increasing importance. Green ICT as a concept has been popularized to achieve energy efficiency and minimize consumption of energy by e-equipment. Climate change is one of the main environmental concerns being addressed globally; our environment has been changing thus posted more worrying because it is impossible to predict exactly how it will develop and what the consequences will be. Globally and even developed nations have been using various approaches to manage our environment. Green Computing is among the key techniques being implemented. The approaches required to achieve green computing as a technique includes both efficient hardware implementations and improving software methodologies of the various researchers. This paper aims to present green computing techniques and challenges, their impact on environment and creating a friendly computing environments in developing nations. The paper concludes by providing future directions of research.

Page(s): 295-302                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 October 2020

 Kadima Victor ChitechiMasinde Masinde Muliro University of Science & Technology, Kenya

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Kadima Victor Chitechi “Green Computing:Techniques and Challenges in Creating a Friendly Computing Environments in Developing Economies” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.295-302 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/295-302.pdf

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Application of Bottleneck Analysis (BNA) Methodology for Primary Healthcare Review in Kebbi State Nigeria

Musa Asta, Nehemiah Danjuma, Abubakar Attahiru Kaoje, Abubakar Muhammad, Teryila Ogoja- September 2020 Page No.: 303-316

:Strengthening service delivery is a key strategy to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. This includes the delivery of interventions to reduce child mortality, maternal mortality, and the burden to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Service provision is a product of three key determinants – Health Workforce; Commodity (including infrastructure, equipment, medical supplies, and finances for their synergetic functioning); and accessibility (including geographical and financial accessibility to services by clients). While applying a linear simplistic perspective, inputs lead to commensurate outputs within an enabling environment, and increased input lead to increased output – or in this context, increased capacity for service delivery and enhanced access to services. It is therefore imperative that health system actors conduct periodic review of the health system to enable them draw counter-intuitive insights on what constraints exist and to what degree, which hinder achievement of predetermined goals. The bottleneck methodology provides a model for health managers to review the adequacy of inputs (supply-side determinants) in relation to set standards and the performance of the outputs (demand-side determinants) in relation to uptake expectation per target population. The European Union-funded Maternal, Neonatal & Child Health plus Nutrition (MNCH+N) program in Nigeria supported the Kebbi State Primary Health Care Development Agency to conduct the first quarterly PHC Review using the revised Nigerian Bottleneck Analysis model in third quarter of 2018. The review also focused on the development of plans of action aimed at addressing some of the identified gaps. Findings show that coverage for under-five-year-old expected cases as follows; 22,497 diarrhoea new cases, 4,845 pneumonia new cases and 70,423 fever cases were identified and managed by health care workers at fixed and mobile posts. This represents 3.63%, 11.11% and 10.56% cases for Diarrhoea, Pneumonia and Fever respectively were identified, out of expected episodes per child in 2019.

Page(s): 303-316                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 October 2020

  Musa AstaEU-MNCHN Project, Kebbi State, UNICEF Nigeria

 Nehemiah Danjuma Sokoto Field Office, UNICEF Nigeria

  Abubakar Attahiru Kaoje Office of the Executive Secretary, Kebbi State Primary Health Care Development Agency, Nigeria

  Abubakar Muhammad Department of Planning Research & Statistics, Kebbi State Primary Health Care Development Agency, Nigeria

  Teryila OgojaEU-MNCHN Project, Kebbi State Primary Health Care Development Agency, Nigeria

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Musa Asta, Nehemiah Danjuma, Abubakar Attahiru Kaoje, Abubakar Muhammad, Teryila Ogoja, “Application of Bottleneck Analysis (BNA) Methodology for Primary Healthcare Review in Kebbi State Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.303-316 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/303-316.pdf

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Development of Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria

Onwuka, Shalom U., Onyebueke, Ogechukwu O. – September 2020 Page No.: 317-323

With the increase in plastic waste generation in Enugu Metropolis coupled with its ubiquity and threat to the environment, this study was carried out with the aim of designing a framework for plastic waste management in Enugu Metropolis. The study was carried out through the distribution of questionnaires to members of staff of Enugu State Waste Management Agency (ESWAMA) and residents in the three Local Government Areas that make up Enugu Metropolis which include: Enugu North L.G.A, Enugu South L.G.A, and Enugu East L.G.A. Data collected from the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed that for effective plastic waste management in Enugu Metropolis, the following strategies should be implemented: creation of more environmental awareness, implementation and enforcement of polluters pay principle, implementation of extended producers responsibility, creation of plastic waste recycling centers, the involvement of stakeholders/citizens in plastic waste management policymaking, development of effective policies on plastic waste, the introduction of incentives for plastic reuse, introduction of incentives for plastic recycling, effective monitoring of policies on plastics. These strategies were used to design a framework for plastic waste management in Enugu Metropolis. The study, therefore, recommended that the developed framework be quickly implemented to reduce the quantity as well as the threats of plastic waste.

Page(s): 317-323                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 October 2020

 Onwuka, Shalom U Department of Environmental Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

  Onyebueke, Ogechukwu O.Department of Environmental Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

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Onwuka, Shalom U., Onyebueke, Ogechukwu O., “Development of Framework for Plastic Waste Management in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.317-323 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/317-323.pdf

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Ebola Virus Immuno-Evasion and Cellular Dysfunctional Mechanics: A Bio-Terrorizing Agent of Zoonotic Origin

Iquo A. Archibong, Mfonabasi U. Inyang, Emmanuel Okon, Idongesit A. Victor- September 2020 Page No.: 324-338

Ebola virus disease remains one of the most deadly epidemic viral disease in humans, characterized by severe hemorrhagic fever, caused by Ebola viruses – an aggressive viral pathogen of a zoonotic origin. A robust immune response against pathogens requires a coordinated-synergistic activities of both innate and adaptive immunological response. However, Ebola virus attacks immune cells to compromise both innate and adaptive immunological responses against their cytopathic induction by adopting myriads of biochemical mechanisms. Ebola virus infection is mediated following viral attachment, receptor-mediated (co-receptor binding) endocytosis and macropinocytosis fusion mechanisms to invade its host cells and subsequently attacking the innate immune response cells (monocyte, macrophages, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, neurophiles, basophils and eosinophils) and the adaptive immune response cells (CD8 T-cells, CD4 T-cells, B-cells, regulatory T-cells, natural killer T-cells) to evade the immunological response of the host cell. Immuno-evasion and cellular disruption of both immune cells and non-immune cells/tissues remain one of the major hallmarks of Ebola virus infection. The biochemical mechanisms of Ebola virus disease involves rapid viral genomic integration/expression and viremic dissemination of the viral pathogen to other distant cells/tissues; induction of apoptotic signals in both healthy bystander immune cells and non-immune cells/tissues; deregulation in inflammatory response and intravascular coagulation leading to multi-cells/tissue/organs toxicities and eventually death if supportive measures are not adequate to repair and rejuvenate the Ebola virus induced disarray to its host. This review work elucidates the mechanisms of Ebola virus immuno-evasion and cellular dysfunction, geared towards providing an insightful paradigm that can be utilized to combat Ebola virus bio-terrorizing nature.

Page(s): 324-338                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 October 2020

 Iquo A. Archibong
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Calabar, Nigeria.

  Mfonabasi U. Inyang
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

  Emmanuel Okon
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Calabar, Nigeria.

  Idongesit A. Victor
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

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Iquo A. Archibong, Mfonabasi U. Inyang, Emmanuel Okon, Idongesit A. Victor “Ebola Virus Immuno-Evasion and Cellular Dysfunctional Mechanics: A Bio-Terrorizing Agent of Zoonotic Origin” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.324-338 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/324-338.pdf

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A Double-hurdle Model Estimation of Smallholder Commercial Farmers’ Willingness to Adopt Crop Insurance in Zimbabwe: A Case of Mazowe district

Raynold Runganga, Clever Mumbengegwi – September 2020 Page No.: 339-349

As a result of frequent climatic hazards, crop insurance has become an effective risk mitigating tool in agriculture, ease immediate financial pressure of a poor harvest and prevent poor smallholder commercial farmers from getting poorer. This study examined the determinants of crop insurance adoption by Smallholder Commercial Farmers using farm-level data from Mazowe district in Mashonaland Central Province of Zimbabwe. Based on three wards which were selected purposively, 165 farmers were randomly selected and interviewed using self-administered questionnaires. The double hurdle model was employed, based on 150 farmers who reported to be growing similar crops, which are maize, tobacco and soya-bean. Econometric results of the double-hurdle model revealed that income, subsidies, knowledge on crop insurance,, perception on risk, farm size, farming experience and education positively influence crop insurance adoption and extent of adoption by smallholder commercial farmers. On the other hand, the results also reveal that age negatively influence the adoption and extent of adoption of crop insurance. Thus, policy interventions that aim to increase crop insurance adoption by farmers such as involuntary insurance coverage for farmers that receive inputs on credit from the government are required. Furthermore, insurance scheme providers and agricultural extension agents should add more effort in undertaking awareness campaigns and education about the benefits of crop insurance and assist farmers on any aspect of crop insurance.

Page(s): 339-349                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 October 2020

 Raynold Runganga
Department of Economics, University of Zimbabwe, Mt Pleasant. Harare, Zimbabwe

 Clever Mumbengegwi
Department of Economics, University of Zimbabwe, Mt Pleasant. Harare, Zimbabwe

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Raynold Runganga, Clever Mumbengegwi “A Double-hurdle Model Estimation of Smallholder Commercial Farmers’ Willingness to Adopt Crop Insurance in Zimbabwe: A Case of Mazowe district” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.339-349 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/339-349.pdf

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Use of Information, Education and Communication (IEC)-Based Materials: An Effective Teaching-Learning Strategy in Nutrition Education

Halliday, Tochukwu Agnes – September 2020 Page No.: 350-354

Human health depends on what is eaten or not eaten, Nutrition is key in developing and maintaining optimal health, hence the necessity for nutrition education. This is because a nutritionally educated person is an asset to himself and to others around. To achieve the aim and objectives of nutrition education, appropriate materials and approaches should be employed for a successful teaching-learning process. Studies have recognized information, education and communication (IEC) as one of the practicable and effective approaches that can be used in addressing a wide range of health-related issues. This paper, therefore, discusses use of IEC-based material as an effective-learning strategy in nutrition education in a community setting.

Page(s): 350-354                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 October 2020

  Halliday, Tochukwu Agnes
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Halliday, Tochukwu Agnes “Use of Information, Education and Communication (IEC)-Based Materials: An Effective Teaching-Learning Strategy in Nutrition Education” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.350-354 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/350-354.pdf

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Gender Gap and Credit Use in Smallholder Agriculture in Nigeria

Olorunfemi Oladapo OGUNDELE, Muslihah Adepeju BADMUS – September 2020 Page No.: 355-362

This study engaged National Bureau of Statistics 2015 Generalised Household wave 3 data was to examine the determinants of gender gap on credit access and loan size using Heckman two-stage selection model and the work was supported by African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) Results of the analysis confirmed the existence of gender gap of 6 per cent in credit access in favour of male headed households and a significant gender gap of 529,000 Naira in average loan size. The coefficient of gender in the estimated Heckman model (0.696) indicated a gender gap biased against female headed households. Some measures of human capital like literacy rate, formal education and post primary education as well as measure of wealth such as ownership of livestock were significantly biased against female-headed households and these seriously constraints their access to and use of credit.

Page(s): 355-362                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 October 2020

 Olorunfemi Oladapo OGUNDELE
Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), Nigeria

  Muslihah Adepeju BADMUS
National Institute of Horticultural Research, Ibadan-Nigeria

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Olorunfemi Oladapo OGUNDELE, Muslihah Adepeju BADMUS “Gender Gap and Credit Use in Smallholder Agriculture in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.355-362 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/355-362.pdf

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Situation Analysis of Employee Relations and Employee Commitment in the Nigerian Brewery Industry

Christiana B. Nsien, Ph.D, Michael B. Effiom, Victor A. Umoh Ph.D- September 2020 Page No.: 363-368

This study investigated current situation of employee relations and employee commitment in the Nigerian Brewery Industry using two firms. These were Intafact Beverages Limited – (SABMiller) Onitsha, representing South East and Champion Brewery plc, Uyo representing South South. The study was a survey and made use of questionnaire in obtaining data from middle and senior staff of these firms. The population of study was 106; a census study was conducted. The survey achieved 77% response rate. The analysis of data was done with descriptive and inferential statistics. The former used percentage method while the latter used multiple regression. The test of hypotheses in the study indicated that employee relations variables of conflict resolution, employee empowerment, employee compensation and employee voice significantly determined employee commitment in the Nigerian Brewery Industry. The model summary reported an adjusted R2 of 78.9%. It was recommended that breweries in Nigeria improve upon resolving conflicts in the area of doing that promptly and the approach followed; that breweries empower their employees to have some level of control over their work, deploy delegation of responsibility and encourage employee participation indecision making; that breweries improve upon compensation package offered their employees to make it motivating and so induce their commitment and that breweries recognize employees’ position on issues, incorporate their suggestions into operations management and generally improve upon its communication with employees.

Page(s): 363-368                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 October 2020

 Christiana B. Nsien, Ph.D
Department of Business Education, College of Education, Afaha Nsit, Nigeria

  Michael B. Effiom
Department of Business Management, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

 Victor A. Umoh Ph.D
Department of Business Management, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

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Christiana B. Nsien, Ph.D, Michael B. Effiom, Victor A. Umoh Ph.D “Situation Analysis of Employee Relations and Employee Commitment in the Nigerian Brewery Industry” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.363-368 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/363-368.pdf

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Financial development and Economic performance in Sub Saharan African Nations

Nura Sani Yahaya, Hassan Abdullahi, Hafsat Garba Abdullahi and Gambo Zakari- September 2020 Page No.: 369-372

This study examines the link among financial progress, energy consumption, FDI, trade and economic performance in 8 selected economies of Sub Saharan African nations (SSA) from 2000 – 2014 using FMOLS technique. The outcome from the cointegration test confirm the long run linkage among the variables. The estimates reveal that financial progress, energy utilization, FDI are positively related with economic performance, while trade openness decelerates on economic progress. However, trade balance is not significant in explaining the variation in GDP in the selected SSA nations. The study suggests that policymakers should formulate advanced financial reform policies for more effective economic growth performance and development in these nations through enhancing credit allocation especially to the rural settings. It is also need for stakeholders to emphasize on the enlightenment campaigns on the proper management of credit for viable investment.

Page(s): 369-372                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 October 2020

  Nura Sani Yahaya
Kano State College of Education and Preliminary studies, Nigeria

  Hassan Abdullahi
RMK College of advanced and remedial studies, Tudun Wada. Kano state, Nigeria

  Hafsat Garba Abdullahi
RMK College of advanced and remedial studies, Tudun Wada. Kano state, Nigeria

  Gambo Zakari
Kano State College of Education and Preliminary studies, Nigeria

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Nura Sani Yahaya, Hassan Abdullahi, Hafsat Garba Abdullahi and Gambo Zakari, “Financial development and Economic performance in Sub Saharan African Nations” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.369-372 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/369-372.pdf

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Human Resources Management: Diversity and Inclusion

Onyekachi Kingsley Ezeugwu, Charity Nonyelum Edeh, Emmanuel Emeka Obiapuna- September 2020 Page No.: 373-375

Human Resources Management as an organizational function play an important role in managing diversity through it proactive policy in reducing inequalities as well as to attract, develop, retain and motivate diverse workforces. Achieving Diversity alone is not sufficient to achieving organizational commitment by employees, inclusion is needed. This study is poised to highlight the role of diversity-inclusion interface towards the achievement of efficient organizational culture, increasing and improving the productivity of the workforce. While adopting a methodology of content analysis of previous studies, the present study shows that effective diversity and inclusion management through good HR practices and procedures leads to positive outcomes. Ineffective diversity and inclusion management in HR is most likely to result in conflict, demotivation, higher employee turnover and low organizational performance. The study recommends that workplace diversity and inclusion should be at the top of mind of employers these days and will only grow in importance as companies continue to invest in their diversity and inclusion programmes.

Page(s): 373-375                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 October 2020

 Onyekachi Kingsley Ezeugwu
Department of Management, ESUT Business School, Enugu State University of Science and Technology Enugu, Nigeria

  Charity Nonyelum Edeh
Department of Economics, Enugu State University of Science & Technology Agbani, Enugu, Nigeria

 Emmanuel Emeka Obiapuna
Department of Economics, Enugu State University of Science & Technology Agbani, Enugu, Nigeria

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[4] Deloitte, Engaging the 21st Century Workforce, 2016
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[6] HRDQ, (2014). How to Improve Cultural Competency in the Workplace. Pennsylvania, https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-introductiontobusiness/?s= Diversity in Human Resources
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[8] Mondal, S. (2020). Diversity And Inclusion: A Complete Guide For HR Professionals. https://ideal.com/diversity-and-inclusion/
[9] Myers, V. A. (2011). Moving Diversity Forward, American Bar Association,
[10] National Association of Diversity Officers in Higher Education, (NADOHE) 2018
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[12] Williams, D. A. and Wade-Golden, K. (2013). The Chief Diversity Officer. Stylus Publishing,

Onyekachi Kingsley Ezeugwu, Charity Nonyelum Edeh, Emmanuel Emeka Obiapuna, “Human Resources Management: Diversity and Inclusion” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.373-375 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/373-375.pdf

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Application of Alcl3, Mgcl2, Cacl2, Ca(OH)2 and Caco3 For Stabilizing Erosive Soil of Oraukwu Gully, in Anambra State

Okoye, O.N.N., Onwuka S.U., Onwukeme, V.I., Oli, C.C. and Eboatu, A.N.- September 2020 Page No.: 376-380

Soil erosion is one of the natural disasters that have greatly affected Anambra State; for it has affected the welfare and wellbeing of different communities in the State. This research therefore aims at stabilizing an erosive soil in Oraukwu (a town in Anambra State) with the use of the solutions of some inorganic chemicals such as AlCl3, CaCl2, MgCl2, Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3. Laboratory analyses to determine the percentage of the particle size distribution was carried out; after which 10g and 15g each of the erosive soil sample was applied with 2 mL solution each of the AlCl3, CaCl2, MgCl2, Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3 salt solutions. From the result of their particle size distribution, it was obtained that the erosive soil sample has a high percentage of sandy soil particles compared to the clay and the silt soil particles. After the different masses of the soil sample was stabilized with the use of the salt solutions, it was discovered that MgCl2, AlCl3, CaCl2 gave the highest stabilizing power while Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3 gave the least stabilizing power. This was found out by using a pocket penetrometer. This then means that MgCl2, AlCl3 and CaCl2 will be very useful in stabilizing erosive soil samples when the applied to the soil sample in the right proportion.

Page(s): 376-380                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 October 2020

 Okoye, O.N.N.
Department of Industrial Chemistry, Evangel University, Akaeze, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

  Onwuka S.U.
Department Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

  Onwukeme, V.I.
Department Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

  Oli, C.C.
Department Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

  Eboatu, A.N.
Department Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

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[11] Obiadi, I.I., Nwosu, C.M., Ajaegwu.N.E., Anakwuba, E.K., Onuigbo, N.E., Akpunonu, E.O. and Ezim, O.E., 2011. Gully Erosion in Anambra State, South East Nigeria: Issues and Solution. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2(2), 795-805. Retrieved on 2nd July, 2020, from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281406997_Gully_Erosion_in_Anambra_State_South_East_Nigeria_Issues_and_Solution
[12] Obi, N.I. and Okekeogbu, C.J., 2017. Erosion Problems and Their Impacts in Anamra Stateof Nigeria: (A Case of Nanka Community). International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research, 5(1), 24-37. Retrieved on 2nd July, 2020 from: http://www.eajournals.org/wp-content/uploads/Erosion-Problems-and-Their-Impacts- in-Anambra-State-of-Nigeria-A-Case-Of-Nanka-Community.pdf
[13] Okoye, E.I., Akpan, A.E., Egboka, B.C.E. and Okeke, H.I., 2014. An Assessment of the Influences of Surface and Subsurface Water Level Dynamics in the Development of Gullies in Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria. Earth Interactions, 18: 1-24. DOI: 10.1175/2012EI000488.1
[14] Osadebe, C.C., Abam, T.K.S., Obiora, F.I. and Sani, R.O., 2014. Evaluating the Stability of Gully Walls in Agulu-Nanka-Oko gully erosion complex area of Anambra State, Nigeria, using empirical approach. Advancement in Scientific and Engineering Research, 2(1), 1-9. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331590520
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[17] Oraukwu in Anambra destination guide Nigeria, 2008-2020. Retrieved on 15th, July, 2020, from https://www.tripmondo.com/nigeria/anambra/idemili-south/oraukwu/.

Okoye, O.N.N., Onwuka S.U., Onwukeme, V.I., Oli, C.C. and Eboatu, A.N. “Application of Alcl3, Mgcl2, Cacl2, Ca(OH)2 and Caco3 For Stabilizing Erosive Soil of Oraukwu Gully, in Anambra State” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.376-380 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/376-380.pdf

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Traditional Mechanism of Controlling Violence in Rivers State Nigeria

Obenade Moses and Chinogonum D. Chuku – September 2020 Page No.: 381-386

Every society has in its system a mechanism of controlling violence and or settling conflicts related to violence. This paper focuses on the traditional means and or mechanism of resolving violence related conflicts in Nigeria and Africa, with Rivers State as a case study. Rivers State is one of the thirty-six (36) states of Nigeria. It is a heterogeneous society with diverse ethnic nationalities fused together for political and administrative convenience. However, in terms of controlling violence virtually all the ethnic groups in the state share some similarities in resolving violence related cases. To this extent, therefore, the paper seeks to identify the roles of traditional rulers in controlling violence; it examines the effectiveness of the traditional means in the past in relation to the present judicial system. In view of this, the paper highlights the significance of the traditional means of controlling violence in Nigeria. This study examines the extent to which colonial and external influence has impacted on the traditional means of controlling crime. The paper is purely qualitative in nature and therefore relies more on secondary data sources. The findings of this study reveal that before colonial administration in Nigeria, the traditional means of controlling violence was very effective. The study recommends that traditional rulers should ensure that their traditional institutions should be a synergy between the traditional judicial system and the modern judicial system. This synergy would help to ensure effective crime control in Rivers State and indeed Nigeria.

Page(s): 381-386                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 October 2020

 Obenade Moses
National Centre for Technology Management (Federal Ministry of Science & Technology), South-South Office, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

 Chinogonum D. Chuku
Capitain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

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Obenade Moses and Chinogonum D. Chuku “Traditional Mechanism of Controlling Violence in Rivers State Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.381-386 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/381-386.pdf

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Determination of the Factors Affecting Plastic Waste Generation in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria

Onyebueke, Ogechukwu O., Onwuka, Shalom U., Okoye, Okechukwu N.N. – September 2020 Page No.: 387-392

Sequel to the fact that plastic wastes exist virtually everywhere in Enugu Metropolis, this study was carried out to determine the factors affecting plastic wastes generation in the area. The study was carried out in the three Local Government Areas that make up Enugu Metropolis which include Enugu North L.G.A, Enugu South L.G.A, and Enugu East L.G.A. A total of 400 households were sampled to represent the total population of households in the study area. The data for the study was obtained through the distribution of 126,118 and156 questionnaires to households in Enugu North L.G.A, Enugu South L.G.A, and Enugu East L.G.A respectively. The factors affecting plastic waste generation were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine the principal factors affecting plastic waste generation in the area. Results of the analysis showed that the nature of plastics products, human factors, governmental factors, political factors, as well as the attitude of the citizens, are principal contributory factors to plastic waste generation in the area. These principal factors should be put into consideration in the development of plastic waste management strategies in Enugu Metropolis to ensure the efficiency and effectiveness of these management strategies.

Page(s): 387-392                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 October 2020

 Onyebueke, Ogechukwu O.
Department of Environmental Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

 Onwuka, Shalom U.
Department of Environmental Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

 Okoye, Okechukwu N.N.
Department of Industrial Chemistry, Evangel University, Akaeze, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

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[30] Wardrop, N.A., Dzodzomenyo, M., Aryeetey, G., Hill, A.G., Bain, R.E.S., Wright, J. (2017). Estimation of packaged water consumption and associated plastic waste production from household budget surveys. Environ. Res. Lett. 12(2017) 074029

Onyebueke, Ogechukwu O., Onwuka, Shalom U., Okoye, Okechukwu N.N., “Determination of the Factors Affecting Plastic Waste Generation in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.387-392 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/387-392.pdf

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Simulation of Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Algorithm for Routing Signal in Campus Intranet

Minafa-a Thompson Douglas – September 2020 Page No.: 393-396

Vast usage of Wireless Networks need improvement in capacity and coverage so that user may receive high Quality of Service (QoS), especially for teaching, learning, assessment and administration in Educational setting, hence, efficient Network Routing and Routing Protocol is basically essential. This paper is directed on quantitative and experimental analysis of packet transmission through Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) by routing a message from one node to another within the available nodes in hypothetical Campus Network. Simulation was carried out in MATLAB to demonstrate path determination capability of OSPF algorithm in Campus Intranet Network. Experimental results and analysis showed that Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a suitable algorithm for routing signal by minimizing the delay time, in order to maximize the throughput of data packet.

Page(s): 393-396                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 October 2020

  Minafa-a Thompson Douglas
Ph.D scholar, Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

[1] Adepoju, A. (2018). Path Determination for Effective Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Network using Firefly Algorithm. M.Sc Dissertation: Ajayi Crowther University, Nigeria.
[2] Anupama, K.D (2016). Integrating Firefly Algorithm in Artificial Neural Network models (ANN) for accurate software cost predictions. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process. 28(8), 665-688.
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Minafa-a Thompson Douglas “Simulation of Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Algorithm for Routing Signal in Campus Intranet ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.393-396 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/393-396.pdf

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A Reading of Ngugi WA Thiong’o’s Stand Points on Food Security in Post-Independent Africa: A Case of Petals of blood

Elizabeth Wekesa, Dr. Joseph Musungu- September 2020 Page No.: 397-405

The purpose of this paper is to interrogate Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s stance on food security. This paper iscognizant of the fact that the question of food security has dogged many postcolonial African countries and Kenya in particular. Like other authors, Ngugi uses diverse techniques to create fictional universes that reflect realities in human societies. Ilmorog, is Ngugi’s microcosm. Ngugi paints the beauty and great history of this village before colonialism and neo-colonialism take center stage. The village is going through ravages of drought and resultant famine which are attributed to depletion of natural resources as a consequence of exploitation by capitalist neo-colonialists in league with former colonial masters. The main objectives of this study are to identify causes of food shortage as envisioned in Ngugi’s PetalsofBlood, discuss the ramifications of such shortages and examine possible solutions. The findings will be significant in providing suggestions for enhancing food security. Review of related literature will be done focusing on periodicals that address drought and food shortage that have been prevalent in Kenya. The research will be library based. Data collected will be qualitative. It will be collected by intensive reading of the text in question. The paper will employ Marxist Theory to underscore Ngugi’s stand on food security in post independent Kenya. Being a Marxist, he identifies with the masses. He advocates for collective sacrifice, compromise, complementarity, consciousness and unity of the masses in order oust the selfish bourgeois adversary. For Ngugi, the solution to food shortage is within the reach of the victims of exploitation.
Key words: food security, stand points, post independent

Page(s): 397-405                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 October 2020

  Elizabeth Wekesa
Kibabii University, Kenya

  Dr. Joseph Musungu
Kibabii University, Kenya

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Elizabeth Wekesa, Dr. Joseph Musungu,”A Reading of Ngugi WA Thiong’o’s Stand Points on Food Security in Post-Independent Africa: A Case of Petals of blood” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.397-405 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/397-405.pdf

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Factors Affecting Information Privacy and Protection Behavior on Social Network Sites

Mohamed Khalif Ali, Mohamed Kasim Ali, Khalid Abdukadir Hassan – September 2020 Page No.: 406-418

The purpose of this study is to investigate Factors affecting information privacy and protection behavior on social media, and perceived severity attack on information privacy in social media. With the major objective of the study is to know the level of information privacy protection of the users on social media, protection behavior of the users on social media, andperceived severity attack on information privacy in social media. Our study is Quantitative research and Infinite Population target sampling procedure and selecting 250 respondents students learning universities in Mogadishu-Somalia; with the use online Web survey instruments called KOBOTOOLBOX, Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics analysis. After gathering and analyzing data, the study found that the information privacy and protection behavior has answered all questions related to information privacy. Based on the findings, the researcher suggests first, every organization should give more trainings for employees on how to keep their privacy when they use social networks and how to use ICT application usage. This could reduce losing data. Second, any information available as online such as personal data has become profitable to hackers and risk can accrue any time specially when they use social network.

Page(s): 406-418                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 October 2020

 Mohamed Khalif Ali
Master of Science in Information Technology, Somali International University, Somalia

  Mohamed Kasim Ali
Master of Science in Information and Communication Technology Management, Somali International University, Somalia

  Khalid Abdukadir Hassan
Master of Science in Computer Science and Engineering, Somali International University, Somalia

[1] Bubaš, G., Orehovački, T., & Konecki, M. (2008). Factors and predictors of online security and privacy behavior. Journal of Information and Organizational Sciences, 32(2), 79–98.
[2] Chai, S., Bagchi-Sen, S., Morrell, C., Rao, H. R., & Upadhyaya, S. J. (2009). Internet and online information privacy: An exploratory study of preteens and early teens. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 52(2), 167–182. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPC.2009.2017985
[3] Davies, G., & Brooks, P. (2014). Risk tolerance: Essential, behavioural and misunderstood. Journal of Risk Management in Financial Institutions, 7(2), 110–113.
[4] Engagement, P., & Protection, D. (2018). The Keys to Data Protection. August.
[5] Hall, S., & Anastasides, N. (2012). Avoidance , Escape , and Approach Behavior in Individuals with High Behavioral Inhibition.
[6] Hanna, S. D., Waller, W., & Finke, M. S. (2012). The Concept of Risk Tolerance in Personal Financial Planning. SSRN Electronic Journal, May 2019. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1923409
[7] Hsu, S. F., & Shih, D. H. (2009). The factors influencing individual’s behavior on privacy protection. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, 6(9), 1591–1600.
[8] Inspector ’ s Handbook Safeguarding. (2019). February 2018.
[9] Johani, M. A. L. (2016). Personal Information Disclosure and Privacy in Social Networking Sites.
[10] Klein, R. H. (2016). WHAT INFLUENCES INFORMATION SECURITY BEHAVIOR ? A STUDY WITH BRAZILIAN USERS. 13(3), 479–496. https://doi.org/10.4301/S1807-17752016000300007
[11] Liang, H., & Xue, Y. (2009). Avoidance of information technology threats: A theoretical perspective. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 33(1), 71–90. https://doi.org/10.2307/20650279
[12] Mekovec, R., & Vrček, N. (2011). Factors that influence internet users’ privacy perception. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, ITI, 227–232.
[13] Pinto, S. L. (2018). Privacy and Data Protection: A Study on Awareness and Attitudes of Millennial Consumers on the Internet-An Irish Perspective. National College of Ireland, August, 1–87. https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26source%3Dweb%26rct%3Dj%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Ftrap.ncirl.ie%252F3386%252F1%252Fsalonilerisapinto.pdf%26ved%3D2ahUKEwjx6qKgnsPnAhWhGaYKHdIRABEQFjAFegQIBhAB%26usg%3DAOvVaw0A6kS
[14] Profile, R., Appetite, R., & Tolerance, R. (2009). Risk Profile , Appetite , and Tolerance : Fundamental Concepts in Risk Management and Reinsurance Effectiveness. April.
[15] Protection, C., Protection, C., & Protection, C. (2016). Effective Safeguarding. 9–12.
[16] Smith, H. J. (2014). Information Privacy Research : An Interdisciplinary Review T HEORY AND R EVIEW I NFORMATION P RIVACY R ESEARCH : A N I NTERDISCIPLINARY R EVIEW 1. December 2011. https://doi.org/10.2307/41409970
[17] Smith, J. R., Louis, W. R., & Schultz, P. W. (2011). Introduction : Social influence in action RUNNING HEAD : Social influence in action Social Influence in Action University of Exeter University of Queensland , School of Psychology California State University , San Marcos WORD COUNT : 2544 Address correspo. September. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430211410214
[18] Szuba, T., Force, S. T., & King, S. (n.d.). National Center for Education Statistics National Cooperative Education Statistics System National Forum on.
[19] UNICEF. (2017). Privacy, Protection of Personal Information and Reputation Rights: Children’s Rights and Business in a Digital World. 28. https://www.unicef.org/csr/css/UNICEF_CRB_Digital_World_Series_PRIVACY.pdf
[20] Vatka, M. (2019). INFORMATION BEHAVIOUR and DATA SECURITY Health Belief Model Perspective.
[21] Winkler, S. D. (2016). UKnowledge Protecting Online Privacy.
[22] Bubaš, G., Orehovački, T., & Konecki, M. (2008). Factors and predictors of online security and privacy behavior. Journal of Information and Organizational Sciences, 32(2), 79–98.
[23] Chai, S., Bagchi-Sen, S., Morrell, C., Rao, H. R., & Upadhyaya, S. J. (2009). Internet and online information privacy: An exploratory study of preteens and early teens. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 52(2), 167–182. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPC.2009.2017985
[24] Davies, G., & Brooks, P. (2014). Risk tolerance: Essential, behavioural and misunderstood. Journal of Risk Management in Financial Institutions, 7(2), 110–113.
[25] Engagement, P., & Protection, D. (2018). The Keys to Data Protection. August.
[26] Hall, S., & Anastasides, N. (2012). Avoidance , Escape , and Approach Behavior in Individuals with High Behavioral Inhibition.
[27] Hanna, S. D., Waller, W., & Finke, M. S. (2012). The Concept of Risk Tolerance in Personal Financial Planning. SSRN Electronic Journal, May 2019. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1923409
[28] Hsu, S. F., & Shih, D. H. (2009). The factors influencing individual’s behavior on privacy protection. WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications, 6(9), 1591–1600.
[29] Inspector ’ s Handbook Safeguarding. (2019). February 2018.
[30] Johani, M. A. L. (2016). Personal Information Disclosure and Privacy in Social Networking Sites.
[31] Klein, R. H. (2016). WHAT INFLUENCES INFORMATION SECURITY BEHAVIOR ? A STUDY WITH BRAZILIAN USERS. 13(3), 479–496. https://doi.org/10.4301/S1807-17752016000300007
[32] Liang, H., & Xue, Y. (2009). Avoidance of information technology threats: A theoretical perspective. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 33(1), 71–90. https://doi.org/10.2307/20650279
[33] Mekovec, R., & Vrček, N. (2011). Factors that influence internet users’ privacy perception. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, ITI, 227–232.
[34] Pinto, S. L. (2018). Privacy and Data Protection: A Study on Awareness and Attitudes of Millennial Consumers on the Internet-An Irish Perspective. National College of Ireland, August, 1–87. https://l.facebook.com/l.php?u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26source%3Dweb%26rct%3Dj%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Ftrap.ncirl.ie%252F3386%252F1%252Fsalonilerisapinto.pdf%26ved%3D2ahUKEwjx6qKgnsPnAhWhGaYKHdIRABEQFjAFegQIBhAB%26usg%3DAOvVaw0A6kS
[35] Profile, R., Appetite, R., & Tolerance, R. (2009). Risk Profile , Appetite , and Tolerance : Fundamental Concepts in Risk Management and Reinsurance Effectiveness. April.
[36] Protection, C., Protection, C., & Protection, C. (2016). Effective Safeguarding. 9–12.
[37] Smith, H. J. (2014). Information Privacy Research : An Interdisciplinary Review T HEORY AND R EVIEW I NFORMATION P RIVACY R ESEARCH : A N I NTERDISCIPLINARY R EVIEW 1. December 2011. https://doi.org/10.2307/41409970
[38] Smith, J. R., Louis, W. R., & Schultz, P. W. (2011). Introduction : Social influence in action RUNNING HEAD : Social influence in action Social Influence in Action University of Exeter University of Queensland , School of Psychology California State University , San Marcos WORD COUNT : 2544 Address correspo. September. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430211410214
[39] Szuba, T., Force, S. T., & King, S. (n.d.). National Center for Education Statistics National Cooperative Education Statistics System National Forum on.
[40] UNICEF. (2017). Privacy, Protection of Personal Information and Reputation Rights: Children’s Rights and Business in a Digital World. 28. https://www.unicef.org/csr/css/UNICEF_CRB_Digital_World_Series_PRIVACY.pdf
[41] Vatka, M. (2019). INFORMATION BEHAVIOUR and DATA SECURITY Health Belief Model Perspective.
[42] Winkler, S. D. (2016). UKnowledge Protecting Online Privacy.

Mohamed Khalif Ali, Mohamed Kasim Ali, Khalid Abdukadir Hassan “Factors Affecting Information Privacy and Protection Behavior on Social Network Sites” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 9, pp.406-418 September 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-9/406-418.pdf

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