Volume VII Issue VI

Will Newsrooms Continue to Be Relevant? Reflections on the Practices of Journalism in Kenya during Covid-19 Crisis

Abdullahi Abdi Sheikh – June 2020 Page No.: 01-05

Journalists were quick to adopt to the new world order imposed by the Corona Virus crisis in 2019-2020, and resorted to use of technology, and working from home. While the technology has always been improving, and it was available to journalist, and while journalists and media managers in Kenya considered the fact that the world was moving to technology and they devised new ways of reaching their audiences on digital platforms, there is very little evidence that they were willing to improve the way they work with technology and continued to cramp in newsrooms. The Covid-19 crisis has therefore, woken them to the reality of the importance of technology and working from home, which has made newsrooms completely irrelevant, as journalists easily worked from the comfort of their homes, came up live for radio and TV from anywhere and exchanged material with colleague and editors without physical contact. This paper looks at the future of journalism in the wake of Covid-19, and technology explosion, in comparison with traditional media, it examines the literature surrounding use of available technology and seeks to identify challenges to switching to digital in Kenya

Page(s): 01-05                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 June 2020

 Abdullahi Abdi Sheikh
Department of Communication, Moi University, and director of BVI-media, Kenya

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Abdullahi Abdi Sheikh “Will Newsrooms Continue to Be Relevant? Reflections on the Practices of Journalism in Kenya during Covid-19 Crisis” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.01-05 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/01-05.pdf

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Rapid Detection of Tuberculosis using Urine Samples: Development & Validation of ELISA Technique
Amrita Masanta, K. Gopinath Achary, Shikha Singh – June 2020 – Page No.: 06-15

Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and its early detection can be possible only when an individual permits itself for early diagnosis. In the recent study, the serum elevated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen was settled for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection employing serological tests. The mycobacterial proteins was identified based on indirect ELISA including high sensitivity of 0.1 mg and the protein ranging from 20 kDa to 150 kDa exhibit immunoreactivity in western blotting applying TB serum. Correlation coefficient among various phases of infected urine samples assemble from different regions of Odisha with the titres of Ab was seized as the primary end point for the regularity of protocol. (Maximal correlation r = 0.999) was detected in phase III infected urine sample assemble from Mayurbhanj, whereas minimal low correlation along with TB serum (r = 0.703) was marked in phase I infected urine sample assemble from Balasore. (Linear positive correlations R2) present within antigenic proteins at all the phases with TB serum. Henceforth, the TB serum could be used for the early detection of TB. This immuno serological accesses us to design a robust, highly sensitive & specific with accuracy diagnostic kit for initial detection of tuberculosis infection.

Page(s): 06-15                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 June 2020

 Amrita Masanta
Centre for Biotechnology, Siksha O Anusandhan (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

 K. Gopinath Achary
Imgenex India Pvt. Ltd, E-5 Infocity, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

 Shikha Singh
Rama Devi Women’s University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 751022, India

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[2]. Palomino, J. C., Martin, A., Camacho, M., Guerra, H., Swings, J., & Portaels, F. (2002). Resazurin microtiter assay plate: simple and inexpensive method for detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 46(8), 2720-2722.
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Amrita Masanta, K. Gopinath Achary, Shikha Singh “Rapid Detection of Tuberculosis using Urine Samples: Development & Validation of ELISA Technique” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.06-15 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/06-15.pdf

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Vegetative Composition Survey of Yaba College of Technology, Epe Campus, Lagos, South-Western, Nigeria
Rosulu, H. O., Hassan, T. I., Areo, O. E., Ginikanwa, M., Akpan, I. E. – June 2020 – Page No.: 16-24

A survey was conducted on 54 ha of land in 2017at Yaba College of Technology, Odoragushin, Epe Campus, Lagos, Western Nigeria for their vegetative composition. The land was before now used for arable cropping and abandoned to fallow for more than a decade. The fallow land was sub-divided into 16 different transects run with a base line, each measuring 100m x 100m. Collection of data was done using belt method for plant taxonomy (forms), ecological status, habitat, species frequency/diversity and ethno-botanical values. Altogether, 83 plants represented by 45 families were encountered with 82 different medicinal plants, shrubs being the highest with 22 species, while epiphyte, fern and palm had specie. For taxonomy and frequency distribution of plant families, Euphorbiaceae and Poaceae had the highest number of plant species occurrence of 6 each while Caealpiniondeae and Mimosoideae had 4 occurences. On the basis of life forms, plants were classified into shrubs, herbs, trees, climbers, palms, fern and epiphyte with shrub having the highest relative density of 36.14% with palm, epiphyte and fern respectively having the lowest relative density of 1.20%. Product collected from these plants have varying uses categorized as edible leafy vegetables, non-edible leaves, flowers, chew stick, firewood and timber as well as medicinal uses, such as treatment of pile, gonorrhoea, malaria and curing infertility problems. It is hereby recommended that conservation efforts should be undertaken through the establishment of botanical gardens, sanctuaries, rare breed centres, gene banks and on-site gene banks as well as equipped herbarium.

Page(s): 16-24                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2020

 Rosulu, H. O.
Department of Agricultural Technology, Yaba College of Technology, Nigeria

 Hassan, T. I.
Department of Agricultural Technology, Yaba College of Technology, Nigeria

 Areo, O. E.
Department of Agricultural Technology, Yaba College of Technology, Nigeria

 Ginikanwa, M.
Department of Agricultural Technology, Yaba College of Technology, Nigeria

 Akpan, I. E.
Department of Agricultural Technology, Yaba College of Technology, Nigeria

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[5]. Oni, P. I. (2010). Ethno Botanical Plant Diversity in North Western Nigeria, Journal of Medicinal Plants research. Vol. 4(7), 509-518
[6]. Sofowora, A. (1981). Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. John Wiley and Sons,Chichester, New York Brisbane, Toronto and Singapore.pp 289.
[7]. Ugbogu, O. A. and Odewu, P. (2004). Some Medicinal plants in the Traditional Medicine of Nigeria. J. Res. Management. 1(1&2), 29-37.

Rosulu, H. O., Hassan, T. I., Areo, O. E., Ginikanwa, M., Akpan, I. E. “Vegetative Composition Survey of Yaba College of Technology, Epe Campus, Lagos, South-Western, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp. 16-24 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/16-24.pdf

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Factors That Influence the Institutional Excellence in the Government Sector in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi

Sami Nizar Khasawneh, Humam Bin Mohamed, Maged Mustafa Al-Dubai – June 2020 Page No.: 25-26

This study investigates the factors that significantly affect The Institutional Excellence in Government Sector in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The importance of this study is that the subject of institutional excellence is one of the most important and contemporary topics in the life cycle of institutions, for its effective role in improving and developing its outputs and excellence in the service of its customers. The objective of this study is to recognize the impact of the Human Capital and the Talent Management on achieving the Institutional Excellence for institutions in the government sector of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The study used the descriptive analytical approach for analyzing such studies to describe and evaluate the relationship between variables. Random sampling method was adopted for the purpose of drawing the sample; the total sample was 455 employees from all the institutions. This study used the Likert scale of five-points, an electronic questionnaire was constructed for gathering the required data, and for analyzing data collected SPSS software was used.

Page(s): 25-26                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2020

  Sami Nizar Khasawneh
Al-Madinah International University Malaysia/Faculty of Finance & Admin. Science

  Humam Bin Mohamed
Al-Madinah International University Malaysia/Faculty of Finance & Admin. Science

  Maged Mustafa Al-Dubai
Al-Madinah International University Malaysia/Faculty of Finance & Admin. Science

[1]. Abdul Wahab, Mahmoud Osama, 2016, Administrative Transparency and its Impact on Organizational Excellence: A Field Study on Mostansiriya University, Mostansiriya Journal of Arab and International Studies, Issue 53, pp. 128-164.
[2]. Kotler, Philip, Keller, Kevin lane, 2015, Marketing Management, 15th Edition, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA.
[3]. Rahimh, Melody, 2015, Human Capital is one of the Key Pillars of Knowledge Management Application: A Case Study of the Grand Mills Corporation of the South, GMsud, Omach, Biskra, Unpublished Master Thesis, Mohammed Khaydar University, Biskra, Algeria.
[4]. Armstrong, Michael, 2017, A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 14th Edition, Kogan Page publishers, London, United Kingdome.
[5]. Vnoučková, Lucie, Urbancová, Hana, 2015, Employee turnover and knowledge management in the Czech republic, Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp. 313-325.
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[9]. Al-Abdeen, Nazik Abdel Azim Zain, 2016, The Impact Of Application Of The Workers Criteria In The EFQM Excellence Model To Improve The Performance A case Study Of Sudan Mint Company Ltd, 2011-2014, Unpublished Master Thesis, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.
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Sami Nizar Khasawneh, Humam Bin Mohamed, Maged Mustafa Al-Dubai “Factors That Influence the Institutional Excellence in the Government Sector in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.25-26 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/25-26.pdf

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Biodegradable Cutleries and Tableware as Substitute for Plastic: An Exploratory Study on Green Solutions
Moneswari Boro, Rajkumari Jaya Devi, Prof. L.S. Sharma – June 2020 – Page No.: 27-29

Indian food has the most varied flavours in the world as there is no homogeneity of flavor found in North and South or East and West. But when the time comes to serve the food, a variety of plastic wares are used, which has become a major concern to the environment. A number of food and beverage outlets are available now a days, whether it’s located on roadside or restaurants etc. Street food vendors, food and beverage outlets in different hotels, restaurants and catering units generally prefer disposal plastic cutleries and tableware also known as “single – use plastic” which are used once and then thrown away. The most common reason behind the use of disposal plastic items is to save time from cleaning the utensils. So plastic items have become one of the fastest growing problems for the environment. The study tries to understand the concept of biodegradable cutleries and tableware and its relevance to the environment sustainability. This research paper is exploratory in nature with evidence based on secondary data. The study intended to examine the various types of biodegradable cutleries and tableware that can replace the single use plastics. The conclusion made in the study will bring insight about the advantages and how it is eco-friendly.

Page(s): 27-29                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 June 2020

  Moneswari Boro
Research Scholar, Department of Management, Mizoram University, Aizawl, Mizoram, India

  Rajkumari Jaya Devi
Research Scholar, Department of Management, Mizoram University, Aizawl, Mizoram, India

  Prof. L.S. Sharma
Professor Department of Management, Mizoram University, Aizawl, Mizoram, India

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[5]. Munir, S. (2016, March). Edible Cutlery: The Future of Eco Friendly Utensils. Retrieved July 9, 2018, from Kickstarter: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1240116767/edible-cutlery-the-future-of-eco-friendly-utensils
[6]. Parker, L. (2018, May 16). Fast Facts About Plastic Pollution. Retrieved July 10, 2018, from National Geographic: https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/05/plastics-facts-infographics-ocean-pollution/
[7]. Patil, H. N., & Sinhal, P. A Study on Edible Cutlery: An Alternative for Conventional Ones.
[8]. Rashid, M. (2019). Edible cutleries as sustainable substitute for plastic cutleries (Doctoral dissertation, Brac University).
[9]. Razza, F., Fieschi, M., Degli Innocenti, F., & Bastioli, C. (2009). Compostable cutlery and waste management: An LCA approach. Waste management, 29(4), 1424-1433.
[10]. Razza, F., Fieschi, M., Degli Innocenti, F., & Bastioli, C. (2009). Compostable cutlery and waste management: An LCA approach. Waste management, 29(4), 1424-1433.
[11]. Reddy, B. D. (2016, June 22). Bakeys: You can use and eat this innovative cutlery. Retrieved from Business Standard: https://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/bakeys-you-can-use-and-eat-this-innovative-cutlery-116062200024_1.html
[12]. The Business Reaserch Company. (2018, April). Plastics and Polymers Global Market Briefing 2018. Retrieved from the Business Reaserch Company: https://www.thebusinessresearchcompany.com/report/plastics-and-polymers-global-market-briefing-2018
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Moneswari Boro, Rajkumari Jaya Devi, Prof. L.S. Sharma “Biodegradable Cutleries and Tableware as Substitute for Plastic: An Exploratory Study on Green Solutions” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.27-29 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/27-29.pdf

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Effective Concept and Components of 4ps Marketing Information System
Khaing Thazin Nwe, Lwin Sandar Soe, Thet Thet Aung- June 2020 – Page No.: 30-33

Today, the changing service environment is considered as a key factor in effective marketing. Effective operations are obvious, but not enough for success to design service products based on customer needs, and planning. It is very important to have proper distribution and active introduction to customers. Marketing mix or mixed marketing or marketing tools and marketing strategies are words used to translate marketing mix. The main purpose of this research is to study marketing mix. This is especially the case with products and services. Location: It is a 4 saver with 4 prices and 4 promotions. These 4 ‘P are called as elements of the market and together they form the marketing mix. Marketing Components – Products market, Location and promotion are used for marketing purposes. The rank of each element be influenced by not only on the company but on its activities, It also depends on competition and timing. Some items are more important than others. It be determined by largely on the company’s plan and its actions. All of these things are interconnected. Because one region’s decisions are effective in another. Marketing mix is a clear tool for effective marketing strategy and its implementation through effective strategies. The combination helps determine which marketing strategy is right for the organization. It can be used by marketers to assist in the development of a marketing strategy.

Page(s): 30-33                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 June 2020

 Khaing Thazin Nwe
Information Technology Supporting and Maintenance, University of Computer Studies, Hinthada, Myanmar

 Lwin Sandar Soe
Information Technology Supporting and Maintenance, University of Computer Studies, Hinthada, Myanmar

 Thet Thet Aung
Information Technology Supporting and Maintenance, University of Computer Studies, Hinthada, Myanmar

[1]. Bahman Saeidi Pour, Kamran Nazari and Mostafa Emami, “The effect of marketing mix in attracting customers: Case study of Saderat Bank in Kermanshah Province ”, Department of Educational, Payam Noor University, Iran, African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 7(34), pp. 3272-3280, 14 September, 2013.
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[8]. https://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2013/01/4-main-components-of-marketing.html

Khaing Thazin Nwe, Lwin Sandar Soe, Thet Thet Aung “Effective Concept and Components of 4ps Marketing Information System” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.30-33 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/30-33.pdf

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Impact of Integrating Information and Communication Technology into Teaching of Cellular Respiration at the Colleges of Education

Richard Koranteng Akpanglo-Nartey, Judith Kafui Kemetse & Samuel Agyekum Darkwa – June 2020 Page No.: 34-40

This study investigated the effectiveness of integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into the teaching and the traditional approach of teaching cellular respiration at the Colleges of Education. Two intact science classes were randomly selected from the two Colleges of Education in the Central region of Ghana who offers the general science programme. The pretest-posttest non-equivalent group quasi-experimental design was used. The students in the experimental group learned cellular respiration using an ICT rich environment, whereas the students in the control group were taught the same cellular respiration using the traditional approach. The results indicated that students taught with the integration of ICT outperformed their counterparts taught with the traditional approach. It was also found that students in the experimental group had positive perceptions of using ICT in teaching and learning. It was recommended that tutors at the Colleges of Education should integrate ICT into their teaching.

Page(s): 34-40                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 June 2020

 Richard Koranteng Akpanglo-Nartey
Department of Science, Mount Mary College of Education, P. O. Box 19, Somanya, Ghana

 Judith Kafui Kemetse
Department of Science, E. P. College of Education, P. O. Box AM 12, Amedzofe, Ghana

 Samuel Agyekum Darkwa
Department of Science, Mount Mary College of Education, P. O. Box 19, Somanya, Ghana

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Richard Koranteng Akpanglo-Nartey, Judith Kafui Kemetse & Samuel Agyekum Darkwa “Impact of Integrating Information and Communication Technology into Teaching of Cellular Respiration at the Colleges of Education” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.34-40 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/34-40.pdf

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Analytical Method for Comparison of Suitable Wet Digestion Methods for Heavy Metal Analysis in Soil around a Cement Industry

Adedeji S. Asher, Kakulu E. Samuel, Dauda S. Mary – June 2020 Page No.: 41-47

The approach of determination of precision and use of statistical analysis was applied in order to determine the suitable acid mixture for digestion of soil sample for heavy metal analysis in this work. Four different acid mixtures (HNO3 (60%v/v), HNO3:H2SO4 (2:9), HNO3/HCl (1:3), HNO3/HCl/H2SO4 (5:1:1),  were compared over nine selected heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, Co and Cu), and soil near a cement factory were analyzed . The precision for each of the metal  in each of the acid mixture, the recovery  and analysis of variance were applied to determined the most suitable acid mixture for digestion. From  the results it was deduced that the t-calculated for 6 metals  (Cd (0.577), Co (1.165),  Mn (0.380), Cu (0.545),  Ni (1.449) and Zn (1.424) (Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn) were not significantly different for methods HCl:HNO3 (3:1) and HNO3:HCl:H2SO4 (5:1:1),  except for Fe, Cr and Pb with significant difference. he heavy metal precision results, shows that method  HNO3:HCl:H2SO4 (5:1:1) , had 7 metals with higher precisions which includes Fe and Cr, while  HCl:HNO3 (3:1)  had 5 metals with higher precision but does not include Fe and Cr. The statistical analysis revealed that method  HNO3:HCl:H2SO4 (5:1:1) was the most efficient digestion method for the soil heavy metal analysis as it had given a significant high recovery (p < 0.05) for most of the metals under review. Accuracy of the acid mixture selected (HNO3:HCl:H2SO4 (5:1:1)) was evaluated by the analysis of experimental reference material (ERM CC-141) loam soil obtained from the European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Belgium. The ERM analysis presented good recoveries for most of the metals ranging from 86.4 to 111.0 %.  The determined concentrations were in good agreement with the certified values from the ERM CC-141.

Page(s): 41-47                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 June 2020

 Adedeji S. Asher
Chemistry Unit, Mathematics Programme, National Mathematical Centre, P. M. B. 118, Abuja, Nigeria

 Kakulu E. Samuel
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Applied and Natural Sciences, University of Abuja, P. M. B. 117, Abuja, Nigeria

 Dauda S. Mary
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Applied and Natural Sciences, University of Abuja, P. M. B. 117, Abuja, Nigeria

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Adedeji S. Asher, Kakulu E. Samuel, Dauda S. Mary “Analytical Method for Comparison of Suitable Wet Digestion Methods for Heavy Metal Analysis in Soil around a Cement Industry” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.41-47 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/41-47.pdf

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Climate Change and Performance of the Agricultural Sector in Nigeria: A Disaggregated Approach
Ibeinmo Friday Cookey, Donny Sigah Ayibazuomuno – June 2020 – Page No.: 48-57

The paper investigated the effect of climate change on agricultural sector performance in Nigeria between 1981 and 2018. Agricultural sector output was disaggregated into crop, livestock, forestry, and fishery. The selected climate change variables are temperature, rainfall, and greenhouse gas emission. Data were collected from the CBN Statistical Bulletin and the Climate Change Knowledge Portal published by the World Bank. The pre-estimation (unit root and bond co integration) tests revealed the time series are integrated of order 0 and 1 and that a long run relationship only exists among the selected variables in the crop and fishery output models. The study found out that, while temperature had negative impact on crop and fishery production, it had positive results on livestock and forestry production. Secondly, while rainfall had positive results on crop and fishery production, it was found to have negative impact on livestock output. Food security is threatened by climate change in Nigeria. Hence, ministries and agencies of the government must work to achieve some remarkable feat in reduction of climate change in Nigeria. Specifically, government active participation in the crusade to save the environment by policies formulation and affirmative action by supporting agencies like Nigeria Meteorological Agencies, NEMA, and National Orientation agency in their drive for safer environment is highly recommended.

Page(s): 48-57                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 June 2020

 Ibeinmo Friday Cookey
Department of Economics. Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, University of Africa, Toru- Orua, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

 Donny Sigah Ayibazuomuno
Department of Economics. Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, University of Africa, Toru- Orua, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

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Ibeinmo Friday Cookey, Donny Sigah Ayibazuomuno “Climate Change and Performance of the Agricultural Sector in Nigeria: A Disaggregated Approach” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.48-57 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/48-57.pdf

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Fusion of CNN and LBP-HOG Features for Face Detection

Gopika G Das – June 2020 Page No.: 58-59

Face recognition is widely used in security based applications. Even mobile phones and other such gadgets consider face as one of the most secure biometric application. It is necessary that the biometric authentication system needs to prevent sophisticated spoofing challenges. Advantages of deep learning, LBP-HOG and convolutional neural network are used in spoof detection.

Page(s): 58-59                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 June 2020

 Gopika G Das
Department of Computer Applications, Sree Narayana Guru Institute of Science and Technology, Manjali, N.Paravur, Ernakulam, Kerala, India

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Gopika G Das, “Fusion of CNN and LBP-HOG Features for Face Detection” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.58-59 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/58-59.pdf

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Recreational Aspects of Open Green Spaces in Neighbourhood
Ar. Anju Ahirwal – June 2020 – Page No.: 60-67

Open green space in neighbourhood primarily meant for recreation. Recreation is always been an integral part of human life for being physically and mentally fit. Quantity and quality of open spaces, parks in particular, provide opportunities for recreation and social interactions that provide quality of life to residents. Due to lack of quality standards for open space, park potentials in terms of recreation are not being utilized properly. This paper aims to understand the recreational aspect of open green space and their contribution in recreational needs in neighbourhood. Recreational aspects of the park can be understood by investigating park quality and user experience, here park quality assessment based on quality for neighbourhood park criteria (QNPC). The study focuses on green open space in a planned residential area in Faridabad an industrial town in NCR region. The Methodology follows a qualitative approach; field observation and interviews of park users Result reveal that without quality, the quantity of parks did not satisfy user’s recreational experience. Findings also act as a performance indicator of existing parks and provide guidelines for further work of the urban local bodies on green open spaces in a residential area.

Page(s): 60-67                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 June 2020

 Ar. Anju Ahirwal
Associate Professor, School of Architecture, Noida International University, Gautam Budh Nagar, U.P., India

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Ar. Anju Ahirwal “Recreational Aspects of Open Green Spaces in Neighbourhood” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp. 60-67 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/60-67.pdf

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B-Mode ocular ultrasound: The Aba Experience

Eweputanna LI, Otuka OAI, Eweputanna CC, Madubueze GA, Kalu A., Dr Lisa Eweputanna – June 2020 Page No.: 68-72


B-Mode ocular ultrasound is of great value to the surgeon in pre- operative assessment of posterior structures of the eye in patients with opaque media.


This study reviewed the ocularB- mode findings in patients in Aba. It provides a baseline data for further studies.


One hundred and twenty patients were referred from the Ophthalmology Unit of Abia State University Teaching Hospital and evaluated with B– mode ocular ultrasound at the Radiology department ABSUTH and Todac clinic over a period of 2years.With patients in a supine position, coupling gel was applied on the closed eyelids and both eyes were evaluated by a Radiologist with high frequency (7.5-12.0 MHz) linear probe on a Sonoscape S-30 ultrasound machine in the longitudinal and transverse planes. Kinetic and Doppler echography were also done.


Patients between the ages of 6 months and 90years were evaluated. Fifty-seven patients were males while 63 were females. The most common and the least common sonographic findings were cataract (80.1%) and retinoblastoma (1.67%). Other findings were vitreous degeneration, ectopic lens,retinal detachment, choroidal detachment, posterior vitreous detachment, pan ophthalmitis, phthisis bulbi and optic disc drusen.


B-mode sonography is a veritable tool in eye evaluation. It is safe, non-invasive and accurate way of interrogating the eye. It should be a first line radiological investigation in ocular lesions.

Page(s): 68-72                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 June 2020

 Eweputanna LI
Department of Radiology, Teaching Hospital, Abia State University, Aba, Nigeria

 Otuka OAI
Ophthalmology Unit, Department of Surgery, Teaching Hospital, Abia State University, Aba, Nigeria

 Eweputanna CC
Todac Specialist Clinic, Aba, Nigeria

 Madubueze GA
St Nicholas Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

 Kalu A.
Ophthalmology Unit, Department of Surgery, Teaching Hospital, Abia State University, Aba, Nigeria

 Dr Lisa Eweputanna
Ophthalmology Unit, Department of Surgery, Teaching Hospital, Abia State University, Aba, Nigeria

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Eweputanna LI, Otuka OAI, Eweputanna CC, Madubueze GA, Kalu A., Dr Lisa Eweputanna “B-Mode ocular ultrasound: The Aba Experience” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.68-72 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/68-72.pdf

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q–Special Function and Integral Transform
Ritu Sharma, Abha Tenguria – June 2020 – Page No.: 73-76

In this paper we discuss about special function with q-analog and find out relation of q-Gamma function into Laplace Transform and Fourier Transform. We find out some new property and relations

Page(s): 73-76                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2020

 Ritu Sharma
Barkatullah Vishwavidhyalaya, Bhopal (M.P), India

 Abha Tenguria
Govt. Maharani Laxmi Bai Girl’s P.G. (Autonomous) College, Bhopal (M.P.), India

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Ritu Sharma, Abha Tenguria “q–Special Function and Integral Transform” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.73-76 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/73-76.pdf

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Challenges against Effective Teaching and Learning of Geography in Senior Secondary Schools in Ilorin Metropolis of Kwara State, Nigeria
AUN Thompson Toryuha, ADAGA Herbert Inongun, AJALA Toluwanimi McDaniel, ODUNAYO Daniel and ADAAKU Judith Mbakeren – June 2020 – Page No.: 77-83

This study was designed to assess the Challenges against Effective Teaching and Learning of Geography in Senior Secondary Schools in Ilorin Metropolis of Kwara State. The descriptive survey method was used for analyzing the data due to its uniqueness. The population of the study comprises of all the senior secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis of kwara state and the total of one hundred and ninety nine (199) SSS2 geography students were selected from eight (8) different schools. The instrument for data collection was the questionnaire. Frequency count was used to answer research questions one (1) and two (2) while t-test was used to test the hypothesis using SPSS. The finding of the study revealed that there are several challenges to effective teaching and learning of geography and that there are no available instructional resources for the teaching and learning of geography in Ilorin metropolis. The finding revealed further that there is no significant difference in the assessment of challenges against effective teaching and learning of geography based on gender. Recommendation for the provision of adequate and qualified teachers, instructional resources, provision of fund among others were made Suggestion for extending the research study to cover the whole state was also made by the researcher.

Page(s): 77-83                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 June 2020

 AUN Thompson Toryuha
Department of Social Sciences Education, Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin Ilorin Nigeria

 ADAGA Herbert Inongun
Department of Social Sciences Education, Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin Ilorin Nigeria

 AJALA Toluwanimi McDaniel
Department of Social Sciences Education, Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin Ilorin Nigeria

Department of Social Sciences Education, Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin Ilorin Nigeria

 ADAAKU Judith Mbakeren
Department of Social Sciences Education, Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin Ilorin Nigeria

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AUN Thompson Toryuha, ADAGA Herbert Inongun, AJALA Toluwanimi McDaniel, ODUNAYO Daniel and ADAAKU Judith Mbakeren “Challenges against Effective Teaching and Learning of Geography in Senior Secondary Schools in Ilorin Metropolis of Kwara State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp. 77-83 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/77-83.pdf

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Investigating the Utilization of ICT and Its Applications in Teaching Computer Studies in Secondary Schools in Niger State Educational Zone

Adamu, Zubairu Evuti, Fati Ali – June 2020 Page No.: 84-89

The researchers investigated the factors militating against utilization of Computer Hardware and internet applications in teaching computer study in Secondary Schools. The study was carried out in Minna Municipal Chanchaga L.G.A. in Niger State. Four, researcher questions and one hypothesis to guided the study. The design adopted for the study was descriptive survey. Total samples of 240 respondents were drawn from the three selected schools. A researcher structured questionnaire was used as the instrument. The instrument was validated and reliability ensured mean score and standard deviations were used to answer the research questions while t-test was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The data analyzed were presented in tabular form based on each research question and the hypothesis. The findings of the study among others were; that computer teachers in Secondary school do not utilize computer hardware and internet applications in their lessons; that teachers lack the required skills to operate these ICT resources, secondary schools lack the necessary infrastructures required for utilization of the ICT resources and applications. Based on these findings’recommendations were made, among which is that, compulsory computer learning should be organized for teachers in Secondary schools by the government while their subsequent promotions should be tagged on the knowledge and certificate of such training.

Page(s): 84-89                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 June 2020

 Adamu, Zubairu Evuti
Department of Educational Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

 Fati Ali
Department of Educational Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

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Adamu, Zubairu Evuti, Fati Ali “Investigating the Utilization of ICT and Its Applications in Teaching Computer Studies in Secondary Schools in Niger State Educational Zone” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.84-89 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/84-89.pdf

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Workplace Envy and Turnover Intention among Employees of National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria

Ibukun O. Kolawole, Tinuke M. Fapounda, Adekunle E. Ibironke – June 2020 Page No.: 90-95

This study investigated the relationship between organisational envy and turnover intention among employees of National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria, Lagos State. The study adopted the descriptive survey design using the census sampling technique. 103 responses from the 116 administered instruments were found valid and used for final analyses. Two hypotheses were stated and tested at 0.05 level of significance using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient. The results show that there is significant relationship between malicious acts and turnover intention. Also, it was revealed that being envy is significantly related to turnover intention. Based on this, the study concluded that in creating a healthy organisation, management of National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria should reduce the negative consequences of envy. Thus, the study recommends that a display of emotional intelligence in workplaces and effective communication should be instituted for educating employees of the effects and consequences on envy among organisation members.

Page(s): 90-95                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 June 2020

 Ibukun O. Kolawole
Department of Industrial Relations and Human Resource Management, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria

 Tinuke M. Fapounda
Department of Industrial Relations and Human Resource Management, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria

 Adekunle E. Ibironke
Department of Industrial Relations and Human Resource Management, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria

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Ibukun O. Kolawole, Tinuke M. Fapounda, Adekunle E. Ibironke “Workplace Envy and Turnover Intention among Employees of National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.90-95 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/90-95.pdf

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Impact of Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Regime on the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

Wanogho, Mamefe David, Alapiki, Henry – June 2020 Page No.: 96-105

This paper focused on the Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime and Nuclear Weapons Management in the Post-Cold War Era. The study was undertaken against the backdrop of subsisting nuclear proliferation issues, in spite of the existence of the nonproliferation regime. The paper aimed to present, analyze, and evaluate the nuclear non-proliferation regime of the post-Cold War era. The goal is to demonstrate whether this non-proliferation regime is not quite the same as what subsisted in the cold War time and to decide if it sufficiently addresses the multiplication of atomic weapons in the post-Cold War period, among other explicit targets. The paper sought to answer whether there is a difference between the global nuclear weapons non-proliferation regime of the Cold War era and the post-Cold War period, and whether there are conflicts between states around the acquisition of nuclear weapons. This work relied on secondary data and utilized a data matrix table to aid data collection. The study discovered that there was no distinction in the nonproliferation regime of the Cold War and the post-Cold War period.

Page(s): 96-105                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 June 2020

 Wanogho, Mamefe David
Department of Political & Administrative Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Alapiki, Henry
Department of Political & Administrative Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Wanogho, Mamefe David, Alapiki, Henry “Impact of Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Regime on the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.96-105 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/96-105.pdf

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Soft Computing Techniques in Various Areas

Shreyans Chhazed, Sanjeev Sipani – June 2020 Page No.: 106-110

Soft computing is a study of the science of logic, thinking, analysis and research that combines real-world problems with biologically inspired methods. Soft computing is the main motivation behind the idea of conceptual intelligence in machines. As such, it is an extension of heuristics and the resolution of complex problems that are very difficult to model mathematically. Smooth computing tolerates printing; uncertainty and approximation that differ from manual calculation. Soft Computing enumerates techniques like ANN, Evolutionary computing, Fuzzy Logic and statistics, they are advantageous and separately applied techniques which are used together to solve problems which are complex, very easily. This article highlights the various soft computing ting techniques and emerging areas of soft computing ting where they have been successfully implemented.

Page(s): 106-110                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2020

  Shreyans Chhazed
IT Student in Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India

  Sanjeev Sipani
Associate Professor in Civil Engineering Department, Yagyavalkya Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India

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Shreyans Chhazed, Sanjeev Sipani “Soft Computing Techniques in Various Areas” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.106-110 June 2020  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/106-110.pdf

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The Study of Coprecipitation of Heavy Organics from Crude Oil
Enyindah Lawrence, Okah Reminus – June 2020 – Page No.: 111-112

Heavy organics exist in crude oil mixtures in various proportions. The separation of these four organics into four popular fractions; Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes commonly referred to as SARA has been highlighted. Coprecipitation of heavy organics can occur due to the variation of factors such as temperature, pressure and composition in the oil fields. Such occurrence has been recognized to be the most problematic in the oil industries as it causes the plugging of pipelines and reservoirs, fouling of production facilities and poisoning of refinery catalysts. The role of solvent precipitation as a solution technique to heavy organic coprecipitation and deposition has been highlighted. A modified version of ASTM D6560 laboratory test method has been described for small scale coprecipitation of heavy organics. Usage of n-pentane (C5), n-octane (C8) , and n-dodecane (C12) as precipitating solvents showed that C5, C8, and C12 n-alkane solvents gave percentage precipitate yields of 9.11, 3.24 and1.28 respectively. The results showed that the quantity of precipitates decreased as the carbon number of the n-alkane solvents increased.

Page(s): 111-112                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2020

 Enyindah Lawrence
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic Rumuola, Port-Harcourt, Rivers-State, Nigeria

 Okah Reminus
Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic Rumuola, Port-Harcourt, Rivers-State, Nigeria

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Enyindah Lawrence, Okah Reminus “The Study of Coprecipitation of Heavy Organics from Crude Oil” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.111-112 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/111-112.pdf

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Visitor Navigation Pattern Prediction Using Transition Matrix Compression
Ei Theint Theint Thu, Aye Aye Nyein, Hlaing Htake Khaung Tin – June 2020 – Page No.: 113-116

As an increasing number of cities consists of an increasing number of visiting places, it is more difficult for the visitors to consider. Meanwhile, the system tries to introduce recommendation features to their visitors. The main aim of this paper is to only implement visitor navigation pattern prediction system in Myanmar. The paper uses traveling paths that assist visitors to navigate the visiting places based on the past visitor’s behavior. To cluster the paths with similar transition behavior and compress the transition matrix to an best size for efficient probability calculation in paths, transition probability matrix compression has been used. In this paper, Visitor Navigation Pattern Prediction Using Transition Matrix Compression is developed. It uses data mining techniques for recommending a visitor which (next)paths is closely the most popular paths in Myanmar. By looking at the traveling paths in the organization, the system can know the popular paths(places).

Page(s): 113-116                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2020

 Ei Theint Theint Thu
Faculty of Information Science,University of Computer Studies, Hinthada, Myanmar

 Aye Aye Nyein
Faculty of Information Science,University of Computer Studies, Hinthada, Myanmar

 Hlaing Htake Khaung Tin
Faculty of Information Science,University of Computer Studies, Hinthada, Myanmar

[1]. Jianhan Zhu, Jun Hong, and John G. Hughes. “Using Markov Chains for Link Prediction in Adaptive Web Sites”, pp.60-73.
[2]. Yu Ya Win, “Prefetching Based On Web User Clustering”, PhD thesis, University of Computer Studies, Yangon.
[3]. https://www.Guru99.com
[4]. https://www.wikipedia.org.com

Ei Theint Theint Thu, Aye Aye Nyein, Hlaing Htake Khaung Tin “Visitor Navigation Pattern Prediction Using Transition Matrix Compression” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.113-116 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/113-116.pdf

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Bioactivity of Endophytes from Calliandra calothyrsus, Leucaena diversifolia and Sesbania sesban Against Cercospora zeae-maydis
William Omuketi Emitaro, David Mutisya Musyimi, George Timothy Opande – June 2020 – Page No.: 117-121

Endophytes are microorganisms that accomplish parts of their life cycle within living host tissues without causing apparent damage to the plants. Endophytes confer survival advantage to the plant as they play a role in plant resistance to diseases. Cercospora zeae-maydis is a fungus that causes grey leaf spot disease of maize and is responsible for over 60%yield loss. Current chemical methods for control of the disease have adverse effects on human health and environment. Little is known on the potential of endophytes of Calliandra calothyrsus, Leucaena diversifolia and Sesbania sesban as biological control of Cercospora zeae-maydis. The objective of this study was to investigate the antagonistic potential of bacterial and fungal endophytes of the three plants against Cercospora zeae-maydis. A total of 75 endophytes were isolated from the three plant species based on morphological differences on PDA and NA media. Fungal and bacterial isolates were coded based on the plant part and plant species of origin such as FLC – for fungi isolated from the leaf of Calliandra calothyrsus, BLL-bacteria isolated from leaf of Leucaena diversifolia and BRS – for bacteria isolated from the root of Sesbania sesban. Thirty-three fungal and forty-two bacterial isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against Cercospora zeae-maydis by dual culture technique. Eleven fungal and twenty-four bacterial endophytes exhibited antagonistic activity against the pathogen. There were significant (p≤ 0.05) antagonistic activity among fungal and bacterial isolates against the pathogen. The highest inhibitory effects among the fungal isolates included FSC5 at 40%, FSC1at 37% and FSL3 at 30% respectively. The highest bacterial isolates activity was 72% for BLS3, 65 % for BRL2, 64 % for BRSI and60 %for BLC4.It is recommended that the endophytes from the three plants could serve as potential candidates for control of Cercospora zeae-maydis. Future studies should investigate on the bioactive molecules produced by these microorganisms

Page(s): 117-121                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2020

 William Omuketi Emitaro
Department of Biological Sciences, School of Biological and Physical Sciences, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology P.O. BOX 210 – 40601, Bondo, Kenya

 David Mutisya Musyimi
Department of Botany, School of Physical and Biological Sciences, Maseno University, Private bag, Maseno, Kenya

 George Timothy Opande
Department of Biological & Agricultural Sciences, School of Science, Kaimosi friends University College, P.O BOX 385 – 50309, Kaimosi, Kenya

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[21]. Niem J.M., Billones-Baaijens R., Stodart B. and Savocchia S. (2020). Diversity Profiling of Grapevine Microbial Endosphere and Antagonistic Potential of Endophytic Pseudomonas Against Grapevine Trunk Diseases. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11:477.
[22]. Orole O.O and Adejumo T.O. (2009). Activity of Fungal Endophytes Against Four Maize WiltPathogens. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 3(12): 969-973.
[23]. Pawthong P., Thongmee A. and Suntornthiticharoen P. (2013). Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Sesbania grandiflora (L.) pers. International Journal of Phytomedicine 5(1): 102-107.
[24]. Souzane A.S., Xavier A.A., Costa M.R. and Cardoso A.M.S (2013). Endophytic Bacterial Diversity in Banana ‘Prata Anã’ (Musa spp.) Roots. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 36(2): 252-264.
[25]. Suman A., Ajar N.Y.and Priyanka V. (2011).Endophytic Microbes in Crops: Diversity and Benefi cial Impact for Sustainable Agriculture. Microbial Inoculants in Sustainable Agricultural Productivity, Vol.1, Research Perspectives. Edition: Ist Chapter: 7Publisher: Springer-Verlag, Germany Editors: D. P. Singh, P. C. Abhilash, Ratna P.
[26]. Teimoori-Boghsani Y., Ganjeali A., Cernava T., Müller H., Asili J. and Berg G. (2020). Endophytic Fungi of Native Salvia abrotanoides Plants Reveal High Taxonomic Diversity and Unique Profiles of Secondary Metabolites.Frontiers in Microbiology, 10:3013.
[27]. Thanh D.T.N. and Diep C.N. (2014). Isolation, Characterization and Identification of Endophytic Bacteria in Maize (Zea Mays L.) Cultivated on Acrisols of the Southeast of Vietnam. American Journal of Life Sciences. 2(4): 224-233.
[28]. Yuliar S., Dyah S. and Maman R. (2017).Biodiversity of Endophytic bacteria and their Antagonistic Activity to Rhizoctonia solani and fusarium oxysporium. Global Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Health Sciences, 2(4): 111-118.

William Omuketi Emitaro, David Mutisya Musyimi, George Timothy Opande “Bioactivity of Endophytes from Calliandra calothyrsus, Leucaena diversifolia and Sesbania sesban Against Cercospora zeae-maydis” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.117-121 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/117-121.pdf

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Evaluating Flexible Pavement Rutting Damage Caused by Heavy Traffic Loads
David Sinkhonde, Ignasio Ngoma – June 2020 – Page No.: 122-128

This research was under taken to evaluate road pavement sections experiencing serious rutting damage induced by heavy traffic vehicles and those experiencing little or no rutting damage. The research on the impact of heavy traffic loads on pavement rutting performance was conducted on HHI to Machinjiri junction (S137) road section using field investigations and surveys. The research incorporated traffic counts for heavy vehicles to confirm levels of heavy vehicle traffic on the road segment and to verify the high numbers of permits issued for truck loading. Field works on identification and quantification of pavement surface distresses by executing visual condition surveys were carried out allowing for the current pavement surface conditions to be rated using pavement condition degrees and severities. The research also utilized Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) test for rapid in situ measurements of the structural properties of the existing road pavement and therefore it accommodated the evaluation of the in situ properties of the materials in all pavement layers up to the depth of penetration of 800mm. Comprehensive analyses were undertaken on the collected data to evaluate the pavement rutting performance. The utilization of DN values and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values generated from DCP test results presented a potential methodology for determining the proportion of pavement rutting deterioration attributable to heavy traffic vehicles. Identification and quantification of pavement surface distresses by executing visual condition surveys on a 200m stretch rated the pavement surface conditions as between light and warning, warning, and between warning and severe. The traffic count levels for heavy vehicles obtained for five days indicated an average of 507 heavy vehicles per day and therefore confirming high traffic loads for the road section.

Page(s): 122-128                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2020

 David Sinkhonde
The Polytechnic – Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malawi

 Ignasio Ngoma
The Polytechnic – Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malawi

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[12] Pinard, I.M.(2011). Performance review of design standard and technical specifications for low volume sealed roads in Malawi. Lilongwe, Malawi: Roads Authority.
[13] Thompson, R.J. (2011).Empirical Analysis and Quantification of Existing Pavement Structural Designs.Pretoria, South Africa: University of Pretoria.
[14] Verhaeghe, B.M.J.A.,Myburgh,P.A. and Denneman, E. (2007). Asphalt rutting and its prevention. Proceedings of 9th Conference on Asphalt Pavements for Southern Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.

David Sinkhonde, Ignasio Ngoma “Evaluating Flexible Pavement Rutting Damage Caused by Heavy Traffic Loads” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.122-128 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/122-128.pdf

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Software Effort Estimation for COCOMO-II Projects Using Artificial Neural Network
Kiran Kumar T.M, Yashvanth Kumar K.P – June 2020 – Page No.: 129-132

Software failures are mainly caused by defective projects management practices, including estimates of effort. Constant changing outlines of requirements and the technology software development make estimating efforts more complicated. Several methods are available to Estimate the effort of the soft computing-based method. The development effort needed for a project should be measured by software. It is important to estimate the construction effort required before any project is initially initiated. It is one of the greatest and most demanding tasks ever. The software cost estimate deals with a lot of uncertainty between all neural computing methods. In this paper we have used the historical COCOMO II data set projects using the artificial neural network technique to predict the effort estimation. We have used the mat lab tool for estimation. The experiment outputs suggest that the suggested model can provide better results and accurately forecast the software development effort.

Page(s): 129-132                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 02 July 2020

 Kiran Kumar T.M
Assistant.Professor, Dept of MCA, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur, India

 Yashvanth Kumar K.P
Project Student, Dept of MCA, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur, India

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Kiran Kumar T.M, Yashvanth Kumar K.P “Software Effort Estimation for COCOMO-II Projects Using Artificial Neural Network” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.129-132 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/129-132.pdf

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Phytochemical Screening and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Physalis peruviana  Studied on Normal and Cancerous Mammalian Cell lines
Wesley N. Omwoyo, Dominic Menge, Antony L. Yiaile, Doreen Muchiri – June 2020 – Page No.: 133-141

In modern era plants are widely used in pharmaceutical industry as sources of raw materials and essential ingredients for medicine. Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide with high percentage of deaths occurring in developing countries. In Kenya, new cancer cases have been witnessed all over the country. The attention on diseases like malaria, HIV and tuberculosis has resulted in the neglect of diseases like cancer. This is caused by lack of awareness, non-qualified personnel, inadequate facilities and financial shortages. In Kenya, majority of the population relies on traditional medicine as an alternative treatment since the conventional health system provides for only 30% of the population. Although medicinal plants in Kenya have been used for treatment of cancer by the traditional healers, no studies have been carried out to verify their healing claims. This study focused on the analytical methodologies, which included the extraction of crude extract from Physalis peruviana using methanol, dichloromethane petroleum ether, water and hexane. It also included the phytochemical screening assay through the TLC method and was observed under UV lamb and the in vitro cytotoxicity activity of Physalis peruviana on normal and cancerous mammalian cell lines. The in vitro assays involved determination of the cytotoxic concentration levels (CC50) of the plant extracts on cancer cell lines as well as calculating the inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the plant extracts on cancer cell lines. The biochemical responses of cells after exposure with organic plant extract was observed using the MTT dye {3-(4,5-dimethylthiozol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide}. Physalis peruviana extract was expected to have a cytotoxicity effect on selected cell lines.

Page(s): 133-141                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 July 2020

 Wesley N. Omwoyo
Department of Chemistry, Maasai Mara University, Narok, Kenya

 Dominic Menge
Department of Biological Science, Maasai Mara University, Narok, Kenya

 Antony L. Yiaile
Department of Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Kabianga, Kericho, Kenya

 Doreen Muchiri
Department of Chemistry, Maasai Mara University, Narok, Kenya

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Wesley N. Omwoyo, Dominic Menge, Antony L. Yiaile, Doreen Muchiri “Phytochemical Screening and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Physalis peruviana  Studied on Normal and Cancerous Mammalian Cell lines” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.133-141 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/133-141.pdf

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Constructing a tool for Seafood Quality Traceability
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Nguyen Doan Khoi – June 2020 – Page No.: 142-145

Seafood quality traceability systems have become of increasing concern for suppliers in both developed and developing countries. At this moment (2020), seafood produced in Vietnam often do not satisfy the expectations of Western consumers with respect to the desired quality. Moreover, production chains do not always operate efficiently and effectively, due to lack of quality traceability systems. The scientific challenge with respect to the improvement of the quality traceability of seafood supply chains implies the structural incorporation of the important elements in the process of food production, which are based on current scientific research for quality-orientated product development, namely a coordinated supply chain traceability approach to the production to deal with the complexity of optimising seafood production systems; and incorporation of extrinsic food quality parameters into the production and supply chain.

Page(s): 142-145                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 July 2020

  Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Nguyen Doan Khoi
Department of Scientific Research Affairs, Can Tho University

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Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Nguyen Doan Khoi “Constructing a tool for Seafood Quality Traceability” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.142-145 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/142-145.pdf

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Covid-19 In Ekiti State Nigeria: Why Should We Worry?
Victor SHEGUN Oluwatuyi, Racheal Adedoja Okunade, Mayowa Funmilayo Oluwatuyi, Alaba Tolulope Agbele, Oluwakemi Ifedayo Sam-Ijadele, Mojisola Bello – June 2020 – Page No.: 146-149

Ekiti State recorded her first case of COVID-19) precisely March 15th 2020 shortly after Nigeria recorded her first case imported by an Italian businessman whose identity was not disclosed on the 27th February 2020. The disease has since then continued to spread despite the lockdown measures. The spread and occurrence ofCOVID-19 in Nigeria is not surprising considering its rate of spread globally. The disease broke out in China and on the 30th January, 2020 it was declared to be transmissible through human to human contact while there is knowledge of the fact that the virus spread through asymptomatic patients making it hard to track the infection. Ekiti State which happened to be the first to react out of all the 36 states in Nigeria responded swiftly by setting up COVID-19Task Force in order to be able to fight the possible occurrence of the disease even before the State recorded her first case of COVID-19.However, it became worrisome that easing of lockdown measures without stiffer actions to regulate compliance might expose the State to a surge in numbers. This review reveals how well the State has been able to respond to the spread of this novel virus and the challenges.

Page(s): 146-149                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 July 2020

 Victor SHEGUN Oluwatuyi
Department of Environmental Health Science, Kwara State University, Malete, Ilorin, Nigeria
Department of Public Health, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero-Ekiti, Nigeria

  Racheal Adedoja Okunade
Department of Dental Health, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and technology, Ijero-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Mayowa Funmilayo Oluwatuyi
Department of Health Information Management, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Alaba Tolulope Agbele
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero-Ekiti, Nigeria

  Oluwakemi Ifedayo Sam-Ijadele
Department of Environmental Health, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero-Ekiti, Nigeria

  Mojisola Bello
Department of Environmental Health, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero-Ekiti, Nigeria

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Victor SHEGUN Oluwatuyi, Racheal Adedoja Okunade, Mayowa Funmilayo Oluwatuyi, Alaba Tolulope Agbele, Oluwakemi Ifedayo Sam-Ijadele, Mojisola Bello “Covid-19 In Ekiti State Nigeria: Why Should We Worry?” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.146-149 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/146-149.pdf

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Impact of Multimedia Instructional Strategies on Students’ Achievement and Retention in Basic Science and Technology in Minna, Niger State
Umar, B. K., Ossom, M. O., Egbita, A. U- June 2020 – Page No.: 150-155

This study compared the impact of multimedia instructional strategies on students’ achievement and retention in basic science and technology in junior secondary schools in Niger State. This study was conducted in Minna, Niger State. A sample of one hundred and two (102) JSSII students was involved in the study. The design of this study was quasi-experimental research design as there was no randomization of subjects into classes. Intact classes were used. Four research questions and four research hypotheses guided the study. Research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. Results from the study revealed that students who were taught basic science and technology using multimedia instructional strategies achieved and retained higher than those taught without instructional strategies. Also students who were taught basic science and technology using multimedia instructional strategies as tool achieved and retained higher than those taught without multimedia as tutor. The study equally revealed no significant difference in the mean achievement and retention scores of male and female students. Some of the recommendations made include; that teachers should pay more attention to using multimedia instruction as tool instead of using it as lecture method for effective teaching and learning of basic science and technology.

Page(s): 150-155                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 July 2020

 Umar, B. K.
Department of Technical Drawing, School of Technical Education, Niger State College of Education, Minna, Nigeria

 Ossom, M. O.
University Basic Education Commission (UBEC), Wusse-Abuja, Nigeria

 Egbita, A. U
Nigerian Education Research and Development Council (NERDC) Sheda-Abuja, Nigeria

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[3]. Ajani, S.M. (2009). Effects of workshop practices on students’ performance in introductory technology. Unpublished Manuscript. Imo State University. Owerri.
[4]. Akpoghol, T.V., Ezeudu, F.O., Adzape, J.N. &Otor, E.E. (2016). Relative effect of lecture method supplemented with music and computer animation on senior secondary school students’ retention in electrochemistry. J. Educ. & Practice, 7(4), 87 – 95.
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[7]. Daramola, F.O, Onasanya, S.A. &Asuquo, E.O. (2016). Effects of Computer Assisted Instructional package on Secondary school students’ performance in introductory Technology in Ilorin. The Nigerian Journal of educational media and technology, 12(1).
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towards Science Enrolment in Benue State Secondary Schools. An unpublished PhD Thesis,University of Jos, Jos
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Umar, B. K., Ossom, M. O., Egbita, A. U “Impact of Multimedia Instructional Strategies on Students’ Achievement and Retention in Basic Science and Technology in Minna, Niger State” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.150-155 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/150-155.pdf

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Moderating Effects of Cost of Capital on Debt Financing and Firm Value in Nigeria
Auwalu Sani Ibrahim and Isma’il Tijjani Idris – June 2020 – Page No.: 156-159

The study examines the moderating effect of cost of capital on debt financing and firm value. Where as, micro panel analysis techniques were utilized for the companies under study spanning 2006-2016. Secondary data were obtained through the companies’ individual annual reports and data base of Nigerian Stock Exchange. The studies utilize a sample of 12 listed industrial goods companies in Nigeria. While, hierarchical moderated multiple regression analysis was used for the estimate. The findings of the study revealed a significant positive association among debt financing and value of listed industrial goods companies in Nigeria. While, cost of capital as a good moderator, it was emphasized that, debt financing and cost of capital are drivers of increasing value of the firm among listed industrial goods companies. It was recommended among others that, the finance managers should source capital from various avenues in such way it reduce risk and cost. Likewise, the listed Industrial goods firms should employ more use of debt financing.

Page(s): 156-159                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2020

 Auwalu Sani Ibrahim
Department of Management Science, Kano State College of Education and Preliminary Studies

 Isma’il Tijjani Idris
Department of Banking and Finance, ABU Business School, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

[1]. Abba, M. & Usman, U. (2016). Corporate Attributes and Share Value of Listed Pharmaceutical Firms in Nigeria. Researchers World-Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.18843/rwjasc/v7il(1)/10
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[16]. Narayanasama, N. (2014). The Relationship between Capital Structure and Overall Cost of Capital in Cooperative Sugar and Spinning Mills. India.
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[19]. Sambo, A. A. (2005). Research Methods in Education. Ibadan, Oyo State: Stiling-Horden Publishers (Nig.) Ltd. Gaaf Building, 110-112 Oyo Road, Orogun, off University of Ibadan, Second Gate.
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[22]. Saunders, M. L., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research Methods for Business Students. London. UK, Financial Times Prentice Hall Inc.

Auwalu Sani Ibrahim and Isma’il Tijjani Idris “Moderating Effects of Cost of Capital on Debt Financing and Firm Value in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.156-159 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/156-159.pdf

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Afirmation of Political Parties Enhances Women’s Participation (A Study in Serang District)
Maulana Suprihatin Sam, Asnawi- June 2020 – Page No.: 160-167

The purpose of this study is to find out how the affirmative action of political parties in encouraging women’s political participation in Serang Regency. This study uses descriptive qualitative research with data collection procedures in the form of interviews, observation and documentation. Data validation techniques used are source triangulation techniques in the form of person and paper. The results show that the efforts made by political parties of Serang Regency in building women’s political participation include, 1) parties taking an internal/personal approach; 2) programmatic, structured and continuous development of the political model of female cadres; 3) hold meetings at times that are possible to be attended by female cadres and times that are not too preoccupied with household needs.

Page(s): 160-167                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 July 2020

 Maulana Suprihatin Sam
Management Department, Bina Bangsa University, Indonesia

Law Department, Bina Bangsa University, Indonesia

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Interview result
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[31]. Ningsih, kader PPP, Serang. (2019). Serang, Senin 27 Mei 2019.
[32]. Anonim, kader PPP, PKB, Gerindra, PAN, dan Demokrat. (2019). Serang, 3 Juni 2019.

Maulana Suprihatin Sam, Asnawi “Afirmation of Political Parties Enhances Women’s Participation (A Study in Serang District)” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.160-167 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/160-167.pdf

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School Leaders’ Challenges and Needs in Leading and Managing the Multigrade Classrooms Practice
Jeffri Idris – June 2020 – Page No.: 168-173

The study focused on the problems faced by school heads and ways to support them in implementing the practice of multigrade teaching. A new policy was recently introduced in the country where public primary schools with pupils’ enrolment of 30 and below had to implement multigrade teaching. Until now, it has been implemented for more than a year that involved 393 schools. A qualitative study was carried out to identify the problems they were still facing and the types of support required by them. The study used an online form sent to their e-mails. Sixty-eight school heads’ open-ended questions responses were used in the analysis. Analyses were based on two major themes namely the challenges and the supports. Both major themes were then given sub-themes to be more focused. Overall, it was found that the major challenges were related to teachers’ knowledge and skills, pupils’ ability and resources. Based on the analysis, it was suggested that continued support to be provided to the schools in terms of the school leaders’ management and leadership aspects. Also, pedagogical competency, curriculum integration and resources management skills of the teachers needed to be supported.

Page(s): 168-173                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 July 2020

 Jeffri Idris
Institut Aminuddin Baki, Ministry of Education, Malaysia

[1]. Hyry-Beihammer, E. & Hascher, T. (2015). Multi-grade teaching practices in Austrian and Finnish primary schools. International Journal of Educational Research, 74, 104–113. doi:10.1016/j.ijer.2015.07.002
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[3]. Thephavongsa, S. (2018). Enhancing the teaching skills of the multi-grade teachers through lesson study. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 17, 4, 71-87.
[4]. Perry, C., Love, B & McKay, K. (2017). Composite classes. Availabe at http://www.niassembly.gov.uk/globalassets/documents/raise/publications/2016-2021/2017/education/0517.pdf.
[5]. Pistioli, E. (2018). The self-concept in specific areas of students attending multigrade and single grade elementary schools. Comparative approach. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 17, 12, 116-134.
[6]. Mortazavizadeh, S. M., Nili, M. R., Isfahani, A. R. N & Hassani, M. (2017). Teachers’ lived experiences about teaching-learning process in multi-grade classes. Journal of Education and Learning, 6, 4.
[7]. Nkoro, Emoruwa & Erinsakin. (2014). The prospects and challenges of multigrade teaching approach in secondary schools in Nigeria. Paper presented at International Conference on Arts, Economics and Management (ICAEM’14) March 22-23 (pp 50-52). Dubai (UAE)
[8]. Du Plesis, A. & Subramanien, B. (2014). Voices of despair: Challenges for multigrade teachers in a rural district in South Africa. Educational Research for Social Change (ERSC),3, 1, 20-36.
[9]. Sattari, R. (2016). The effect of multigrade classrooms on student behavior. Available at https://www.sole-jole.org/17489.pdf.
[10]. Thomas, J.L. (2012) Combination classes and educational achievement. Economics of Education Review, 31, 1058-1066.
[11]. Checchi, D. & De Paula, M. (2017). The effect of multigrade classes on cognitive and non-cognitive skills: Causal evidence exploiting minimum class size rules in Italy: IZA Discussion Paper
[12]. ul Haq, G.N, Farooq, R.A & Tabassum, R. (2017). Comparison of multi-grade teaching with mono-grade teaching at primary level. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 7, 12, 316-322.
[13]. Singer, E. & Couper, M.P. (2017). Some methodological uses of responses to open questions and other verbatim comments in quantitative surveys. Methods, Data, Analyses, 11, 2, 115-134.
[14]. Roberts, M. E., Stewart, B. M., Tingley, D., Lucas, C., Leder-Luis, J., Gadarian, S., Albertson, B., & Rand, D. (2014). Structural topic models for open-ended survey responses. American Journal of Political Science, 58, 4, 1064–1082.
[15]. Maguire, M. & Delahunt, B. (2017). Doing a thematic analysis: A practical, step-by-step guide for learning and teaching scholars. All Ireland Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 8, 3, 3351 – 33514.
[16]. Ramrathan, L. & Mzimela, J. (2016). Teaching reading in a mulit-grade class: Teachers’adaptve skills and teacher agency in teaching across grade R and grade 1. South African Journal of Childhood Educaton, 6, 2, 1-8.

Jeffri Idris “School Leaders’ Challenges and Needs in Leading and Managing the Multigrade Classrooms Practice” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.168-173 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/168-173.pdf

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Adoption of IFRSs by SMEs in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Issues, Challenges and Prospects
Vincent Opeyemi Abraham, Mahmood Omeiza Adeiza- June 2020 – Page No.: 174-180

Understanding the vital role of SMEs in every economy, ranging from positive developments to creation of employments and their very key impact within the various sectors where they are operational is important. Using existing literature, to make an analyses whereby the benefits and likely challenges of implementing IFRSs for SMEs in Sokoto State, Nigeria can be deciphered, the general objective of this study was to investigate the likely issues, challenges and prospects that SMEs will encounter in adopting IFRSs for SMEs within a Nigerian State and those factors that could prevent the adoption of the standards by SMEs. To obtain answers to the research questions, questionnaires were distributed seeking the opinion of respondents. 75 questionnaires were distributed to Accountants, Accounts clerks, Analysts, Executives/Business owners, etc. out of which 60 were successfully retrieved. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that the only issue capable of affecting the adoption of IFRSs for SMEs in Sokoto State is the proper monitoring of continuous professional development programs (CPDP). It was concluded that SMEs must seek ways to reduce any challenges in the adoption process and find ways of strengthening the system and ensuring continuity of the IFRSs adoption process. Accordingly, and despite the coherence between standard setting bodies and professional bodies, it was recommended that: professional bodies should remain involved in a robust implementation framework for the adoption process; there is need to encourage collaboration between professional bodies in the area of IFRSs for SMEs adoption; standard setting bodies should take up the responsibility to maintain unity between standard setting bodies and professional bodies.

Page(s): 174-180                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2020

 Vincent Opeyemi Abraham
Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Mahmood Omeiza Adeiza
Department of Accounting, Faculty of Management Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

[1]. Adekoya, O. (2011). Similarities and Differences, IFRS and Nigerian GAAP. Lagos: Pricewater House Cooper International Ltd (PwCiL).
[2]. Adetula, D. T., Owolabi, F. and Onyinye O. I (2014). International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) for SMEs: Adoption Process in Nigeria. European Journal of Accounting Auditing and Finance Research, 2(4), 33-38. Retrieved from: http://www.ea-journals.org.
[3]. Albu, C. N. (2013). How relevant is size for setting the scope of the IFRS for SMEs? Accounting and Management Information Systems,12(3), 424-439.
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[5]. Ayuba, A. (2012). A proposed rule-roadmap for the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Nigeria: A research-based perspective in FGN, NASB & SEC. American Journal of Economic, Special Edition, 41-45. doi: w-5923lj.economics.20120001.10.
[6]. Ball, R. (2006). International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS): Pros and Cons for investors. Accounting and Business Research International Accounting Policy Forum, 5-27.
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[8]. Baker, R. C. &Barbu, E. M. (2007). Trends in Research on International Accounting Harmonization.The International Journal of Accounting, 42, 272-304.
[9]. Bohusova, H. & Blaskova, V. (2012). In what ways countries which have already adopted IFRS for SMEs different? Acta Universitatis Agricultural et Silviculture Mendelinale Bounensis,60(4), 37-44.
[10]. Buhusova, H. & Svoboda, P. (2011). What does the implementation of IFRS for SMEs bring for Agricultural Enterprises? Acta Universitatis Agricultual et Silviculturae Medelinale Bounensis, LIX(7), 12-19
[11]. Bratton, W. W. (1989). The new economic theory of the firm: critical perspectives from history. Retrieved from http://scholarshiplaw.upenn.edu/faculty_scholarship/833.
[12]. International Accounting Standard Board (2009a). IFRS for SMEs. Retrieved from: http://www.iasb.org/ Ne ws/ presst/ releases/ IASB+Projects/small+and+medium-sized +Entities / small + and + medium–sized+entities.htm.
[13]. International Accounting Standard Board (2009b). IFRS for SMEs. Retrieved from: http://www.iasb.org/News/presst/releases/ IASB+publishes+IFRS+fort+SMEs.htm.
[14]. Iyoha, F. O. & Faboyede, S. O. (2011). Adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) – a focus on Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Commerce and Management,2(1), 35-40.
[15]. Madawaki, A. (2012). Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standard in Developing Countries: the case of Nigeria. International Journal of Business Management, 7(3), 1323 – 1381: doi.10.5539/ijbin. vyn3p152; http://www.aessweb.com/journal-detail.php?ed=5007

Vincent Opeyemi Abraham, Mahmood Omeiza Adeiza “Adoption of IFRSs by SMEs in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Issues, Challenges and Prospects” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.174-180 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/174-180.pdf

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Vegetable Marketing among Retailers in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria
Suleiman, R., Olorukooba, M. M., Emeghara, U.U., Oladele, O.N., Yahaya, U.F., Olukotun, O. – June 2020 – Page No.: 181-189

The study was conducted to examine the marketing of vegetables among retailers in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Multi-stage, purposive and random sampling techniques were adopted to select the 100 vegetable retailers used for this study. Data for the study were collected from the retailers using questionnaire and personal interview. Data obtained from the study were subjected to analysis using simple descriptive statistics such as frequency table, percentage and charts. The result revealed that female (64%) dominated the marketing of vegetables in the study area with about 80% of the retailers in their active productive age of between 20 – 59 years of age, majority of the retailers are married (55%) and 83% of them had one form of education or the other and about 88% of the marketers had vegetable marketing experience of 6years and above. The study also revealed that there are three market channels for vegetable distribution which are; producers to wholesalers to retailers to consumers or producers to retailers to consumers or producers to consumers and fourteen vegetable crops were identified to be on sale in the study area with tomato (63%) being the highest crop on sales among the retailers while water leaf (6%) is the least. Opportunities derived from selling vegetables by the retailers include income generation (100%), as main occupation (67%), source of food (95%) and pleasure derivation (27%), however the business is faced with some challenges such as physical damage of vegetable on transportation (81%), high transportation cost (80%), lack of storage facility (65%), poor packaging system (53%), seasonality(49%) and limited supply (45%) of vegetables as well as low patronage (8%) . The study therefore recommends that marketers should be trained on simple preservation techniques, government intervention in the areas of provision of storage facilities, subsidy in transportation cost as well as provision of low interest rate credit facilities to the marketers in the study area to boost their marketing efficiency.

Page(s): 181-189                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2020

 Suleiman, R.
Federal College of Forestry Mechanization P.M.B. 2273, Afaka-Kaduna, Nigeria

 Olorukooba, M. M.
Federal College of Forestry Mechanization P.M.B. 2273, Afaka-Kaduna, Nigeria

 Emeghara, U.U.
Federal College of Forestry Mechanization P.M.B. 2273, Afaka-Kaduna, Nigeria

 Oladele, O.N.
Federal College of Forestry Mechanization P.M.B. 2273, Afaka-Kaduna, Nigeria

 Yahaya, U.F.
Federal College of Forestry Mechanization P.M.B. 2273, Afaka-Kaduna, Nigeria

 Olukotun, O.
Federal College of Forestry Mechanization P.M.B. 2273, Afaka-Kaduna, Nigeria

[1]. Adeoye, I. B., Odeleye, O., Babalola, S. O. & Afolayan, S. O. (2009), Economic analysis of tomato losses in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria. African Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 1, no. 5-6, pp. 87-92.
[2]. Agba, A.V., (2006). Intermediate Modern Eonomics, EVI – Coleman Publisher, Ibadan, pp 240.
[3]. AgBit (2015). Horticulture Sub-Sector study report 2015. Mapping Investment Opportunities in Horticulture SubSector: The Case of Vegetable Value Chains in Zambia
[4]. Agbugba, I. K., Okechukwu, F. O., and Solomon,R. J., (2011). Challenges and Strategies for Improving the Marketing of Indigenous Leafy Vegetables in Nigeria through improved packaging. [Online] Available: http://worldfoodscience.com/cms/index.htm@pid=1005132.html (May 15, 2014).
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[17]. Okoh, R. N., Ugwumba, C. O. A., and Elle, H. O., (2008). General Roles in food stuff marketing in Delta-North Agriculture Zone: The case of Rue, “In. Umeh, J.C., et al (eds.), Prospects and Challenges of Adding Value to Agriculture products, proceedings of FAMAN, Makurdi, pp. 114 – 123.
[18]. Okunlola, A. I., (2009). Factors Associated with Fadama production of Vegetables by Small Scale farmers in Ondo State. Nigerian Journal of Food, Agric. Environment, 7 (394): 551 -555.
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Suleiman, R., Olorukooba, M. M., Emeghara, U.U., Oladele, O.N., Yahaya, U.F., Olukotun, O. “Vegetable Marketing among Retailers in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.181-189 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/181-189.pdf

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Hypoglycemic Property of Different Fractions of Crude Ethanol Extract of Azadirachta indica Leaves in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats
Obiajulu Christian Ezeigwe, Chukwuemeka Obumneme Okpala, Chidimma Stella-Maris Okeke, Perpetua Chiamaka Amuzie, Blessing Adaobi Okeke, Chiemeka Princess-Dolorosa Ikechukwu, Ejike Celestine Orji, Naomi Ngozi Nnadi – June 2020 – Page No.: 190-194

Background: Azadirachta indica (AI) is used in the traditional management of diabetes in Nigeria. This study investigated the hypoglycemic potential of Azadirachta indica leaf fractions (AILF) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats.

Methods: Ethanol crude extract of AI leaf was fractionated with solvents of increasing order of polarity (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate, and n-butanol). Phytochemical analysis was done using standard methods. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats intraperitoneally with 50mg/kg bodyweight of streptozotocin. Treatment with the AILF was done for a period of twenty-eight days to ascertain which of the AILF possess better hypoglycemic property. Fasting blood glucose levels were checked at one week intervals using One Touch Glucometer and Test Strips.

Results: Bioactive compounds detected in moderate and trace amounts in the AILF include alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponin and tannins. Induction of diabetes caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in the fasting blood glucose levels of the experimental animals followed by observable weight loss. Treatment with the AILF and the standard drug caused a significant weight gain in the animals in week 4 compared with the diabetic-untreated control. The group that was treated with 400mg/kg bodyweight of ethyl acetate fraction showed a better weight gain which was observed from the 2nd week to the 4th week of treatment.

The n-hexane and ethyl acetate fraction decreased the fasting blood glucose levels more significantly within the four weeks of treatment compared with chloroform fraction, n-butanol fraction and the standard drug. However, a better and significant (p<0.05) reduction was observed in the fasting blood glucose levels of the group treated with 400mg/kg bodyweight of ethyl acetate fraction from week 1 to week 4 of the treatment compared with the diabetic-untreated.

Conclusion: The data from this study suggest that ethyl acetate fraction of A. indica leaf has a better hypoglycemic property and can serve as a potential adjuvant for the development of an effective antidiabetic drug.

Page(s): 190-194                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2020

  Obiajulu Christian Ezeigwe
Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

  Chukwuemeka Obumneme Okpala
Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

  Chidimma Stella-Maris Okeke
Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

  Perpetua Chiamaka Amuzie
Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

  Blessing Adaobi Okeke
Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

  Chiemeka Princess-Dolorosa Ikechukwu
Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

  Ejike Celestine Orji
Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

  Naomi Ngozi Nnadi
Department of Applied Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria

[1]. Ogbonnia SO, Odimegwu JI, Enwuru VN. Evaluation of hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Treculia Africana Decne and Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. and their mixture on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008; 7: 2535-2539.
[2]. King H, Aubert E, Herman WH. Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025: Prevalence, numerical estimates and projections. Diabetes Care. 1998; 21: 1414-1431.
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[11]. Mukherjee A, Sengupta S. Characterization of nimbidol as a potent intestinal disaccharidase and glucoamylase inhibitor present in Azadirachta indica (neem) useful for the treatment of diabetes. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition Medicinal Biochemistry. 2013; 28: 900-910.
[12]. Ezeigwe OC, Ezeonu FC. Antidiabetic and modulatory effect of ethanol extract of neem leaf on some essential biochemical parameters of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Biochemistry Research and Review. 2019;28(4):1-11.
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Obiajulu Christian Ezeigwe, Chukwuemeka Obumneme Okpala, Chidimma Stella-Maris Okeke, Perpetua Chiamaka Amuzie, Blessing Adaobi Okeke, Chiemeka Princess-Dolorosa Ikechukwu, Ejike Celestine Orji, Naomi Ngozi Nnadi “Hypoglycemic Property of Different Fractions of Crude Ethanol Extract of Azadirachta indica Leaves in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.190-194 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/190-194.pdf

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Determination of Sub-Soil Surface Layers Suitable for Site Foundation in Bowen University Iwo, Osun State
Raheem, H.A., Ojo, M.O., Ishola, K.O. – June 2020 – Page No.: 195-204

Geo-electrical methods offer a fast, cheap and cost effective method of evaluating competency of soils for building foundations. Electrical investigation of sub-surface soils in Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria, was undertaken in order to acquires a VES data of the subsurface soil, construct geological section of the subsurface, delineate the possible geological structural beneath the study area and to categorize the area into different subsoil competence zones which will assist to prevent the structural failure and collapse of building in the future. Seven vertical electrical sounding stations were surveyed for the site investigation. Schlumberger array was used for the VES with maximum current electrode separation (XY/2) of 75m and readings of the resistance observed from the Terrameter were converted to apparent resistivity. The data obtained was presented as geoelectric sounding curve and geoelectric section shows the subsurface layer resistivity and thickness while geoelectric sounding curve were obtained by plotting apparent resistivity value against electrode spacing on a tracing paper superimpose on log graph sheet. All were iterated on the computer with a software program called WinResist version 1.0
The results revealed three to four geo-electric sections within the study area which comprises topsoil, sandy clays/possibly gravel, lateritic layers and fresh basement which are between the depth of 1.1m to 20.9m below the earth surface. VES 1, 2, 4 and 6 of the study areas shows the lowest resistivity values that suggest high clay content or possible fracture which have impact on the competence and reliability of the soil for construction and building development. Therefore, the topsoil has to be excavated beyond the depth of 4.8m for the choice of shallow foundation that will be suitable for any engineering work and building development in the study area,

Page(s): 195-204                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2020

  Raheem, H.A.
Department of Physics, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria

  Ojo, M.O.
Department of Physics, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria

  Ishola, K.O.
Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

[1]. Kure N., Aboh O. H., Jimoh R., Joseph O. A. and Isaac H. D. (2017) The Delineation of Potential Groundwater Aquifers within Basement Complex in ABU Zaria, Nigeria.British Journal of Applied Science & Technology 19(1): 1-9, 2017; Article no.BJAST.31343.
[2]. Lateef T.A. and Adegoke J.A. (2011) Geophysical Investigation of Foundation Condition of a Site in Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State, South-Western Nigeria, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(9): 1852-1857.
[3]. MundherDhahir. Nsaif (2016) Geo-electrical and geotechnical evaluation of subsoil at a proposedEngineering site north east of Baghdad city:Diyala JournalofEngineering Science Vol. 09, No.02, pp. 50-61.
[4]. Nwokoma E. U., Chukwu G. U. and Amos-Uhegbu C. (2015), Geoelectrical Investigation of soils as Foundation Materials in Umudike Area, Southeastern Nigeria. Physical Science International Journal 6(2): 82-95, 2015, Article no. PSIJ.2015.035
[5]. Oluwafemi O. and Ogunribido T. H. Tolulope (2014) Integrated geophysical and geotechnical assessment of the permanent site of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Southwestern, Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2014, 5(2):199-209
[6]. Oyedele, K. F. and Okoh, C. (2011), Subsoil investigation using integrated methods at Lagos, Nigeria, Journal of Geology and Mining Research Vol. 3(7), pp. 169-179, July 2011 Available online http://www.academicjournals.org/JGMR
[7]. Poongothai,S. and Sridhar, N. (2017) Application of Geoelectrical Resistivity TechniqueFor Groundwater Exploration in Lower Ponnaiyar Sub-Watershed, Tamilnadu,India. IOP Conference series: Earth and Environmental Science

Raheem, H.A., Ojo, M.O., Ishola, K.O. “Determination of Sub-Soil Surface Layers Suitable for Site Foundation in Bowen University Iwo, Osun State” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.195-204 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/195-204.pdf

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Resilience of Digital Protection Relay’s Power Supplies to Powerful Nanosecond Pulses
Vladimir Gurevich – June 2020 – Page No.: 205-207

This article suggests the results of attenuation measurements provided by various types of high-quality two-stage electromagnetic filters and offers the best two types. Test results are provided of digital protection relay (DPR) equipped with 316NN63 power supply sources fitted with one of the best filter types. It is also suggested that using these filters in combination with voltage suppressors connected before power supply of high-sensitivity equipment implemented in the power industry can significantly increase its noise-resistance.

Page(s): 205-207                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 July 2020

 Vladimir Gurevich
Central Electric Laboratory, Israel Electric Corp.

[1]. Gurevich V. Resilience of Digital Protection Relay’s Power Supplies to Powerful Nanosecond Pulses. – International Journal of Research Studies in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 2019, Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 38 – 45.
[2]. IEC 61000-2-9 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 2: Environment – Section 9: Description of HEMP environment – Radiated disturbance. BasicEMCpublication, 1996.
[3]. Gurevich V. Protecting Electrical Equipment. Good Practices for Preventing High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse Impacts. – De Gruyter, Berlin, 2019. – 386 p.

Vladimir Gurevich “Resilience of Digital Protection Relay’s Power Supplies to Powerful Nanosecond Pulses” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.205-207 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/205-207.pdf

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Waste Management Practice among Students of Doherty Memorial Grammar School, Ijero Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
Victor SHEGUN Oluwatuyi, Blessing Alagbada, Alaba Tolulope Agbele, R.A Okunade, Toyin Babalola, Abimbola M. Olusuyi – June 2020 – Page No.: 208-211

Poor waste management and handling continues to be a major public menace notably in Secondary Schools in Nigeria. This has greatly impacted public health and contributed to loss of aesthetic value of the environment. The need to properly handle and dispose waste sanitarily becomes apparent in the face of the rising challenges and the nuisance constantly constituted daily. This research work examines solid waste practice among students of Doherty Memorial Secondary School Ijero Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Questionnaire was designed and used as instrument to obtain information from selected respondents on waste management practice in the School. A total number of one hundred and twenty six (126) students were randomly selected from JSS1-SSS3 who filled the questionnaires which were all retrieved personally. Personal observation and interview method was employed. Analysis of data was done using simple percentage and graphical representations while the result showed evidence of poor waste disposal practice in Doherty Memorial Secondary School Ijero. it was observed that there is limited access to health information on ideal waste management practice among other waste management challenges in the study area.

Page(s): 208-211                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 July 2020

 Victor SHEGUN Oluwatuyi
Department of Environmental Health Science, Kwara State University, Malete, Ilorin, Nigeria
Department of Public Health, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero-Ekiti, Nigeria

  Blessing Alagbada
Department of Public Health, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Alaba Tolulope Agbele
Department of Basic Medical Science, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero-Ekiti, Nigeria

  R.A Okunade
Department of Dental Health, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Toyin Babalola
Department of Environmental Health, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Abimbola M. Olusuyi
Department of Community Health, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and technology, Ijero-Ekiti, Nigeria

[1]. Agbola T (1993). “Environmental Education in Nigerian Schools”. In Filho W.L. (ed) Environmental Education in the Commonwealth, then Commonwealth of learning, Vancouver.
[2]. Ajani OIY (2007). Determinants of an effective solid waste management in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo state, Nigeria. J. Food, Agric. Environ. 6(1): 152-157.
[3]. Ballantyne R (1998). Interpreting ‘visions’: Addressing environmental education goals through interpretation. In: D. Uzzell and R Ballantyne (Eds) Contemporary Issues in Heritage and Environ. Interpr. Pp. 9-77.
[4]. Eagles PFJ, Demare R (1999). Factors influencing children’ environmental attitudes. J. Environ. Edu. 30(4): Pp. 33.
[5]. Eero O, Grendstad G, Wollebak D (2001). Correlates of environmental behaviors: Bringing back social context. Environ. Behavior. 33: 181- 208.
[6]. Evans SM, Gill ME, Marchant J (1996). School children as educators:The indirect influence of environmental education in schools on parents’ attitude towards the environment. J.
[7]. Fransson N, Garling T (1999). Environmental concern: Conceptual definitions, measurements, methods and research findings. J. Environ. Psychol. 19: 369-582.
[8]. Gallagher J, Wheeler C, McDonough M, Namfa B (2000). Sustainable environmental education for a sustainable environment: lessons of Thailand for other nations. Walter Air Soil Pollut. 123(1-4): 489- 503.
[9]. Ifegbesan A (2008). Exploring secondary school students’ understanding and practices of waste management in Ogun State, Nigeria. International J. Environ. Sci. Edu. 3(3): 201-215.
[10]. Jones RE, Dunlap RE (1992). The social bases of environmental concern. Have they changed over time? Rural Sociol. 57(1): 134- 144.
[11]. Joseph K (2006). Stakeholders participation for sustainable waste management. Habitat Int. 30: 863-871.
[12]. Kofoworola OF (2007). Recovery and recycling practices in municipal solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria. Waste Manage. 27(9): 1139-1143.
[13]. McKenzie-Mohr D, Nemeroff LS, Beers L, Desamrais S (1995). Determinants of responsible environmental behavior. J. Social Issues. 51: 139-156.
[14]. Ogunyemi B (1994). Towards better management of urban wastes in Nigeria: Environmental education approach. In Albert, I. O. (ed), Proceedings of the International Symposium on Urban management and Urban Violence in Africa, Vol.1., Ibadan, 7-11 November 1994. Ibadan: Institut de Recherche en Afrique (IFRA).
[15]. Ojeda BS, Armijo VC, Ramirez BM (2000). The potential of recycling household waste: A case study from Mexicali, Mexico. Environ. Urban. 12: 163–173.
[16]. Omoleke II (2004). Management of Environmental Pollution in Ibadan, An African City: The Challenges of Health Hazard Facing Government and The People. J. Hum. Ecol. 15(4): 265-275.
[17]. Osinowo FAO (2001). Towards effective waste management in Nigeria. Nigerian Conservation Foundation, Lecture Series No. 1, a publication of the NCF. Pacey A (1990). “Hygiene and Literacy”, in Kerr, C(ed), Community
[18]. Health and Sanitation, Intermediate Technology Publications, Nigeria. Raudsepp M (2001). Some socio-demographic and socio-psychological predictors of environmentalism. TRAMES. 5(4): 355-367.
[19]. Scott D, Willets FK (1994). Environmental attitudes and behaviour. Environ. Behaviour. 26(2): 239-261.

Victor SHEGUN Oluwatuyi, Blessing Alagbada, Alaba Tolulope Agbele, R.A Okunade, Toyin Babalola, Abimbola M. Olusuyi “Waste Management Practice among Students of Doherty Memorial Grammar School, Ijero Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.208-211 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/208-211.pdf

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Female Trafficking and the Challenges of Education for Sustainable Development
HUSSAINI Manir, SARKINFADA Halima (Ph.D) – June 2020 – Page No.: 212-215

Trafficking in persons is a euphemism for slave trade. The trafficking for the purpose of domestic service, prostitution, and other forms of exploitation is a wide spread phenomenon in Nigeria. This paper highlights the estrangement of female trafficking and the challenges facing the Nigerian child, every female must be protected against all forms of exploitation, indecent or degrading treatment including child labour, abuse or torture, sexual exploitation, sale, abduction and drug abuse. The need to educate the leaders of tomorrow relating the implication of child abuse and how education is a channel for ethical rebirth leading to behavioral change for sustainable development.

Page(s): 212-215                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 July 2020

College of Agriculture Zuru, Kebbi State, Nigeria

  SARKINFADA Halima (Ph.D)
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education and Extension Services, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria

[1]. Adepoju, A. (2004) “Patterns of migration in West Africa”. Presented at conference on Migration and development in Ghana 14-16 September, Accra.
[2]. Bhatia, K.K. (2006) “Principles and Practice of Education”, Bhatia Towers Badambadi, published by kalayani publishers New Delhe – India
[3]. Economist (the) (2004) “Nigerians other export 24th April; 43; Gordon, A.A. (2004) “Nigerians diverse people, ABC – CLIO, santa Barbara, C.A.
[4]. Little, A. (2004) “Nigeria’s respectable ‘slave trade” BBC New (London) 1. 04
[5]. Norwegian Directorate of immigration, (2004) “Report from a fact finding trip to Nigerian (Abuja, Kaduna and Lagos). 23-28 February 2004,” The Norwegian Directorate of immigration Oslo.
[6]. Okojie, C.E.E, O., Eghafona, K. Vincent Osaghae, and V. Kalu, (2003) “Report of field survey in Edo State Nigerian”. United nations interregional crime and Justice Research Institte (UNICRI), programme of Action against trafficking in Minors and Young women from Nigiera into Italy for the purpose of school exploitation, Toronto.
[7]. Omorodion, F.I. (1993) “Sexual networking among market women in Benin city. Edo state, Nigeria” health Transtion Review (Supplement) 3:1-11.
[8]. Oghoe, E.E. (1999) “Existing from the state in Nigeria”, African journal of political Science, 4 (1): 83-98.
[9]. Prina, F. (2003) “Trade and exploitation of minors and young Nigerian women for prostitution in Italy,” United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), programme of action against trafficking in minors and young women from Nigeria into Italy for the purpose of sexual exploitation, Toronto.
[10]. Shaibu, A.O (2007) “An overview of trafficking in persons laws in Nigeria”. Being a paper presented at a training programme organized by NAPTIP for the law enforcement officers at Illela Border post in Sokoto. August 2007.
[11]. Smith, D.J (2001) “Ritual killing, 419, and fast wealth: Inequality and the popular immigration in south-eastern Nigeria”.
[12]. Osaghae E.A (1999) “Report field survey of Southern Nigeria” United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), programme of study on sexual exploitation, Toronto.
[13]. United Nations, (2000) “Protocol to prevent, suppress and burnish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, supplementing the united nations convention against transititional organized crime”. United Nations office for Drug Control and Crime prevention. Vienna
[14]. Umar, S. (2007) “Child Abuse /Labor and Human Trafficking: Implementation for sustainable Development and the Role of House of Assembly”. Published by National Agency for the prohibition of Trafficking in persons and other related matters. (NAPTIP) Sokoto.
[15]. UNDP, (2004) United Nations Development Programme “Article on human Trafficking and degradation”. Published by the Women Trafficking and Child Eradication Foundation”.(WOTCLEF) 2003 pamphlet.
[16]. Van Dijk, R.A, T. Raising, N. Tellegen, and W. Van Binsbergen, (2003) “En Schijin Van Voodoo, Cultural achlergronden vandal in Nigeriansemesjesvoor de Nederlands prostitute; African Studies, Center universiteitLelden, Leilden.
[17]. WOTCLEF (2003) “ Understanding the Anti-trafficking law” published by the women Trafficking and Child Eradication Foundation (WOTCLEF). 2003 p.8 Gwarinpa Estate Abuja. A Pamphlet.

HUSSAINI Manir, SARKINFADA Halima (Ph.D) “Female Trafficking and the Challenges of Education for Sustainable Development” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.212-215 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/212-215.pdf

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Towards Testing the Effectiveness of English Language Teacher’s Repertoire through Teaching Reading in Nigerian Secondary Schools
Hussaini Sa’idu – June 2020 – Page No.: 216-221

This study is meant to test the effectiveness of English language teacher’s repertoire through teaching reading in Nigerian secondary schools. Failure to include national reading policy in Secondary school curriculum leads to making this paper. The study highlights the importance of reading. New official policy statement on reading as produced by Research Development Council (NERDC) also comes in the paper. Various reading techniques and sub-techniques are fully discussed with ample illustrations. These techniques include teaching vocabularies, teaching reading for main ideas, teaching reading for critical evaluation, teaching oral reading skills etc. Since the major goal of the study is to test the mastery of language teacher’s reading skills, retrain them towards accumulating new trends related to teaching reading, the paper then finally recommends that let the teachers provide right techniques and right instructional materials that can help to correct errors for the benefits of learners. Let the teachers improve reading culture in students because successful training in extensive reading naturally leads to the development of the reading culture which is the bed rock of life-long education. There is also need for federal ministry of education to include national reading policy in secondary school curriculum where reading should be seen and treated as a school subject.

Page(s): 216-221                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 July 2020

  Hussaini Sa’idu
Department Of Liberal Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Kaura Namoda, Zamfara State, Nigeria

[1]. Bell, Timothy (1998) Extensive Reading: Why? and How?
[2]. Debis (2019) Why Reading is Important, https://www.learn- to- read-
[3]. Diamond and Lynda (2006) Teaching Volume https:/www.readingrocket.org>article
[4]. Ene (2019) Teaching Reading at Secondary School Level https://www.researchgate.net>publication. Retrieved on 15th May 2019
[5]. Extensive vs intensive Reading/Teacher Finder, https://www.wearteacherfinder.com>blog. Retrieved on 14/1/2018
[6]. Jane I, (2005) Study Book on English Language Teaching Methods 11 for Secondary and Tertiary Institutions, Published by Library Department Federal College of Education Zaria Kaduna State.
[7]. Jane J (2009) Current Trend and issue on English language Teaching Methodology for Colleges of Education,
[8]. Koay (2019) What is Intensive Reading?/ EduMaxi htpps://www.edumaxi.com>what –is –intensive –reading. Retrieved on 10 October 2019
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[14]. The Internal FESL Journal, vol. W, No. 12, Dec 1998

Hussaini Sa’idu “Towards Testing the Effectiveness of English Language Teacher’s Repertoire through Teaching Reading in Nigerian Secondary Schools” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.216-221 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/216-221.pdf

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Commentary: Reducing Covid-19-Related Deaths in Nigeria: More than Ventilators
Babatunde B. Osinaike – June 2020 – Page No.: 222-224

In December 2019, a strain of Coronavirus later called Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), broke out in Wuhan, China [1–3]. COVID-19 mainly affected the respiratory system with some patients rapidly progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Some of the patients affected get admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and many deaths have been reported. The elderly and those with comorbidities are at highest risk of death. The death appeared to be related to ARDS [4].
In Nigeria, the first case of COVID-19 was reported on February 27 in an Italian expatriate. Since then, the number of cases has progressively increased. Presently, the case fatality in Nigeria is around 3%. Except for the lower case fatality rate of South Africa, 2% the Nigerian figure is much lower than the 6.3%, 5.9%, and 14.3% reported as the global case fatality rate and that of United States of America and United Kingdom respectively [5]. An underestimation of figures from Nigeria is not unlikely because of poor population data base and inadequate coordination between the states and the central government.


In the report by Wu and McGoogan, among 72,314 COVID-19 cases reported to the Chinese Center for disease Control and Prevention (CCDC), 81% were mild (absent or mild pneumonia), 14% were severe (hypoxia, dyspnea, >50% lung involvement within 24-48 hours), 5% were critical (shock, respiratory failure, multiorgan dysfunction), and 2.3% were fatal[6]. Also, the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC) report on COVID-19 [7] published on 6th May 2020 opined that of the 20,276 with a positive history of COVID-19 in their database, 3767(19%) required care in the high dependency unit(HDU) or intensive care unit (ICU).The details of treatment revealed that of the totalpatients,10,281(51%) had oxygen only via nasal or face masks. Non-invasive ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation and extra-corporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were provided for 3039(15%), 2286(11%) and 226(1%) respectively.

Page(s): 222-224                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 July 2020

  Babatunde B. Osinaike
Department of Anaesthesia, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

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[3]. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Bo Y et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:727–33.
[4]. Burki TK. Coronavirus in China. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8(3):238.
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[8]. Bowale A,Abayomi A, Idris J, Omilabu S, Abdus-Salam I,Adebayo B, et al. Clinical presentation, case management and outcomes for the first 32 COVID-19 patients in Nigeria. Pan African Medical Journal. 2020;35(2):24. [doi: 10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.2.23262]
[9]. Osinaike B, Ayandipo O, Onyeka T, Alagbe-Briggs O, Mohammed D et. al. on behalf of Nigerian Surgical Outcomes Study Investigators. Nigerian surgical outcomes – Report of a 7-day prospective cohort study and external validation of the African surgical outcomes study surgical risk calculator. International Journal of Surgery. 2019; 68:148-156.
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[11]. Oxygen sources and distribution for COVID-19 treatment centres: interim guidance, April 4 2020, COVID-19: Clinical care. https://www.who.int/publications-detail/oxygen-sources-and-distribution-for-covid-19-treatment-centres, accessed 24th May 2020.
[12]. Zhao H, Wang H, Sun F, Lyu S, An Y. High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy is superior to conventionaloxygen therapy but not to noninvasive mechanical ventilation on intubation rate: a systematic review andmeta-analysis. Crit Care. 2017;21(1):184.
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Babatunde B. Osinaike “Commentary: Reducing Covid-19-Related Deaths in Nigeria: More than Ventilators” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.222-224 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/222-224.pdf

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Mental Health Consequences of COVID-19: Implication for Counseling
Anthony Abah Ebonyi, Sa’adatu Adamu – June 2020 – Page No.: 225-231

This paper examines the rise in mental illness caused by the Coronavirus disease, and discusses measures, in terms of counseling necessary to mitigate the psychological trauma in its aftermath. The emergence of the novel Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19)and the measures such as lockdown, isolation, hand-washing, mask wearing, social/physical distancing, aim to curb its continuous spread and infection, has led to rise in mental illnesses among the populace. Reports show that most countries, including those having advanced health care facilities or structures, continue to grapple with the increasing challenge posed by the Coronavirus pandemic, especially its mental health complications. The paper uses secondary and documentary data, including, journal articles, agency reports and working papers and social media posts, to understand the rise in mental health illness during the COVID-19 pandemic and its implication for counselling. Findings reveal that COVID-19 has exacerbated old mental health challenges and thrown up new ones across different age groups and socio-economic classes, and left many in need of psychological support in terms of counseling interventions to help them cope with or regain their physical and mental wellbeing. It concludes that people with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) caused by COVID-19 need counseling which should be provided by trained and certified counseling psychologists or therapists.

Page(s): 225-231                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 July 2020

  Anthony Abah Ebonyi
Department of Sociology, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria

 Sa’adatu Adamu
Secure the Future International Initiative, Abuja, Nigeria

[1]. Al Bannaa, H., Sayeed, A., Kunduc, S., Christopherd, E., H-asane, M. T., Begumf, M R., &Dolab, S. T, I., et al. (2020). The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Mental Health of the Adult Population in Bangladesh: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 1-19.https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph
[2]. Banerjee, D. (2020). The COVID-19 Outbreak: Crucial Role the Psychiatrists can play. Asian Journal of Psychiatry 50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102014
[3]. Ebonyi, A. A. &Abok, A. (2020). Sociological Assessment of the Perception of Nigerians on the Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) Pandemic. International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (VII) IV, 192-198. https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-5/192-198.pdf
[4]. Fact Sheet (2020). Information for the Community: Mental Health Impacts of Coronavirus (COVID-19). Retrieved from Government of South Australia https://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/public+content/sa+health+internet/conditions/infectious+diseases/covid+2019
[5]. Goothy, S. S. K., Goothy, S., Choudhary, A., et al. (2020). COVID-19 Lockdown Impact on the Mental Health of Students: Need to Start a Mental Health Cell. MOJ Anat Physiol. 7(2), 51‒52. DOI: 10.15406/mojap.2020.07.00289
[6]. Guterres, A. (2020, May 21). We Need to Take Action to Address the Mental Health Crisis in This Pandemic. https://time.com/5839553/un-action-mental-health-crisis/
[7]. Indranil, C. &Prasenjit, M. (2020). COVID-19 outbreak: Migration, Effects on Society, Global Environment and Prevention. Science of the Total Environment, 732. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138882
[8]. Kamal, N. M., & Othman, N. (2020). Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in the Time of COVID-19 Pandemic in Kurdistan Region, Kurdistan Journal of Applied Research (KJAR),Special Issue on Coronaviru (COVID-19),37-44. DOI: 10.24017/covid.
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[10]. Kecmanovic, J. (2020, March 10). Science-Based Strategies to Cope with Coronavirus Anxiety. https://theconversation.com/7-science-based-strategies-to-cope-with-coronavirus-anxiety-133207
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Anthony Abah Ebonyi, Sa’adatu Adamu “Mental Health Consequences of COVID-19: Implication for Counseling” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.225-231 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/225-231.pdf

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Developmental Problems of Public Parks and Greenery across Garden City of Nigeria
Ugwuoke Hillary, Ayagere Selete Ayebaemi, Amakiri-whyte Belema Henry, Bumaa Felix Neeka – June 2020 – Page No.: 232-237

The gatherings and health implications of public parks and greenery is of ultimate significance to the urban and suburb residents. Public parks and greenery surface difficult existing situations owing to inadequate institutional concern and failure to mete out to its roles of maintaining standard and quality public parks. The investigation of public parks and developmental problems could consequently exposed active directions to debase or upgrade of public parks, greenery and welfare of the important population. This research anchored on developmental problems of public parks and greenery across garden city of Nigeria. The study adopted random sampling techniques while data collection was held through environmental observation and validated questionnaire with a reliability value of 0.85 Cronbach alphas. A sample of 300 respondents was drawn although data analysis was based on percentage and inferential statistics of multiple regressions at 0.05 alpha level. The result revealed that public parks and greenery spaces has relative developmental problem. However, the work demonstrated that urbanization had statistical score of (t = 11.229,p = 0.000<0.05), institutional low resource base (t =7.757,p =0.000< 0.05), political instability( t = 3.982, p = 0.000< 0.05), lack of proximity (t =7.787, p = 0.001<0.05) and wide corruption( t = 3.325, p = 0.003< 0.05) each have significant relative problem and significant joint problem of F(5, 295) =244.133, R2Adj.=0.718) on public parks and greenery areas of the city. The research concluded that public parks and greenery in Port Harcourt urban possess higher relative problem while urbanization, institutional low resource base, political instability, lack of proximity and wide corruption constitute the independent and joint problems of public parks. Organisation of conferences, workshops, seminars and discussions at urban, suburbs, regional and national level can decline the problems and establish immeasurably benefits of parkson the environment.

Page(s): 232-237                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 July 2020

 Ugwuoke Hillary
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Institute of Management and Technology Enugu, Nigeria

 Ayagere Selete Ayebaemi
Department of Architecture, Kenule Beeson Saro-wiwa Polytechnic Bori Nigeria

 Amakiri-whyte Belema Henry
Department of Architecture, Kenule Beeson Saro-wiwa Polytechnic Bori Nigeria

 Bumaa Felix Neeka
Department of Architecture, Kenule Beeson Saro-wiwa Polytechnic Bori Nigeria

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Ugwuoke Hillary, Ayagere Selete Ayebaemi, Amakiri-whyte Belema Henry, Bumaa Felix Neeka “Developmental Problems of Public Parks and Greenery across Garden City of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.232-237 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/232-237.pdf

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Single Classifiers and Ensemble Approach for Predicting Student’s Academic Performance
OLUKOYA, Bamidele Musiliu – June 2020 – Page No.: 238-243

In recent time, educational data mining (EDM) has received substantial considerations. Many techniques of data mining have been proposed to dig out out-of-sight knowledge in educational data. The Knowledge obtained assists the academic institutions to further enhance their process of learning and methods of passing knowledge to students. Consequently, the performance of students soar and the educational products are by no doubt enhanced. In this study, a novel student’s performance prediction model premised on techniques of data mining with Students’ Essential Features (SEF). Students’ Essential Features (SEF) are linked to the learner’s interactivity with the e-learning management system. The performance of student’s predictive model is assessed by set of classifiers, viz. Bayes Network, Logistic Regression and REP Tree. Consequently, ensemble methods of Bagging Boosting and Random Forest are applied to improve the performance of these single classifiers. The results obtained reveal that there is a robust affinity between learner’s behaviors and their academic attainment. Results from the study shows that REP Tree and its ensemble record the highest accuracy of 83.33% using SEF. Hence, in terms of Receiver Operating Curve (ROC), boosting method of REP Tree records 0.903, which is the best. This result further demonstrates the dependability of the proposed model.

Page(s): 238-243                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 July 2020

  OLUKOYA, Bamidele Musiliu
M.Sc Student, University of Ilorin, Nigeria

[1]. Amrieh, E. A., Hamtini, T., and Aljarah, I. (2016). Mining Educational Data to Predict Student’s Academic Performance Using Ensemble Methods. International Journal of Database Theory and Application, 9(8), 209–213. https://doi.org/10.14257/ijdta.2016.9.8.13
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[8]. Gupta, A., Gupta, S., and Singh, D. (2015). A Systematic Review of Classification Techniques and Implementation of ID3 Decision Tree Algorithm. In International Conference on System Modeling & Advancement in Research Trends (SMART) (pp. 144–152).
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[11]. Mhetre, V. (2017). Classification Based Data Mining Algorithms to Predict Slow, Average and Fast Learners in Educational System Using Weka. In Proceedings of the IEEE 2017 International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (pp. 475–479).
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[14]. Mostow, J.and Beck, J. (2006).Some Useful Tactics to Modify, Map and Mine Data from Intelligent Tutors. J Nat Lang EngVol. 12:195–208.
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[18]. Shet, S. (2014). Approach for Predicting Student Performance Using Ensemble Model Method. International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, 2(5), 161–169.
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[22]. Vinodhini, G., and Chandrasekaran, R. M. (2018). Predicting Students ’ Academic Performance in the University Using Meta Decision Tree Classifiers. Journal of Computer Science, 15(12), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3844/jcssp.2018.654.662
[23]. Wati, M., Indrawan, W., Widians, J. A., and Puspitasari, N. (2017). Data Mining For Predicting Students ’ Learning Result. In Dept. of Computer Science and Information Technology Universitas Mulawarman Samarinda, Indonesia (p. 28).

OLUKOYA, Bamidele Musiliu “Single Classifiers and Ensemble Approach for Predicting Student’s Academic Performance” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.238-243 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/238-243.pdf

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Problems of Dental Health Care Services and Use in Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero Ekiti, Nigeria
Okunade R.A, Oluwatuyi Shegun Victor, Alagbada Blessing, Oluwatuyi Mayowa Funmilayo – June 2020 – Page No.: 244-248

Dental health services faces varied challenges in Nigeria today as the public gives little or no attention to dental health care. The authors identified various factors and problems facing the use of dental health care facility in the study area. This also covers the attitude of users (Mainly Students) to dental health care services despite being a health institution. We adopted a stratified sampling technique to select our sample while making use of primary and secondary data; revealing the statistics of patients recorded to have utilized dental health facility in the College from 2016-2019. One hundred and Ninety two (192) Questionnaires was administered to find out the problems and challenges of dental health care usage in the study area, a rating scale was designed and distributed to the dental health personnel in the clinic. Data obtained were analyzed using tables and graphical representations. The result revealed low utilization of dental health care facility in the study area; identified factors are lack of or poor awareness of the importance of dental health care which is the most identified factor, ignorance, unaffordable cost, painful procedure of dental health care services among others hence, there is need to improve on dental health care awareness as an essential health care service while also encouraging the government to subsidize dental health care services to make it affordable to users.

Page(s): 244-248                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 July 2020

 Okunade R.A
Department of Dental Health, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero, Nigeria

 Oluwatuyi Shegun Victor
Department of Public Health, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero, Nigeria

 Alagbada Blessing
Department of Public Health, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero, Nigeria

 Oluwatuyi Mayowa Funmilayo
Department of Health Information Management, Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero, Nigeria

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Okunade R.A, Oluwatuyi Shegun Victor, Alagbada Blessing, Oluwatuyi Mayowa Funmilayo “Problems of Dental Health Care Services and Use in Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero Ekiti, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.244-248 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/244-248.pdf

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Narrative Discourse and the Emergence of a New Rural Woman in Alobwed’Epie’s the Lady with a Beard
Ophilia Abianji-Menang – June 2020 – Page No.: 249-257

This paper explores narrative discourse and the emergence of a new rural woman in Alobwed’Epie’s the Lady With a Beard. The focus is to show how the text raises awareness on the predicaments of widows in the Cameroonian society. The novel presents some stereotypes of widows as depicted in the society from which it is written and the effects of these stereotypes on widows. However, events in the text show how Alobwed’Epie breaks away from dominant patriarchal ideologies about widows and presents a widow who questions patriarchal canons and overturns widowhood stereotypes. The text also challenges society’s opinion about widows by providing new perspectives from which widows should be viewed. The womanist perspectives of Mary E. Modupe Kolawale, Chimamanda Ngozie Adichie and Chikwenye Ogunyemi are used to show that far from being a helpless class of women in society, widows can assert themselves, make choices, inherit, and manage land as well as partake in major socio-cultural, political and economic activities of their communities.

Page(s): 249-257                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 July 2020

 Ophilia Abianji-Menang
Department of English Language and Literature, University of Maroua

[1]. Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. London: Heinemann, 1958.
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[8]. Clark, Herbert H. and Mija M. Van Der Wege. “Imagination in Narratives.” The Handbook of Discourse Analysis.2nd Ed. Vol. 1, eds, Tannen, Deborah, Heidi E. Hamilton and Deborah Schiffrin. New Delhi: Blackwell Publishers, 2015.
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[19]. Ngongkum, Eunice. “A crushing Curse: Widowhood in Contemporary Anglophone Cameroon Literature.” Tydskrif VIR LETTERKUNDE. A Journal for African Literature. 53(1). Ed. Juliana Makuchi Nfah-Abbenyi, 2016, 138-148.
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[21]. Owen, Margaret.A World of Widows. London: ZED Books, 1996.
[22]. Pangmeshi, Adamou. “Failed Heroines: The Parodox of Female Liberation in John Nkemngong Nkengasong’s The Widow’s Might and Alobwed’Epie’s The Lady with a Beard.” Emerging perspectives on Alobwed’Epie. eds, Agbor, Sarah Anyang, Manyaka Toko Djockoua and Stephen Ambe Mforteh, Newcastle:Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018, 77-89.
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Ophilia Abianji-Menang “Narrative Discourse and the Emergence of a New Rural Woman in Alobwed’Epie’s the Lady with a Beard” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp.249-257 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/249-257.pdf

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Sensory Processing Disorder in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Dr. George Mathenge Wairungu – June 2020 – Page No.: 258-263

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neurological developmental disorder that affect individual’s communication abilities, behavior and social skills. Individuals with the condition also portray restrictive interests and repetitive behaviors. Majority of individuals with ASD have a cor-mobid disorder known as Sensory Processing Disorder. Over 90% of them typically exhibit unusual sensory behaviors. The disorder entails a dysfunction of one or more of the eight sensory modalities. The modalities include, auditory, visual, gustatory, olfactory, tactile, proprioception, interception and vestibular. It appears in three forms including the Sensory modulation disorder, Sensory discrimination disorder and Sensory-based motor disorders. The disorder has severe and critical implications in education and general quality of life of individuals with ASD. It is important for therapists, teachers and caregivers to understand the nature and implication of the disorder to affected individuals. Stake holders should work consultatively and collaboratively for timely identification and intervention. Early intervention leads to a more productive outcome. In order to intervene effectively, it is important to understand the entire disorder and its implications. This paper highlights the key features of the disorder including causes, characteristic, intervention strategies and implication to live and education of Individuals with ASD. It is a product of lengthy and in depth review of research findings and scholars’ work in the field of sensory processing disorder and ASD. Its intended audience include caretakers, families of individuals with SPD, teachers, educationists, speech and occupational therapist.

Page(s): 258-263                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 July 2020

 Dr. George Mathenge Wairungu
Department of Early Childhood and Special Needs Education, Kenyatta University Kenya

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Dr. George Mathenge Wairungu “Sensory Processing Disorder in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.7 issue 6, pp. 258-263 June 2020 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-7-issue-6/258-263.pdf

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