Volume VIII Issue I

Publication for  Volume 8 Issue 1, January 2021 is in process…

Low Participation in Adult Literacy Programmes in Kalingalinga Lusaka District Zambia
Flora Ngoma – January 2021 – Page No.: 01-04

The purpose of the study was to investigate low participation in adult literacy programmes among adults in Kalingalinga Lusaka district in Zambia. The main objectives of the study were to find out whether adults are aware of the literacy programmes, to find out the reasons why adults participated in literacy programmes and to find out why there is low participation in the literacy programmes.
The participants were adult residents of Kalingalinga. The study used a survey research design. In order to collect data from the respondents a questionnaire was used.
The finding of the research showed some of the reasons that were given for low participation in literacy programmes included the following; some people were simply not aware of the literacy programmes and others stated that it was time consuming.
One of the recommendations of the study was that there was need for continuous promotions of programmes to encourage a lot of adults to participate.

Page(s): 01-04                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 January 2021

 Flora Ngoma
Moono, University of Zambia

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Flora Ngoma, “Low Participation in Adult Literacy Programmes in Kalingalinga Lusaka District Zambia.” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.01-04 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/01-04.pdf

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Capital Structure and Profitability of Selected Listed Companies in Nigeria

Adekola Adeola Adebayo, Folajinmi Festus Adegbie & Rafiu Oyesola Salawu – January 2021 – Page No.: 05-22

Capital structure of firms is a topical issue that propels the sustainability of concerns. The study investigated capital structure and performance of selected listed companies in Nigeria. This study adopted ex-post facto research design. Secondary data were sourced from the audited annual reports of the sampled firms. The population comprised 170 listed companies on Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) as at December 2019. The sample consisted of 60 selected companies, using purposive sampling technique to cover various sectors. Pre-estimation tests were conducted, using correlation matrix and independent t-test. The post-estimation tests included linearity, heteroskedasticity, Breusch-Godfrey serial correlation Langragian Multiplier and normality test. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result shows R2 = 0.199, 0.527 and Adj. R2 = 0.752. The study revealed that capital structure had significant effect on performance of selected companies in Nigeria. Debt ownership had positive and significant effect on return on capital employed. Equity ownership had positive significant effect on the dividend growth. The study concluded that capital structure affected performance of selected listed companies in Nigeria and therefore recommended that government should formulate a policy that will encourage a balanced capital structure of listed companies so as to enhance performance that creates value for stakeholders and ensure the going concern of the firm

Page(s): 05-22                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 January 2020

 Adekola Adeola Adebayo
Department of Accounting, The, Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria

 Folajinmi Festus Adegbie
Department of Accounting, Babcock University, Nigeria

 Rafiu Oyesola Salawu
Department of Management and Accounting, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria

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Adekola Adeola Adebayo, Folajinmi Festus Adegbie & Rafiu Oyesola Salawu, “Capital Structure and Profitability of Selected Listed Companies in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.05-22 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/05-22.pdf

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An Investigation of the Efficacy and Interest of Nigerian University Students in Virtual Classroom (VCs)

Idakwo, Patricia Ojonoka , Anyebe, Phoebe Eikojonwa- January 2021 – Page No.: 23-28

This paper adopted a descriptive design to investigate the Efficacy and Interest of Nigerian University Students in Virtual Classroom (VCs). Virtual classrooms are digitally driven classrooms that provide learning support that has potential to enhance students’ ability to communicate effectively through latest technology and learn innovative strategies for virtual teamwork by using electronic communication to interact with a group. The study was carried out in one federal and one private university in the North-Central of Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The population comprised of 890 University of Abuja students and 450 Africa University of Science and Technology (AUST), Abuja students giving a total population of 1340 respondents. Purposive sampling techniques based on convenience and accessibility was used to select the two universities. Simple random sampling techniques based on students’ consent was used to draw the sample size of 300 from the University of Abuja (Uniabuja) and 250 from Africa University of Science and Technology (AUST), Abuja given a total sample size of 550 respondents. The instrument for data collection tagged “Virtual Classrooms Assessment Questionnaire” (VCAQ) was 33-items questionnaires developed by the researcher was validated by two experts. The instruments were trial tested on twenty (20) males and twenty-five (25) females students in two universities outside the study area; University of Ibadan and Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja. Internal consistency was computed using Cronbach Alpha techniques and yielded a reliability coefficient thus; Section A = 0.75, Section B =0.80 and section C = 0.85 respectively. The reliability coefficient values were considered appropriate for the study. The instrument was administered via social Network Technologies (SNT) and Google Apps in order to adhere to NCDC directives of Covid-19 and data collected. Likert scale of four points was used and the weightings of responses were; strongly Agree (SA) = 4 points, Agree (A) = 3points; Disagree (D) = 2 points and Strongly Disagree (SD) = 1. The options of the responses were added like this, vz; 4+3+2+1=10/4=2.5. The data collected was analyzed using mean (x̄) and standard deviation (SD) and independent sample t-test statistics to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed among others that the use of virtual classroom (VCs) is not effective in UniAbuja as compared to AUST due to inadequate VC’s learning environment and facilities. Based on these submissions, some recommendations were made.

Page(s): 23-28                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 January 2020

 Idakwo, Patricia Ojonoka1
Department of Computer Science, African University of Science and Technology, Abuja, Nigeria

  Anyebe, Phoebe Eikojonwa
Federal School of Statistics, Ibadan, Nigeria

[1] Akpan, J.S, Etim, J.P & Udom, S.O. (2016). Virtual Classroom Instruction and Academic Performance of Educational Technology Students in Distance Education, Enugu State. World Journal of Education, 6(6), Online Published retrieved from www.Wje.Sciedupress.com.
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Idakwo, Patricia Ojonoka , Anyebe, Phoebe Eikojonwa, “An Investigation of the Efficacy and Interest of Nigerian University Students in Virtual Classroom (VCs)” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.23-28 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/23-28.pdf

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The Influence of Antisocial Personality Patterns on Recidivism among Non-Custodial Offenders in Nairobi County, Kenya

Andrew Kanyutu Mungai, Florence S.A. K’Okul January 2021 Page No.: 58-62

Recidivism of offenders has become a major focus of studies evaluating the efficacy of prison rehabilitation programs. However, there are few studies on recidivism among non-custodial offenders serving community sentences. This study used descriptive survey design to examine the influence of antisocial personality patterns on recidivism among non-custodial offenders in Nairobi County, Kenya. Structured and close ended questionnaires were used to obtain data on 139 recidivists out of 146 target population of recidivists in Nairobi County. Recidivism was measured by the number of rearrests, reconvictions and re-incarceration while as antisocial personality patterns were measured by aggression, callous disregard of others, lack of empathy, and impulsivity. The results indicated that most recidivists acknowledged presence of anti-social personality patterns that influenced reoffending. The results highlights the importance of understanding antisocial personality patterns and future research should help in coming up with rehabilitation interventions to address recidivism. The study concludes that antisocial personality patterns have direct influence on recidivism. It is recommended that the current findings needs to the further replicated and explored in other study locations.

Page(s): 58-62                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 January 2020

 Andrew Kanyutu Mungai
Mount Kenya University

  Florence S.A. K’Okul
Department of Psychology, Mount Kenya University

[1] Adetunji, S.O., Soezin, K., & Margaret, N. N. (2015). Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Creativity Thinking Training on Improving the Emotional Intelligence of Recidivists in Lagos State, Nigeria. Participatory Educational Research (PER) Vol. 2(1), pp. 11-23, April, 2015
[2] Aguilar-Cárceles, M. M., & Farrington, D. P. (2017). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, impulsivity, and low self-control: which is most useful in understanding and preventing offending? Crime Psychology Review, 3(1), 1-22
[3] American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (5th Ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
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[13] Higgins, G. E., Kichner, E. E., & Ricketts, M. L. (2013). Impulsivity and Offending from Childhood to Young Adulthood in the United States: A Developmental Trajectory Analysis. International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences (IJCJS). Vol 8 Issue 2 June 2013
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[21] Meier, M. H., Slutske, W. S., Arndt, S., & Cadoret, R. J. (2008). Impulsive and callous traits are more strongly associated with delinquent behavior in higher risk neighborhoods among boys and girls. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 377–385
[22] Ministry of Justice, (2011). The Offender Personality Disorder Strategy. Retrieved from http://www.personalitydisorder.org.uk/criminal- justice/about-dspd-programme/
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Andrew Kanyutu Mungai, Florence S.A. K’Okul, “The Influence of Antisocial Personality Patterns on Recidivism among Non-Custodial Offenders in Nairobi County, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-1, pp.58-62 January 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-1/58-62.pdf

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The Language of Instruction Dilemma in Ghana: Making a Case for the Various Ghanaian Languages

Ernest Nyamekye, Daniel Baffour-Koduah- January 2021 Page No.: 63-67

Language plays a significant role in the development of every nation. It mirrors the culture of every society and also reflects the social realities of every nation. It is not surprising, therefore, that every nation goes extra miles in an attempt to keep their languages from sinking. Every nation that gives her culture a priority would therefore put in every effort to develop their native languages. However, there appears to a higher level of reluctance concerning the efforts by concerned stakeholders to promote the indigenous languages of Ghana. This reluctance could be attributed to the prestigiousness attached to the study and use of the English language in the Ghanaian educational system. In light of this, the Ghanaian languages have been despised by many. The common rationale for this despicable attitude towards the local languages is that it has been misconstrued by many stakeholders as unfit for promoting academic excellence. In this paper, however, it is argued, based on research findings, that instruction in the various Ghanaian languages must be given the necessary consideration to accelerate the academic performance of students. To achieve this, the paper recommends that teachers must make complementary use of both English and the Ghanaian languages to facilitate learning at the Junior High Level.

Page(s): 63-67                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 January 2021

 Ernest Nyamekye
University of Cape Coast, Department of Arts Education

  Daniel Baffour-Koduah
University of Cape Coast, Department of Arts Education

[1] Abreh, M. K., & Wilmot, E. M. (2018). Implementing National Accelerated Language Programme (NALAP) in Northern Ghana: Lessons from the Wing Schools. African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences, 14, 101-114.
[2] Etsey, K. (2005). Causes of low academic performance of primary school pupils in the Shama Sub-Metro of Shama Ahanta East Metropolitan Assembly (SAEMA) in Ghana. A paper presented at the regional conference on education in West Africa, Dakar, Senegal
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Ernest Nyamekye, Daniel Baffour-Koduah, “The Language of Instruction Dilemma in Ghana: Making a Case for the Various Ghanaian Languages ” International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) volume-5-issue-1, pp.63-67 January 2021  URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijriss/Digital-Library/volume-5-issue-1/63-67.pdf

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Mediating Effect of Awareness Factors on the Behavioral Intention to Use In E-Commerce Services in Uzbekistan

Teshabaeva Shakhlo Abdurakhimovna, Mohammad Mahmoud Saleem Alzubi, Abdoulrahman Aljounaidi- January 2021 – Page No.: 29-39

This study aims to suggest a model that will increase the usage of E-commerce services among students in Uzbekistan. The proposed model may facilitate the understanding of how certain factors can affect the level of usage of E-commerce services. The main objective of this study by working on a new model based on TAM technology acceptance model, Innovation Diffusion theory (IDT), Awareness (AF) factors relationship between the Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU), Technology Factor (TECF) and compatibility with the Behavior Intention to use as a mediating . It presents a theoretical framework for the construction of hypotheses. The hypotheses were tested to obtain the findings that may be generalized afterwards. The primary data were collected from 384 valid questionnaires, which were distributed, to random Uzbek students in four universities. The analyses of the gathered data selected the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Based on the research findings the final overall model was evaluated using the statistics and the acceptable fit of the measurement model to the data has been demonstrated. Based on the outcomes, the factors with the highest direct effect on Intention to use E- commerce appeared to be Attitude toward using E-commerce and the results show that compatibility negatively influences intention to use. The main findings of the study are: perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, compatibility, trust and technology factor with awareness factor as mediating has a positive and significant impact on behavioral intention.

Page(s): 29-39                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 January 2020

 Teshabaeva Shakhlo Abdurakhimovna
Al-Madinah International University

  Mohammad Mahmoud Saleem Alzubi
Al-Madinah International University

  Abdoulrahman Aljounaidi
Al-Madinah International University

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Teshabaeva Shakhlo Abdurakhimovna, Mohammad Mahmoud Saleem Alzubi, Abdoulrahman Aljounaidi, “Mediating Effect of Awareness Factors on the Behavioral Intention to Use In E-Commerce Services in Uzbekistan” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.29-39 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/29-39.pdf

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Knowledge, Perception and Compliance of Facemask Use at ENT and Eye Clinics of a Tertiary Hospital in Anambra State, Nigeria during the Covid-19 Pandemic.
Afiadigwe EE, Apakama AI, Obasikene G, Uzozie CC, Umeh US, Amobi MC, Emelumadu CM- January 2021 – Page No.: 40-51

COVID-19 came as an unprecedented pandemic that the whole world was not prepared for, posing serious threat to public health and global Economy since 2019 to date. The use of facemask by health workers and the general population is strongly recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and centers for disease control as a standard for transmission-based precaution. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of patients and caregivers attending ENT and Eye clinics on the use of Facemasks as means of prevention of COVID-19 in a tertiary institution in south East Nigeria,
This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients attending ENT and Eye clinics in Anambra State Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information from the participants, after each of them had given a written consent to participate. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 23. Ethical approval was obtained from the NAUTH Research Ethics committee.
A total of 442 participants were included in this study; 62.2% were females and 37.8%, males. The mean age was 45.3 ± 18 Years. Most of the participants (69.7%) had never used facemask prior to onset of COVID-19 but 89.6% admitted to have been using it regularly since onset of the pandemic. Almost all the participants (96.2%) have heard about COVID-19, however, only 87.1% believed it was real. There a significant association between Educational qualification, occupation and the belief that Covid-19 is real were shown to influence regular use of face masks (p<0.05).
Our study shows that there is good knowledge about the place of face Mask in the prevention of COVID-19 as well as other precautionary measures, however 36.4% used it because it was mandatory. This means that there is need for concerted effort and educating the public and enforcing compliance if the trending second wave of the disease is to be averted in our clime.

Page(s): 40-51                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 January 2020

 Afiadigwe EE
Department of ENT, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi

  Apakama AI
Department of ENT, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi

  Obasikene G
Department of Ophthalmology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi

  Uzozie CC
Department of Ophthalmology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi

  Umeh US
Department of ENT, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi

  Amobi MC
Department of Ophthalmology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi

  Emelumadu CM
Department of Ophthalmology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi

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[16] Chen Y, Qin G, Chen J, et al. Comparison of Face-Touching Behaviors Before and During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. Published online 2020:1-10. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.16924
[17] Hussain I, Majeed A, Imran I, et al. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Toward COVID-19 in Primary Healthcare Providers: A Cross-Sectional Study from Three Tertiary Care Hospitals of Peshawar, Pakistan. J Community Health. 2020;(0123456789). doi:10.1007/s10900-020-00879-9
[18] Abdelhafiz AS, Mohammed Z, Ibrahim ME, et al. Knowledge, Perceptions, and Attitude of Egyptians Towards the Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). J Community Health. 2020;45(5):881-890. doi:10.1007/s10900-020-00827-7
[19] Cotrin P, Bahls AC, da Silva D de O, et al. The use of facemasks during the COVID-19 pandemic by the Brazilian population. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2020;13:1169-1178. doi:10.2147/JMDH.S281524
[20] NCDC. ADVISORY ON THE USE OF FACE SHIELDS WITH FACE MASKS BY THE GENERAL PUBLIC. Accessed November 21, 2020. https://www.ncdc.gov.ng/news

Afiadigwe EE, Apakama AI, Obasikene G, Uzozie CC, Umeh US, Amobi MC, Emelumadu CM, “Knowledge, Perception and Compliance of Facemask Use at ENT and Eye Clinics of a Tertiary Hospital in Anambra State, Nigeria during the Covid-19 Pandemic.” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.40-51 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/40-51.pdf

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Democratic Governance, Sustainable Development and Insecurity in Africa: The Nigerian Experience
Gubak, Happy Daniel, Gubam, Dimas Solomon, Piwuna, Phidelia Zacharia- January 2021 – Page No.: 52-57

The paper assesses the responsibilities of the government to its citizens and the state participation in provision of basic or essential amenities for the citizens. It argues that aside from economic challenges, corruption, ignorance, insecurity and illiteracy remain some of the major hindrances to welfarism and consequently democratic governance in Africa in general and Nigeria in particular. The paper therefore, assesses the African Union (AU) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) efforts at ensuring democratic governance in the continent and the sub-region respectively. The paper concludes that the Nigerian state, Economic community of West African states (ECOWAS) and the African Union (AU) need to take important steps in stabilizing the economy of member states such as Nigeria towards promoting democratic governance in the sub-region of West Africa and the African region in general. Findings from the study reveals that despite the lofty objectives of the AU and ECOWAS, they lack the institutional machinery and capacity to fully ensure good governance in member states and that bad governance or corrupt leadership has been the bane of democratic governance in Africa and Nigeria in particular among other various challenges of democratic consolidation. They often focus more attention and energy on issues such as monitoring elections, peace keeping activities and discouraging illegal overthrown of governments, especially through coup d’état than fostering a culture of good governance. It recommends among others that welfarism should be the watchword of governance in Africa and there should be strong commitment by the government to the achievement of MDGs/SDGs. The study employed solely the qualitative method of data analysis. As such, information were drawn from secondary sources of data collection such as text books, journal articles, Newspapers, workshop and conference papers and reports.

Page(s): 52-57                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 January 2021

 Gubak, Happy Daniel
Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Jos – Nigeria

  Dimas Solomon
Department of Archaeology and Museum Studies, Faculty of Arts, Federal University Lokoja – Nigeria

 Piwuna, Phidelia Zacharia
Department of General Studies, Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin Ladi Plateau State – Nigeria

[1] Achebe, C. (1983). The Trouble with Nigeria. Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishers.
[2] Amundsun, I. (2010). Good Governance in Nigeria: A Study of Political Economy and Donor Support. Norad Report 17(2010), 1-58.
[3] Abiodun, A. (2012). Combating Financial Crisis and Corruption in Nigeria: Prevention versus Enforcement Strategies: A Paper Presented During National Workshop on Performance, Transparency, Accountability and Development of the Federation at Abuja, February-March.
[4] Adenuga, G. A. (2012a) Developing Countries and the Endless Quest for Development in a Globalised World: Africa in Perspective. A Multi-Disciplinary International Journal of Academics on Societal Ethics and Values.
[5] Adenuga, G. A. M. (2012b), The Limiting Effects of Bad Governance on Human Resources and National Development: The Nigerian Experience. A Paper Presented at the 23rd International Conference of the West and Solomon Corporate Ideals Limited and the National Association for Research Development (NARD) on the Theme “Education and Human Resource Development in Africa at Uyo, 10-14 September.
[6] Adenuga, G.A. & Aborisade, D. A. (2012). Electoral Malpractices in Nigerian Politics and the Security Agencies Involvement: The 2011 Presidential Election in Focus. The Classic, 2(1).
[7] Akinnaso, N. (2012) University Education in Nigeria: Problems and Solutions. The Punch, March 13.
[8] Akinwale, A. A. & Aderinto, A. (2011). Crisis of Governance and Urban Violence in Nigeria. African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies 5 (1/2), 49.
[9] Akirinmade, G. (2013). Prospects and Challenges of Sociological Conception of Law: The Nigerian Experience. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 05(12): 79- 94, 2013.
[10] Bello-Imam, I. B. & Obadan, M. I. (2004). Democratic Governance and Development Management in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic, 1999-2003. Ibadan: Centre for Local Government and Rural Development Studies, 2004.
[11] Boer, L. (1997). Reviewed Work: World Development Report 1997 by The World Bank. Third World Quarterly, 18(5): 935-940.
[12] Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999
[13] Chukwuemeka, C., Ugwuanyi, B. J., & Ewuim, N. (2012). Curbing Corruption in Nigeria: The Imperative of Good Leadership. African Research Review 6 (3), 338-358.
[14] Chukwuemeka, C. (2012). Administration and Politics in Nigeria: Past, Present and Issues.Lagos: Veniz Publishers.
[15] Dike, V. E. (2003). Nigeria and the Politics of Unreason: A Study of the Obasanjo Regime. London: Adonis and Abbey Publishers, Ltd.
[16] Dike, V. E. (2001). Democracy and Political Life in Nigeria. Nigeria: Ahmadu Bello University Press (December 1, 2001).
[17] Easton, D. (1965). A Systems Analysis of Political Life. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
[18] European Union Election Observers Report, 2007.
[19] Jega, A. (2007). Democracy, Good Governance and Development in Nigeria: Critical Essays. Spectrum Books Limited.
[20] Nwabueze, B. (2003). Constitutional Democracy in Africa Vol 1. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd.
[21] Kassahun, S. (2011). The Urban Poor and Their Willingness to Participate in Community Development: The Case Study of Addis Ababa. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review 27(1):67-84.
[22] Rodney, W. (1972). How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. United Kingdom: Bogle-L’Ouverture.
[23] Schumpeter, J. A. (2005). Development. Journal of Economic Literature. Journal of Economic Literature, 43(1): 108-120.
[24] The Punch Newspaper, 2012.
[25] The Tribune Newspaper, 2012.
[26] United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (1997). UNDP Policy Document. Accessed & Retrievedfrom https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/265895?ln=en.
[27] United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (1997). HumanDevelopmentReports. AccessedandRetrievedfrom http://hdr.undp.org/en/taxonomy/term/111.
[28] United Nations Development Programme. (1997). Governance for Sustainable Human Development: A UNDP Policy Document. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
[29] World Bank (1998). World Development Report 1998/1999: Knowledge for Development. Accessed & Retrievedfrom https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/5981.
[30] https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/1305232?ln=en.
[31] World Bank. (1997). World Development Report 1997: The State in a Changing World. Accessed from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/5980
[32] https://gsdrc.org/document-library/world-development-report-1997-the-state-in-a-changing-world/
[33] https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1759-5436.1998.mp29002003.x
[34] World Bank (1998). World Development Report 1998-1999: Knowledge for Development (World Bank Development Report). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Also Available at https://www.amazon.com/World-Development-Report-1998-1999 Knowledge/dp/0195211197
[35] Nzongola-Ntalaja. G. (1997). The Role of Intellectuals in the Struggle for Democracy, Peace and Reconstruction in Africa: Presidential Address delivered at the 11th Biennial Congress of the African Association of Political Science (AAPS) in Durban, South Africa, June 23- 26, 1997. African Journal of Political Science, 2 (2): 1-14.
[36] Nzongola-Ntalaja, G. & Lee, M. (eds). (1997). The State and Democracy in Africa. Harare: AAAPS Books.

Gubak, Happy Daniel, Gubam, Dimas Solomon, Piwuna, Phidelia Zacharia, “Democratic Governance, Sustainable Development and Insecurity in Africa: The Nigerian Experience” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.52-57 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/52-57.pdf

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Monitoring the Radioactive Contamination of Some Surfaces
Anas Shehu, Iliyasu Usman, Ahmad Rufa’i , Jamilu A. Kwari- January 2021 – Page No.: 58-61

This paper describes the typical process for monitoring surfaces contaminated by different sources, such as strontium (90Sr), cobalt (60Co) and chlorine (36Cl), in a working environment. There are several detectors that are used to identify both the location and activity of a contamination source. In this report, the most effective detector to scan and monitor Beta-rays is the mini-monitor E, with an efficiency of 42.3%, 20% and 14% for detecting 90Sr, 36Cl and 60Co, respectively. However, the NE BP/4A/4C scintillator detector was the most suitable for detecting Gamma-rays. In addition, a smear test was carried out by using a high-efficiency G-M tube and several different sources of 90Sr. The decontamination process successfully reduced the contamination level to almost 2.1% of the original percentage of contamination when the first wipe was done.

Page(s): 58-61                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 January 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8101

 Anas Shehu1
Department of Physics, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Iliyasu Usman
Department of Physics, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria

  Ahmad Rufa’i
Department of Mathematics, Sokoto State University, Sokoto Nigeria

  Jamilu A. Kwari
Department of Physics, College of Agriculture and Animal Science Wurno, Sokoto, Nigeria

[1] Alvarez, O. B., Maia, A. F. and Caldas, L. V. E. (2005) `Calibration procedures for hand-foot contamination monitors’, Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Applied Physics, , pp. 825{831. doi: 10.1016/b978-008044648-6.50123-3.
[2] Baron, P. A., Kulkarni, P. and Willeke, K. (eds.) (2011) Aerosol measurement: Principles, techniques, and applications. 3rd edn. United States: Wiley, John & Sons.
[3] Canada, G. of, Canada, H., Environments, H., Branch, C. S., Programme, S. E., Bureau, R. P., Surveillance, R. and Division, H. A. (2008) Canadian guidelines for the management of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)[Health Canada, 2000]. Available at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/contaminants/ norm-mrn/index-eng.php (Accessed: 21 November 2015).
[4] Protection against radiation from Brachytherapy sources. Recommendations of the national council on radiation protection and measurements (1972) Annals of Internal Medicine, 77(3), p. 496. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-77-3-496-1.
[5] Rahman, A. (2008) Decommissioning and radioactive waste management. Dun beath, Scotland, UK: Whittles Publishing.

Anas Shehu, Iliyasu Usman, Ahmad Rufa’i , Jamilu A. Kwari,”Monitoring the Radioactive Contamination of Some Surfaces ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.58-61 January 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8101

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Structural Performance of Broken Ceramic Tiles As Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregates In Concrete

Adeniran Jolaade Adeala and Lawrence Ademola Omisande- January 2021 – Page No.: 62-65

In an attempt to curb the menace associated with the collection and disposal of construction wastes, the study investigated the characteristics of broken ceramic tiles concrete graded levels : 0%,5%,10%, 15% and 20% of broken tiles wastes with maximum size of 19mm generated from construction sites used to substitute conventional coarse aggregate in the production of 1:2:4 mix concrete, at constant water-cement ratio of 0.5 cast in sets of sixteen (16) each in 150mm x 150mm x 150mm moulds. The resulting concrete cubes cured for 28 days were tested for absorption, compressive strength and workability in accordance with BSEN 12350-3: 1983 and BS8110: 1997. The result showed that the compressive strength values: 28.25N/mm2, 27.44N/mm2 ,26.88N/mm2 and 26.33N/mm2 at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% respectively although decreases with increase in percentage replacement is comparable with that of a normal concrete up to 20% replacement. Workability and absorption properties of the broken tiles concrete also exhibited the same trend with that of compressive strength. The study concluded that BTC at 28 days possesses strikingly similar characteristics with normal concrete up to 20% replacement.

Page(s): 62-65                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 January 2020

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8102

 Adeniran Jolaade Adeala
Civil Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Ogun State, Nigeria

  Lawrence Ademola Omisande
Civil Engineering Department, Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Ogun State, Nigeria

Balogun, M.O (2009). Introduction to Properties of Construction Materials. Ibadan: All Deals Investment Company Limited Nigeria.
[2] BS 813-2.(1995), Determination of Water Absorption of Concrete. London: British Standards Institution.
[3] BS 1377-2.(1990), Sieve Analysis of Dry Sample. London: British Standard Institute.
[4] BS 1881-102.(1983), Methods of Determination of Slumps. London: British Standards Institute.
[5] BS 1881-114.(1983), Methods of Determination of Density. London: British Standards Institute.
[6] BS1881-116.(1983), Method for Determination of Compressive Strength of Concrete. London: British Standards Institute.
[7] BS 1881. (1986). Methods of testing concrete. London: British Standards Institute.
[8] BS 3148.(1980).The requirement of water for concrete mixing. London: British standard Institute.
[9] K.A Mujedu,I.O Lamidi & D.O Ayelabola. (2014). An Investaigation On the Suitability of the Broken Tiles as Coarse Aggregates in Concrete Production. The International Journal Of Engineering And Science, 35-41.
[10] Senthamarai R (2005): Use of waste ceramic tiles for road pavement subgrade International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology 12088- 12815.
[11] Singh, P. &.Rakesh K.S (2015). Utilization of Waste Ceramic Tiles As Coarse Aggreagates In Concrete. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology, 3294-3300.

Adeniran Jolaade Adeala and Lawrence Ademola Omisande, “Structural Performance of Broken Ceramic Tiles As Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregates In Concrete” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.62-65 January 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8102

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The Doctrine of Intentionality in Merlau-Ponty
Agama Christina Sunday (PhD) – January 2021 – Page No.: 66-70

The focus of this paper is to examine the doctrine of intentionality in Merleau-Ponty. It will look at how he departs from the traditional description of intentionality. It will also draw the differences between his and Husserls understanding of Intentionality, and how his doctrine of intentionality becomes integral to subjectivity. This discourse submits that Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological approach to intentionality amounts to radicality especially from his account of the intentional constitution of the body and its role in perceptual experience.

Page(s): 66-70                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 January 2020

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8103

 Agama Christina Sunday (PhD)
Directorate of General Studies, Federal University of Technology, Owerri

[1] See Krueger, J. The Oxford Handbook of Phenomenological psycho-pathology. D01: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9790198803157.013.37.Mar.2018, P.4.
[2] See Brentano, F. Descriptive Psychology, Trans B. Muller. London: Routledge 1995a.
[3] Brentano, F. Psychology from an Empirical standpoint, trans. A.C. Rancurello, D. Terrell, and L.L. McAlister. London and New York: Routledge. 1995b, P.68.
[4] Ibid.
[5] Husserl, E. Analysis Concerning Passive and Active Synthesis: Lectures on Transcendental Logic, Trans. A.J. Stainbock Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2001, P.126.
[6] Merleau Ponty, M. Phenomenology of Perception, trans. Colin Smith, London: Routledge & Design Paul 1962, P XIV.
[7] Ibid; P. XIV-XV
[8] Ibid; P. 241
[9] Ibid; P. 49
[10] Ibid
[11] Ibid; P.49-50
[12] Ibid; P.250
[13] Ibid; P.153
[14] Ibid; P.82
[15] Ibid; P. 87
[16] Ibid; P.100
[17] Ibid
[18] Ibid
[19] Ibid; P.101
[20] Ibid; P.70
[21] Ibid; P.205
[22] See Gallagher, S. How the Body shapes the mind. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. 2005.
[23] Merleau Ponty, M. Phenomenology of Perception, trans. C.Smith New York: Routledge 2002, P.140
[24] See Rietveld, E. “Situated Normativity: The Normative Aspect of Embodied Cognition in Unreflective Action”. Mind 117(468):2008, 973-1001.
[25] See Carman, T. “The body in Husserl and Merleau Ponty”. Philosophical Topics 27(2): 1999, 205-226.
[26] Merleau Ponty, M. Op. Cit., 2002, P.159.

[27] Bower, M. and Gallagher. S, “Bodily Affects as Prenoetic Elements in Enactive Perception”. Phenomenology and Mind 4: 2013, P.109-131 Drey fus, H.L. “Merleau-Ponty and Recent Cognitive Science”. In T. Carman and M. Hansen (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Merleau-Ponty. Cambridge University Press. 2005
[28] Hurley, S. Consciousness in Action Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1998
[29] Kelly S.D.“Merleau-Ponty on the Body” Ratio15(4):2002, P.376-391
[30] Noe,A.Action in Perception.Cambridge MA: MIT Press. 2004
[31] Stumpf. S.E. Philosophy: History and Problems, fifth edition U.S.A: McGraw Hill, Inc., 1994
[32] Thompson, E. “Sensorimotor Subjectivity and the Enactive Approach to Experience”. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 4(4): 2005, P 407-427

Agama Christina Sunday (PhD), “The Doctrine of Intentionality in Merlau-Ponty” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.66-70 January 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8103

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Pupils’ Perceptions on Examination Malpractice at Secondary School Level in Lusaka District of Zambia: Causes and Solutions
Siamunako S. Albert and Magasu Oliver Kwari- January 2021 – Page No.: 71-79

The continued occurrence of examination malpractice globally has been of great concern to all education stakeholders. Considering the gravity and continuous occurrence of examination malpractice at secondary school level in Zambia, this study sought to investigate pupils’ perceptions on the causes and solutions to examination malpractice at secondary school level in Lusaka district of Zambia. The population of this study included all pupils in 10 selected government run secondary schools in Lusaka district. The study sample consisted of 300 pupils randomly selected. 30 pupils were selected from 10 schools. The instrument used to collect data was a questionnaire that was constructed by the researcher. The study revealed that examination malpractice in secondary schools take the form of leakage, collusion, computer system, external assistance, smuggling, impersonation, and substitution and examiner malpractice. Leakage, computer system, smuggling and collusion were identified as forms of examination malpractice that frequently occur while impersonation, substitution, examiner malpractice and external assistance occur least. The study also revealed that school, teacher, societal and pupil factors were the major causes of examination leakages. This revelation agrees with the theoretical framework of the study which identified that the unethical examination management practices of teachers, school administrators, parents, pupils and any other stakeholder in the examination management results into examination leakages. The results further revealed that pre-examination ethics were more desirable and the best way to control cheating amongst pupils. This study recommends punitive punishment to anyone who would engage in examination malpractice.

Page(s): 71-79                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 January 2021

 Siamunako S. Albert
Examinations Council of Zambia

  Magasu Oliver
Kwame Nkrumah University

[1] Achigbe, M. O. et al (2010). “An investigation into the forces Behind Examination Malpractices in Nigeria: A challenge for Secondary School Education in New Millennium.” Journal of the Association for Educational Assessment in Africa, 4(1), 33-44
[2] Ahmed, B. (1996). Trends in examination malpractice: A statistical analysis. Paper Presented at thenational conference on examination ethics.
[3] Asuru, V. A. (2004). Examination Malpractice: Agenda for a change. Port Harcourt. Owas Haven Enterprises.
[4] Asuru, V. A. (2010). “Beyond Cognitive Assessment: Mechanism for Reducing System Generated Causes of Examination Malpractice:” Journal of the Association for Educational Assessment in Africa, 4(1), 23-32.
[5] Chapi, D. (2011). Detecting and Reporting Malpractice Cases: A paper presented at the 2011 Grade 9 Examiners’ Training Workshop, Siavonga.
[6] Chembe J. S. (2009). Examination Malpractice and prevention: a paper presented at the Workshop on Examination Management for Education Standards Officers, Siavonga.
[7] Denga, D. I. (1998). Examination Malpractice & Cultism in Nigeria, analysis and confronting techniques, Calabar: REP
[8] ECZ (2011). Guidelines for the Administration and Management of Examinations in Zambia: ECZ, Lusaka.
[9] ECZ (2014). 2013 Examinations performance Report-General Performance Analysis: ECZ, Lusaka
[10] Eze, H. (2012). Examination Malpractice in Nigeria. www: nigeriaworld.com/articles/2012. Cross River University of Technology Pupils’ Handbook 2014
[11] Magasu, O., Muleya, G., & Mweemba, L. (2020). Pedagogical Challenges in Teaching Civic Education in Secondary Schools in Zambia. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). Vol. 9, Issue 3 p. 1483-1488
[12] Maziya, G. S. (2014). Curbing Examination Irregularities: The Pupil Voice: Journal of the Association for Educational Assessment in Africa, 9(1), 43-51
[13] Oduwaiye, R. D (2009). Pupils’ perception of factors and solutions to examination malpractices in Nigerian Universities, University of IIorin
[14] Ogunji J. A (2011). Examination Management and Examination Malpractice: The Nexus: Journal of International Educational Research, 7(4), 53-64
[15] Oko, S.U & Adie, R.I (2016). Examination Malpractice: Causes. Effects and Possible Ways of Curbibg the Manace. A Study of Cross River University of Technology. International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research. Vol. 4, Issue 1, January 2016, pp 59-65
[16] Olanipekun, O. (2013). Trends in Examination Malpractice in Nigerian Education System. www:ajhss.org
[17] Siamunako, S. A. (2015). Grade Eleven Pupils’ Perceptions towards Causes and Solutions to Examination Malpractice in Selected Government Schools in Lusaka District of Zambia. Masters Dissertation: Lusangu University

Siamunako S. Albert and Magasu Oliver Kwari,”Pupils’ Perceptions on Examination Malpractice at Secondary School Level in Lusaka District of Zambia: Causes and Solutions” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.71-79 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/71-79.pdf

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Analysis of the Efficiency of Using Production Factors at Corn Farming in Kupang Regency, Indonesia

Lukas J.B.B. Hattu, Elly Lay, Johanes Sarong, Erna Giri- January 2021 – Page No.: 80-85

This study aims to analyze and determine the efficiency of the use of production factors in corn farming in East Kupang District, Kupang Regency. By knowing whether or not the use of production factors is efficient, it can be recommended to farmers to increase or decrease the use of certain production factors, which in fact are based on the results of the analysis of their use is inefficient.The data analysis method used is by using the Cobb-Douglass production function, where the results of this analysis can be seen from the elasticity of the use of each production factor on the production results. Furthermore, determining the efficient use of a type of production factor is determined based on the amount of its Marginal Production Value (MPV).
This research took place in the East Kupang sub-district, because this area is one of the vegetable and maize-producing areas that supply the community’s needs for these commodities in Kupang district and also in Kupang City. The results showed that the production factors had a significant effect on production yields, but their use was still not efficient. Therefore, it needs to be further improved in order to achieve optimal efficiency.

Page(s): 80-85                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 February 2021

 Lukas J.B.B. Hattu
Department of Business Administration University of Nusa Cendana Kupang

  Elly Lay
Department of Business Administration University of Nusa Cendana Kupang

  Johanes Sarong
Department of Business Administration University of Nusa Cendana Kupang

 Erna Giri
Department of Business Administration University of Nusa Cendana Kupang

[1] Anonimous. 2019. NTT dalam Angka 2019. BPS Provinsi NTT.
[2] Reksohadiprojo S. 2000. Manajemen Produksi dan Operasi. BPFE UGM. Yogyakarta
[3] Assauri S. 2008. 2008. Manajemen Produksi dan Operasi. LPFE UI. Jakarta
[4] Mubiyarto. 2001. Pengantar Ekonomi Pertanian. LP3ES Jakarta.
[5] Mosher AT. 1998. Menggerakkan dan Membangun Pertanian. CV Yasaguna Jakarta
[6] Soekartawi. 2003. Teori Ekonomi Produksi. Rajawali Press. Jakarta
[7] Sugiyono. 2014. Metode Penelitian Bisnis. Alfabeta. Bandung.

Lukas J.B.B. Hattu, Elly Lay, Johanes Sarong, Erna Giri, “Analysis of the Efficiency of Using Production Factors at Corn Farming in Kupang Regency, Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.80-85 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/80-85.pdf

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Intertextual Analysis between Novel Panggil Aku Kartini Saja by Pramoedya Ananta Toer and Novel Kartini by Abidah El Khalieqy

Rizki Agung Ravitasari, Herman J Waluyo, Retno Winarni – January 2021 – Page No.: 86-90

This article aims to Intertextual Analysis between Novel Panggil Aku Kartini Saja by Pramoedya Ananta Toer and Novel Kartini by Abidah El Khalieqy. The study aims to describe the equality of affirmations and the differences in the terms of the PAKS novels by Pramoedya Ananta Toer and the novel K by Abidah El Khalieqy. There are similarities between PAKS novels and K novels namely, the character, the founder, the attitude of the surrender of Kartini, the firmness of the Raden Sosroningrat figure and the dream owned by the figure Kartini. The difference between PAKS novel and K novel namely, the child’s affection to her parents, the Kartini nanny, the failure and success in an exhibition. This research, the author seeks to find the relationship between work one and the other. This research uses qualitative descriptive methods with the method of content analysis to uncover or provide explanations of the studied objects. The results showed that the existence of intertektuality is the relationship between the novel one and the other. The difference is in the non-fiction PAKS novel in the form of biographies whereas in K-fiction novels.

Page(s): 86-90                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 February 2021

 Rizki Agung Ravitasari
Master Program in Indonesian Language Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

 Herman J Waluyo
Master Program in Indonesian Language Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

 Retno Winarni
Master Program in Indonesian Language Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

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Rizki Agung Ravitasari, Herman J Waluyo, Retno Winarni, “Intertextual Analysis between Novel Panggil Aku Kartini Saja by Pramoedya Ananta Toer and Novel Kartini by Abidah El Khalieqy” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.86-90 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/86-90.pdf

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An Ordinal Logistic Regression Model to Identify Factors Influencing Students Academic Performance at Njala University

Regina Baby Sesay, Mohamed Kpangay, Sheku Seppeh- January 2021 – Page No.: 91-100

The academic performance of students in learning institutions like universities is a significant determinant of the future socio-economic status of the students concerned. An outstanding students’ academic performance can be regarded as an instrument used to achieve rapid economic, social, political, technological and scientific growth in a developing country like Sierra Leone. It is, therefore, the desire of every university student to be on top of their classes in almost all their university courses. Despite the huge desire to excel, there are both academic and socio-economic factors influencing the academic performance of undergraduate students at Njala University. This work, therefore, aims to identify the main factors influencing students’ academic performance at Njala University. For this purpose, a stratified random sampling method was employed to select 284 respondents proportionately from each university faculty. Data were collected from the selected respondents using structured questionnaires. An ordinal logistic regression modeling technique was used to identify the main factors influencing the academic performance of the undergraduate students at Njala University, Njala Campus. Several factors were initially considered as potential determinants of students’ academic performance. However, the result of the empirical analysis revealed that, the number of study hours; father’s income level; mother’s educational level and mother’s income level are the main factors influencing undergraduate students’ academic performance at Njala University. An increase in the number of study hours increases students’ academic performance; an increase in the father’s income level increases students’ academic performance; an increase in the mother’s educational level increases student’s academic performance while an increase in the mother’s income level decreases students’ academic performance.

Page(s): 91-100                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 Febraury 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8104

 Regina Baby Sesay
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, School of Technology, Njala University, Njala, Sierra Leone

  Mohamed Kpangay
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, School of Technology, Njala University, Njala, Sierra Leone

  Sheku Seppeh
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, School of Technology, Njala University, Njala, Sierra Leone

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Regina Baby Sesay, Mohamed Kpangay, Sheku Seppeh, “An Ordinal Logistic Regression Model to Identify Factors Influencing Students Academic Performance at Njala University” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.91-100 January 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8104

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A Web-Based Electronic Learning of Local Nigerian Language; A Case of Ogba Language In Rivers State
Matthias, Daniel Nwaogwu, Onyekachi Best, Igiri, Chima Godknows – January 2021 – Page No.: 101-106

Language is a unique identity to every community in Nigeria; English has been a major communication medium in schools and high intuitions of learning. Over time this has posed as a threat on the indigenous languages in Nigeria were Ogba language is the primary focus, as this locally spoken languages will no longer exist based on the rapid growth of the English language in the local communities. There is this fear that Nigeria indigenous language is been traded off for English language as a major means of communication due to colonization.
This work is focused on the design and implementation of a web-based electronic learning system of Ogba language. The Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology was adopted, the system is modelled with Unified Modelling Language and developed using HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP, SQL scripting language and MySQL as the database. This web-based application enables prospective learners to learn the language at their convenience in respective of location, in order to arrest the extinction that looms over the language.

Page(s): 101-106                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 Febraury 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8105

 Matthias, Daniel
Department of Computer Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt

  Nwaogwu, Onyekachi Best
Department of Computer Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt

 Igiri, Chima Godknows
Department of Computer Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt

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Matthias, Daniel Nwaogwu, Onyekachi Best, Igiri, Chima Godknows, “A Web-Based Electronic Learning of Local Nigerian Language; A Case of Ogba Language In Rivers State” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.101-106 January 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8105

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Comparative Studies on the Phytochemical Properties of Tumeric (Curcuma longa) and Ginger (Zingiberofficinale Roscoe)
Ifeoma Perpetua Oragwu and Nkechi Perpetua Maduekwe – January 2021 – Page No.: 107-112

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizomes, both from Zingiberaceae family, had been studied for their physico/phytochemical and bioactive compositions, as a natural source of anti-microbial drugs. The active ingredients in turmeric and ginger were isolated using different solvents, such as, chloroform, ethanol, hexane and benzene, while rotary evaporator was used to separate the moisture contents, which were 12.38 and 11.15 % for both tumeric and ginger respectively. Ash contents were 7.45 % and 7.20 %, while, specific gravity were 0.34 % and 0.25 % for both tumeric and ginger respectively. Coumarin, the major content of tumeric was identified in all the solvent extracts, while, polyphenol was presence in ginger extracts. Saponin, terpenoids, and anthocynins, were found to be present in all the solvent extracts of both turmeric and ginger. Carbohydrates, protein and alkaloid contents were tested using standard methods. Protein was identified in turmeric extract, but, not in ginger. The phyto-chemicals and bioactive compositions of tumeric and ginger have proved them source materials for drug formulations and antimicrobial agents, to fight against some pathogens and maintain some health challenges.

Page(s): 107-112                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 Febraury 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8106

 Ifeoma Perpetua Oragwu
Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu Unversity, Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria

  Nkechi Perpetua Maduekwe
Departments of Medical Microbiology, Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra, Nigeria

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Ifeoma Perpetua Oragwu and Nkechi Perpetua Maduekwe “Comparative Studies on the Phytochemical Properties of Tumeric (Curcuma longa) and Ginger (Zingiberofficinale Roscoe)” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.107-112 January 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8106

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Characteristics Levels of Manganese (Mn) in the Soil Profiles of Automobile Mechanic workshops In Ado Ekiti Land, Ekiti State
Adekunle Adetukasi, Matthew Olufemi Orire, Alaba Christopher Falade, Catherine Feyisayo Ajayi – January 2021 – Page No.: 113-118

Heavy metals such as manganese (Mn) in soils are of great environmental concern. Volumes of literature have been reported in damaging effects of excessive Mn in soils. Automobile mechanic activities remain one of the major indirect sources of manganese into the environment through indiscriminate dumping of wastes. In order to determine Mn content in the soil from the vicinity of automobile mechanic workshop and evaluate the contamination levels, the concentrations and distribution of Mn must be established for different physical and chemical phases of the soil. Different soil layers (0-15cm, 15-30cm and 30-4cm depth) were collected and analyzed for Mn contents using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Soil texture, conductivity pH, total organic content and cation exchange capacity were also measured. Sequential extraction was also carried out to determine the geochemical phase of Mn. In the investigated soils, the range total of Mn concentration across the various sampling sites were 41.5- 50-1 mg/kg (0-15cm) 34.6 -37.3 mg/kg (15-30cm) and 21.2-27.8mg/kg (30-45cm),this revealed higher concentration of Mn in topsoil samples(0-15cm) than subsoil samples(15-30cm)(30-4cm). The results showed that enrichment factors (E.F.) of Mn were 0.21, 0.20 and 0.31 respectively while the geo accumulation index (Igeo) values of the metals in the soil under study indicate that they are uncontaminated with Mn. The mechanic wastes represent a potential source of heavy metal pollution to the environment. Although, the present level of Mn contamination of the soil does not call for alarm. Therefore, necessary steps should be taken to minimize the accumulation of metal. It is now recommended that a separate portion of land be set for automobile workshops called the mechanic village.

Page(s): 113-118                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 February 2021

  Adekunle Adetukasi
Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero Ekiti

  Matthew Olufemi Orire
Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero Ekiti

  Alaba Christopher Falade
Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero Ekiti

  Catherine Feyisayo Ajayi
Ekiti State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero Ekiti

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Adekunle Adetukasi, Matthew Olufemi Orire, Alaba Christopher Falade, Catherine Feyisayo Ajayi “Characteristics Levels of Manganese (Mn) in the Soil Profiles of Automobile Mechanic workshops In Ado Ekiti Land, Ekiti State” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.113-118 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/113-118.pdf

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The Effect of Good Corporate Governance Principles on the Performance of Micro Finance Banks BPR In Serang Regency
Rani Puspa, Dini Martinda Lestari, Angrian Permana – Janauary 2021 – Page No.: 119-126

Transparency, accountability, responsibility, independence and fairness are basic principles of GCG implementation. This study used a questionnaire technique survey method distributed to 37 BPRs. The sample used was 74, each having received two respondents from each BPR in the Financial Section and Serang Regency General Section. Sample determination using purposeful sampling. The analytical technique is a simple linear regression analysis using SPSS. This study shows that applying the principles of good corporate governance that include transparency, accountability, accountability, independence, and fairness has a positive effect on the performance of Serang Regency Micro Finance Banks.

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8107

Page(s): 119-126                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 February 2021

 Rani Puspa
Management Departement, Bina Bangsa University, Serang, Indonesia

  Dini Martinda Lestari
Accounting Departement, Bina Bangsa University, Serang, Indonesia

  Angrian Permana
Management Departement, Bina Bangsa University, Serang, Indonesia

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Rani Puspa, Dini Martinda Lestari, Angrian Permana, “The Effect of Good Corporate Governance Principles on the Performance of Micro Finance Banks BPR In Serang Regency” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.119-126 Janauary 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8107

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Student’s perspectives on enhancing research in ODL in selected higher learning institutions in Zambia
Rose Chikopela, Daniel L. Mpolomoka, Francis S. Sikanyika, Grace Sondashi, Cynthia N. Kalizinje and Judith Zimba – Janauary 2021 – Page No.: 127-132

The study was undertaken to analyze student’s perspectives on enhancing research in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) in Lusaka. A descriptive survey design was used. The sample comprised 25 students in five institutions of learning in Lusaka who were purposively and randomly selected. Data was collected using questionnaires and semi-structured interview guides, while analysis of data was done using SPSS and themes. The study revealed that there are different student perspectives on enhancing research in ODL during COVID-19. There is a dire need to enhance research in ODL among students, and that students are positive about enhancing research in ODL. The study established that enhancing research in ODL can in turn improve the quality of ODL programmes and increase the student’s research skills. The study also revealed that using different approaches or strategies and/or methods in research can enhance research in ODL during COVID-19. The study suggests that students should engage in many research endeavors in ODL, carryout research studies with experienced lecturers so that they can learn better, collaborate with other students pursing programmes via ODL platforms. This study concludes research in ODL is very vital in making ODL a worthwhile alternative to other forms of learning.

Page(s): 127-132                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 February 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8108

 Rose Chikopela
Zambia Institute of Special Education, Department of Hearing Impairment, Lusaka, Zambia

  Daniel L. Mpolomoka
Zambian Open University, School of Education, Lusaka, Zambia.

  Francis S. Sikanyika
Bwalya Mponda Secondary School, Department of Guidance and Counselling, Lunga, Zambia.

  Grace Sondashi
Libala Secondary School, Department of Guidance and Counselling, Lusaka, Zambia.

  Cynthia N. Kalizinje
Royal Monze Institute of Medical Evangelism, Department of Philanthropy, Lusaka, Zambia.

  Judith Zimba
Lundazi Day Secondary / DEBS Office, Department of Guidance and Counselling, Lundazi, Zambia.

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Rose Chikopela, Daniel L. Mpolomoka, Francis S. Sikanyika, Grace Sondashi, Cynthia N. Kalizinje and Judith Zimba, “Student’s perspectives on enhancing research in ODL in selected higher learning institutions in Zambia” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.127-132 Janauary 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8108

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Impact of Climate Change on Ecotourism for Wildlife Conservation, A Case Study At Aburi Botanical Gardens, Ghana

J. N. Ofori, N. A. Ohemeng-Agyei, E. Njomaba- January 2021 – Page No.: 133-141

The preservation of ecotourism sites worldwide has become an issue of importance. Ghana, like other developing countries, has renowned ecotourism sites such as the Kakum National Park, Buabeng Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, and Aburi Botanical Gardens, among others. Rainfall and temperature are known to play a vital role in supporting plant growth and the survival of animal species, and these form a major part of ecotourism. The problem of anthropogenic climate change and its impacts on ecotourism has been measured in some countries except in Ghana. Capitalizing on the gaps in studies on climate change, this research was conducted to ascertain the effects of the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on ecotourism, with a specific focus on the Aburi Botanical Garden. The comparison of the garden’s potential was measured against a 30-year data using rainfall and temperature as the variables of measurement from 1989-2018. The measurements were obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Agency. Changes in minimum and maximum temperature, as well as the depreciation in rainfall amounts, were measured. Study participants included workers of the garden who expressed their observation in the trends of rainfall and temperature and how it has affected ecological tourists’ visits to the garden via researcher-administered questionnaires. The study confirmed the changes in patterns of rainfall and temperature but revealed that these changes had insignificant impacts on the garden. Thus, its ecotourism potential remains intact despite climate change. It is recommended that the garden properly maintains the standards and upgrades its systems to promote tourism.

Page(s): 133-141                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 Febraury 2021

 J. N. Ofori
Department of Geography and Resource Development, University of Ghana. Accra, Ghana

  N. A. Ohemeng-Agyei
Dept. of Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation, Wageningen University and Research Wageningen, the Netherlands

  E. Njomaba
Laboratory of Geo-information Science and Remote Sensing, Wageningen University and Research
Wageningen, the Netherlands

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J. N. Ofori, N. A. Ohemeng-Agyei, E. Njomaba, “Impact of Climate Change on Ecotourism for Wildlife Conservation, A Case Study At Aburi Botanical Gardens, Ghana” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.133-141 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/133-141.pdf

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Assessment of Forage Species on Community Rangelands, A Case Study In Tolon District, Ghana
J. N. Ofori, E. Njomaba, E. Donkoh – January 2021 – Page No.: 142-150

The study was conducted in ten communities in the Tolon district of the Northern region of Ghana. The objective of this study was to identify the forage species on community rangelands and to know the trend conditions of forage species on the community rangelands. Ten communities were randomly selected from the study area for the research. The random sampling technique was applied to select ten (10) communities of which 10 people were selected in each community through the snowball sampling technique. One hundred questionnaires were administered during this study to collect the data. Quadrats of 10m ×10m were laid to identify species on rangelands in the district. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version (16.0) and Microsoft office excel (version 2013). Male and female respondents constituted 97% and 3% respectively. Majority (78%) of the respondents were involved in sheep rearing while the least 3% were also engaged in pig farming. The study identified thirty-seven (37) forage species in which Setaria pallide fusca was the species that had the highest frequency whereas Strychos spinosa, Pennisetum purpureum, Boerhavia coccinea, Eugenia subherbacea. and Hannoa undulate was the forage species with the lowest frequency. Five species that are going extinct were also identified in the study. Pterocarpus erinaceus was the species that appeared most among the forage species which are reducing whiles Detarium microcarpum, Securinega virosa, Hyparrhenia rufa, and Acacia nilotica had the lowest frequencies. To conserve forage availability, there should be a reduction in overexploitation of the species and also to encourage the cultivation of forage species especially Pterocarpus erinaceus, Detarium microcarpum, Securinega virosa, Hyparrhenia rufa, and Acacia nilotica to sustain the forage species.

Page(s): 142-150                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 Febraury 2021

 J. N. Ofori
Dept. of Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation, Wageningen University and Research. Wageningen, the Netherlands

  E. Njomaba
Laboratory of Geo-information Science and Remote Sensing, Wageningen University and Research. Wageningen, The Netherlands.

  E. Donkoh
Department of Range and Wildlife Conservation, University for Development studies. Tamale, Ghana.

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[14] Menaut, J.C., 1993. Effets des feux de savane sur le stockage et l’émission du carbone et des éléments-trace. Science et changements planétaires/Sécheresse, 4(4), pp.251-263.
[15] Hall, D.O., and Scurlock, J.M.O., 1991. Climate change and productivity of natural grasslands. Annals of botany, pp.49-55.
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[17] Ronconi, R.A., and Burger, A.E., 2011. Foraging space as a limited resource: inter-and intra-specific competition among sympatric pursuit-diving seabirds. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 89(4), pp.356-368
[18] Afolayan, A.B, and Olugbami, S.S.O. (1992): Seed germination and the emergence of setaria pallide fusca and pennisetum pedicillatum
[19] Cook, B.G., Pengelly, B.C., Brown, S.D., Donnelly, J.L., Eagles, D.A., Franco, M.A., Hanson, J., Mullen, B.F., Partridge, I.J., Peters, M. and Schultze-Kraft, R., 2005. Tropical forages an interactive selection tool. Tropical forages an interactive selection tool.
[20] Griffin, S., Tittikpina, N.K., Al-Marby, A., Alkhayer, R., Denezhkin, P., Witek, K., Gbogbo, K.A., Batawila, K., Duval, R.E., Nasim, M.J. and Awadh-Ali, N.A., 2016. Turning waste into value: Nanosized natural plant materials of Solanum incanum L. and Pterocarpus erinaceus poir with promising antimicrobial activities. Pharmaceutics, 8(2), p.11.
[21] Neuwinger, J.D., 1996. West African Ethnobotany poisons and drugs. Chapman S and Hall.
[22] Starr, F., Starr, K., and Loope, L.L., 2005. Roadside survey and expert interviews for selected plant species on Molokai, Hawaii.
[23] Rachor-Rossiter, N., Setterfield, S., Ferdinands, K., and Elliot, L., 2012. Northern Territory Weed Risk Management system. User guide. Northern Territory Government, Darwin.

J. N. Ofori, E. Njomaba, E. Donkoh, “Assessment of Forage Species on Community Rangelands, A Case Study In Tolon District, Ghana” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.142-150 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/142-150.pdf

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Can competitiveness of banks be guaranteed through mobile banking in economic crisis business environment? A Zimbabwean case study
Josphat Nyoni, Jacklin Chaipa, Martin Dandira, Maxwell Chufama, Elias S.Kandjinga, Andrew Jeremiah- January 2021 – Page No.: 151-155

The adoption of mobile banking by banks is intended to grant banks the ability to outperform its rivals and improve performance. However the effectiveness of mobile banking as a competitive strategy is depended upon the business environment in which banks operate. This is based on a number of factors that constrain the adoption and effectiveness of new technology in, line with the Innovation Diffusions Theory and the Financial Intermediation Theory theories.This study investigated the impact of mobile banking on the overall performance of a bank operating in an economic crisis business environment in Zimbabwe. The main objectives of the study was to examine if the adoption of mobile banking can still improve the performance of banks operating in an economic crisis business environment.
A total of 302 respondents were used in this study. The study used the pragmatism philosophy and explanatory research design the researchers. A response rate of 97% was obtained which ensured that the findings are a true representation of the sample. The research was mainly quantitative in nature although it was complemented by a qualitative approach in form of interviews. Survey and interviews were used as the data collection instruments while questionnaires and interview guide were used as data collection instruments. Probability sampling technique was used to develop the sample of the study. The findings of this study have shown a strong positive impact of mobile banking on profit margins and market share in economic crisis business environment. The study however showed that mobile banking may not improve the corporate image of banks operating in economic crisis business environment.
The study concludes that mobile banking platforms may be used to make banks competitive in economic crisis through its positive influence on profit margins and market share. However is it also concluded that mobile banking adoption by banks may not leads to enhanced corporate image. The study recommends that banks should continue to increase their investment in mobile banking technology even in crisis business environments in view of its positive influence on profit margins and market share. However other additional strategies may be required to improve corporate image to sustain the positive profit margins. This research evaluated the impact of mobile banking on the performance of one bank. It is recommended to extend the research to several banks operating in economic crisis business environments.

Page(s): 151-155                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 February 2021

 Josphat Nyoni
Women’s University in Africa, Harare , Zimbabwe

 Jacklin Chaipa
Women’s University in Africa, Harare , Zimbabwe

 Martin Dandira
Namibia University of Science and Technology

 Maxwell Chufama
Namibia University of Science and Technology

 Elias S.Kandjinga
Namibia University of Science and Technology

 Andrew Jeremiah
Namibia University of Science and Technology

[1] Akerlof, B. C., & Girardone, D, E. (2011). The Impact of Electronic Banking on the Performance of Banks. Journal of internet banking and commerce 16(2): 101-120
[2] Ateş G., Ç., (2016) Corporate Image Management– Perception of Corporate Image by Employees– Airline Companies Case, Unpublished Master’s Thesis, İstanbul, Beykent University , Institute of Social Sciences .
[3] Berg T, Burg V, Gombovié A, Puri M. 2018. On the Rise of the FinTechs—Credit Scoring using Digital Footprints. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Center for Financial Research WP 2018-04
[4] Bozkurt, M.2018. Corporate image, brand, reputation concepts and their importance for tourism establishments, International Journal of Contemporary Tourism Research 2, 60 – 66
[5] Bold, C., (2011). Branchless Banking in South Africa. Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP) June 28, 2011
[6] Çetin, S. and Tekiner, M.A. (2015) Key Determinants of Corporate Image: Law Enforcement Agency Sampling Internal Stakeholder Survey Journal of Management and Economy Finances, Vol:13, No:1.
[7] Cheah, C. M., Teo, A. C., Sim, J. J., Oon, K. H. & Tan, B. I. (2011). Factors Affecting Malaysian Mobile Banking Adoption: An Empirical Analysis, International Journal of Network and Mobile Technologies, Vol. 2, Issue 3, pp. 149- 160. – 1453 –
[8] Ching M. C., Chuan, A. T., Sim, J. J. Kam, H. & Tan, B. (2011). Factors Affecting Malaysian Mobile Banking Adoption: An Empirical Analysis, International Journal of Network and Mobile Technologies, Vol 2 / Issue 3
[9] Francesca, A., & Claeys, P. (2010). Innovation and performance of European banks adopting Internet. University of Milan and Cass Business School, City University London and University of Barcelona Centre for Banking Research, Cass Business School, City University London Working Paper Series, WP 04/10.
[10] Iacono, W.J. & Orlikowski, C.S. (2004). Consumer acceptance of online banking: an extension of the technology acceptance model. Internet Research, 224-35.
[11] Kingoo, H. (2011), the relationship between electronic banking and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. Unpublished MBA Thesis, University of Nairobi
[12] Lee, K.S., Lee, H.S., &Kim, S.Y. (2007). Factors influencing the adoption behavior of mobile banking: a South Korean perspective. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 12(2).
[13] Lee, M. (2009). Factors Influencing the Adoption of Internet Banking: An Integration of TAM and TPB with Perceived Risk and Perceived Benefit, Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 8 (3), pp. 130-141.
[14] Meuter, A.J. (2010), “Self-service Technologies: Understanding Consumer Contentment with Technology-Based Service Experiences”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. October pp.48- 52.
[15] Must, B., & Ludewig, K. (2010). Mobile Money: Cell Phone Banking In Developing Countries. Policy Matters Journal, spring 2010, 27-33.
[16] Michael Kiragu, 2017. Thesis on the effects of e-banking on the financial performance of kenyan banks, international business, Vaasan ammattikorkeakoulu University of Applied Sciences
[17] Ombati, R.B., Magutu, S.M., Nyamwange, N.K. & Nyaoga, P.O. (2011). Technology and Service Quality in the Banking Industry: Importance and performance of various factors considered in Electronic Banking services. African Journal of Business & Management.1, 151 – 164.
[18] OECD (2020), Digital Disruption in Banking and its Impact on Competition http://www.oecd.org/daf/competition/digital-disruption-in-financial-markets.htm
[19] Siam, A. Z. (2006). “Role of The Electronic Banking Services on The Profiles Jordanian Banks”, American Journal of Applied Sciences, 3(9),1999-2004.
[20] Simpson, J., (2002). “The Impact of the Internet in Banking: Observations and Evidence from Developed and Emerging Markets”, Telematics and Informatics, 19, pp. 315-330.
[21] Tchouassi, G. (2012). Can Mobile Phones Really Work to Extend Banking Services to the Unbanked? Empirical Lessons from Selected Sub-Saharan Africa Countries, International Journal of Development Societies, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2012, 70-81
[22] Tiwari, R., Buse, S. & Herstatt, C. (2006): Mobile Banking As Business Strategy: Impact Of Mobile Technologies On Customer Behaviour And Its Implications For Banks, Working Paper No. 37. Presented at “Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology” (PICMET) 2006, 8 – 13 July 2006, Istanbul (Turkey).
[23] Wambari, P. A. M (2009), Mobile banking in developing countries. A case study on Kenya. Unpublished Master’s Thesis Vaasan Ammattikorkeakoulu.
[24] Williams & Wilkins, United States of America. H. (2003). Card, Internet and Mobile Payments in Finland, Bank of Finland Discussion Papers

Josphat Nyoni, Jacklin Chaipa, Martin Dandira, Maxwell Chufama, Elias S.Kandjinga, Andrew Jeremiah “Can competitiveness of banks be guaranteed through mobile banking in economic crisis business environment? A Zimbabwean case study” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.151-155 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/151-155.pdf

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Attitude of Congregants Regarding Consecutive Interpretation of Church Sermons in the Pentecostal Churches in Nakuru Town
Onkware, Gillphine Chebunga , Menecha, Jared Bravin – January 2021 – Page No.: 156-160

Previous studies have shown that congregants may create either a positive attitude or a negative attitude towards consecutive interpretation. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitude of congregants regarding consecutive interpretation of church sermons in Pentecostal churches in Nakuru town. Using the interpretive theory of translation, the study employed a descriptive survey research design. With a sample size of ten Pentecostal churches randomly selected from a list of 50 Pentecostal churches, questionnaires, interview schedules and observation schedule were used to collect data. The findings of this study show that most congregants have a positive attitude towards consecutive interpretation, they enjoy when it is being used in church, it leads to spiritual growth, and they understand messages better and find it a modernized way of preaching. On the contrary, they find consecutive interpretation time wasting and somehow find it boring.The study recommends that the church administration should psycho-educate the congregants on the importance of consecutive interpretation and the underlying reasons for its adoption in church.

Page(s): 156-160                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 February 2021

 Onkware, Gillphine Chebunga
Department of Languages, Linguistics and Translation, Africa International University, Nairobi, Kenya

  Menecha, Jared Bravin
Daystar University, Nairobi, Kenya

[1] Anderson, A. H. (2005). African Initiated Pentecostalism and charismatics in South Africa. Journal of Religion In Africa, 66-92.
[2] Downie, J. (2015). Stakeholder Expectations of Interpreters: A Multi-Site, Multi-Method Approach (Doctoral dissertation). Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland.
[3] Errico, E. & Mara M. (2012). “La calidad percibida en interpretación consecutiva: un estudio en ámbito social con estudiantes en prácticas.” En: Barranco Droege, Rafael; Esperanza Macarena Pradas Macías & Olalla García Becerra (eds.) Quality in Interpreting: Widening the Scope. Granada: Comares, vol. 2, pp. 61-81.
[4] Firth, A. (1995). ‘Accounts’ in negotiation discourse: A single-case analysis. Journal of Pragmatics, 23(2), 199-226.
[5] Hatim, B., and Mason, I. (2005). The translator as communicator. Routledge.
[6] Hymes, D. (1964). Introduction: Toward ethnographies of communication. American anthropologist, 66(6_PART2), 1-34.
[7] Iser, W. (2000). The Range of Interpretation. NewYork: Colombia University.
[8] Jones, R. (2002). Conference Interpreting Explained, Manchester: St Jerome Publishing
[9] Lionbridge.(2012)What’s the Difference Between Interpretation and Translation?blog.lionbridge.com/travel…/files/2012/…/Lionbridge-FAQ-Interp-vs-Translation.pdf
[10] Livingstone, E. A. (2002). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. England: Oxford University Press.
[11] Lyons, J. (1979). Pronouns of Address in Anna Karenina: ‘The Stylistics of Bilingualism and the Impossibility of Translation’, in Greenbaum, S. Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. (eds), (1987). Studies in English Linguistics (for Randelph Quirk). London: Longman, 235-249.
[12] Macchia, F. D. (2006). Baptized in the spirit of a Global Pentecostal Theology. Michigan: Zondervan.
[13] Orodho J.A,. (2004). Techniques of writing research proposals and reports in education. Masda: Masda publishers
[14] Parsitau, D. and. (2010). God in the city: Pentecostalism as an urban phenomena in Kenya. Journal of Missiological.
[15] Riccardi, A. (1998). ‘Interpreting Strategies and Creativity’ in a journal on Translators strategies and Creativity.Amsterdam: John Benjamin, P. 171-179.

Onkware, Gillphine Chebunga , Menecha, Jared Bravin, “Attitude of Congregants Regarding Consecutive Interpretation of Church Sermons in the Pentecostal Churches in Nakuru Town” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.156-160 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/156-160.pdf

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Adaptations of Swamp Rice Farmers to the Effects of Climate Change in Ndop Sub-divison, Cameroon

Nkiene Valery, Kiming Ignatius, Chop Leonard, Karba Juliet, Ndum Albert- January 2021 – Page No.: 161-167

Farmers in the rain-fed agriculture in equatorial regions are highly exposed to the adverse effects of climate change due to complete reliance on rainfall which has become unpredictable. Planned and spontaneous adaptation in such conditions becomes crucial to remain in farming in climate change regime. In the rural settings of the less-developed areas, farmers mostly adapt to risks posed by climate change individually. The present study investigates different adaptation strategies of farmers using cross-sectional data collected from Ndop sub-division of the Ngoketunjia division in the North West region of Cameroon. The study examines the role of socio-economic characteristics of farmers on adaptation to climate change. Plant level, farm level and farmers level of adaptations were examined and barriers to adoption of effective adaptation strategies. Data collected through questionnaire and direct field observation were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and mean distribution. Data was collected from 200 respondents through stratified random sampling. Plant level, farm level and farmer’s level of adaptation were assessed to be inefficient to mitigate the effects of climate variability and reduce vulnerability of swamp rice production in this sub division. This is especially at the level of traditional farms. Adaptation strategies are therefore ineffective as yields of 6 tons per hectare have never been attained. Adopting the NERICA specie, converting traditional fields into developed fields, increasing farmer’s awareness on the effects of climate change and strengthening the agricultural extension service of the UNVDA amongst others will increase resilience and improve on production hence increasing rice yields.

Page(s): 161-167                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 February 2021

 Nkiene Valery
Department of Geography, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon

  Kiming Ignatius
Department of Geography, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon

  Chop Leonard
Department of Geography, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon

  Karba Juliet
Department of Geography, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon

  Ndum Albert
Department of International Development, Madison University, USA

[1] FAO/WFP Committee on Agriculture. 2003. 17th Session, Item 9 of the Provisional Agenda, “Biosecurity in Food and Agriculture”, COAG/2003/9, 31 March-4 April (ftp://ftp.fao.org/unfao/bodies/coag/coag17/Y8453e.doc)
[2] Changing Food Security: The Challenges of Climate Change in Ukpeko, Etsako East, Edo State Nigeria. Stephen, O. 2015, African Journal of Agriculture and Food Security, pp. 3(1):113-117.
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[6] Wanki S.B.C., (1985).Soil fertility evaluation for rice (ORYZA SATIVA) production in the Ndop Plain of the Cameroons, Unpublished PhD thesis university of Ibadan, bound in the Library llTA Ib
[7] Ngwa N.E.,(1979).Swamp rice production in the North West province of Cameroon: A case study of agricultural innovation diffusion among traditional agrarian communities, Mastersthesis, university of Yaounde 1, 221p.
[8] Agarwal, A. Forecasting rice yield under climate change scenarios for Northeast Thailand. Thailand: MS Thesis. Department of water engineering and management, Asian Institute of Technology, 2008
[9] “Analysis of socio economic factors influencing the adoption of rice technologies by farmers in Borno State, Nigeria. Abu, I.A., Pur, J.T. and Ogunbameru, B.O. 2011, Adamawa State University Journal of Agricultural Sciences, pp. 1(1),40-45.
[10] Adoption of Improved Rice Varieties among Small-Scale Farmers in Katcha Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. Jirgi, A, J., Abdulrahman, M. and Ibrahim, F.D. 2009, Journal of Agricultural Extension, pp. 13(1), 95-101.
[11] Pattern and Trend of Rice Production in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Hassan, S.M. 2014, Confluence Journal of environmental Studies, pp. 9:1-7.
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[14] Lambi, C.M., (1999).The Bamendjin Dam of the Upper Nun Valley of Cameroon, No Human Paradise, Reader in Environmental Education Project, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland.
[15] Ngwa, C., (1999).The Upper Noun Valley Development Authority (UNVDA) in the Social and Economic Development of the Ndop Region of Cameroon since 1970, Nsukka, Nigeria, Nsukka
[16] Antu V. Nkiene and Nkwemoh C. Vulnerability of swamp rice production to the observed effects of rainfall and temperature variability in Ndop sub-division
[17] IPCC,(2007).Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Core Writing Team, Pachauri R.K. and Reisinger A eds). IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland
[18] Indigenous people’s perception on climate change and adaptation strategies in Jama’a Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Ishaya, S. and Abaje, I.B. 2008, Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, pp. 1(8), 138-143.
[19] Climate Change and Rice Yields in Diverse Agro-Environments of India. II Effects of Uncertainties in Scenarios and Crop Models on Impact Assessment. Aggarwal, P.K. and Mall, R.K. s.l. : Climate Change, 2002, Vols. 52:331-333
[20] Agronomic Impacts of Climatic Variability on Rice Production in the Philippines. Lansigan, F.P., de los Santos, W.L. and Coladilla, J.O. 2000, Agriculture, Ecosystems and environment, pp.82(1-3),129-137.
[21] Nkwemoh C and Chop Leonard Farmers Adaptation Strategies to the Effects of Climate Variation on Rice Production: Insight from Benue State, Nigeria, Idoma Kim et al., Environment and Ecology Research 5(4): 289-301, 2017
[22] Pattern and Trend of Rice Production in the Federal Capital territory,Abuja, Nigeria. Hassan, S.M. s.l. : Confluence Journal of environmental Studies, 2014, Confluence Journal of environmental Studies, Vols. 9:1-7, pp. 9:1-7

Nkiene Valery, Kiming Ignatius, Chop Leonard, Karba Juliet, Ndum Albert, “Adaptations of Swamp Rice Farmers to the Effects of Climate Change in Ndop Sub-divison, Cameroon ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.161-167 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/161-167.pdf

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Effect of Covid-19 on Noise Pollution in Nzoia River Basin, Kenya.

Ernest Othieno Odwori- January 2021 – Page No.: 168-175

Nzoia River Basin lies entirely within Kenya along the border with Uganda in the Lake Victoria Basin, and has a population of about 3.7 million people with mixed demographic characteristics displaying mixed distribution patterns. The purpose of this study was to assess noise pollution levels in the basin before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional research design was used in the study. Three counties were randomly selected from the basin for study with Busia representing the lower catchment, Kakamega middle catchment and Trans Nzoia upper catchment. Control of noise pollution, other public nuisances and outdoor advertising is a devolved function of county governments in Kenya. A person intending to engage in such activities is by law required to apply for a permit from the county governments. The number of permits issued by the county governments will give an indication on the number of people intending to engage in noise pollution and hence, the level of noise pollution in the county. This study used the number of noise pollution permits issued by county goverments, in-depth expert interviews (key informants) with selected stakeholders from national and county departments of environment, academia and scientists, field observations, recently published literature and industry experiences to assess the effect of COVID-19 on noise pollution levels in Nzoia River Basin. A questionnaire was sent to the county governments of Busia, Kakamega and Trans Nzoia to collect information on the number of monthly noise pollution permits issued for the two years 2018 and 2019 preceeding the COVID-19 outbreak and 2020 after the onset of the pandemic. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistic of percentages in order to compare the changes in overall noise pollution levels and then presented in Tables. The findings of the study revealed that the year 2020 had the smallest number of permits issued as compared to the two preceeding years, 2018 and 2019. In-depth expert interviews (key informants) and field observations revealed that noise pollution hotspots in the basin are major towns and urban areas, major highways, airports and airstrips, industrial manufacturing centres and agro-based processing plants, quarrying sites and Webuye Broadrick waterfalls. This study sheds light on the consequences of the sudden occurrence of a major pandemic and raises awareness on the critical impacts to the environment in terms of reduced noise pollution levels. The findings of this study can be used to formulate strategies for noise pollution control in the basin. Noise is known to cause ill health, and therefore any efforts made to reduce the level of noise pollution in the basin will result into the improvement of the health status of the residents. The widely observed reduction in noise pollution in the basin is welcome news on the positive environmental effects of COVID-19, but proper planning mechanisms for the post COVID months to come will be required in order to sustain the reduced noise levels.

Page(s): 168-175                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 February 2021

 Ernest Othieno Odwori
Department of Water, Environment and Natural Resources, Kakamega County, Kakamega, Kenya.

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[14] GOK, 2009. Government of Kenya- The Environmental Management and Coordination (Noise and Excessive Vibration Pollution) (Control) Regulations, 2009. Legal Notice No. 61.
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[18] Odwori, E.O. and Obiri, F.J. (2018). Factors Influencing Sustainable Household Domestic Water Use in Nzoia River Basin, Kenya. Int. J. S. Res. Sci. Technol. 2018 September – October – 2018 ; 4(10) : 297-307.
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Ernest Othieno Odwori, “Effect of Covid-19 on Noise Pollution in Nzoia River Basin, Kenya.” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.168-175 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/168-175.pdf

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Effect of Different Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Growth and Yield of Boro Rice (BRRI dhan29)

Md. Mahedy Alam, Mst. Arifunnahar, Mst. Maskura Khatun, Md. Ahsanul Ajad Sumon, Md. Ashikur Rahman, Md. Jakirul Islam- January 2021 – Page No.: 176-180

During the period from December 2016 to May 2017 the study was carried out at the Research Field of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur in Rabi season to evaluate the efficacy of different organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of boro rice (BRRI dhan29). The experiment had eight treatments with three replications and as follows; T0: Control, T1: 100% N75P12K45S9 (Recommended dose), T2: 50% NPKS + 6 t cowdung ha-1, T3: 75% NPKS + 3 t cowdung ha-1, T4: 50% NPKS + 6 t poultry manure ha-1, T5: 75% NPKS + 3 t poultry manure ha-1, T6: 50% NPKS + 6 t vermicompost ha-1 and T7: 75% NPKS + 3 t vermicompost ha-1. Application of organic and inorganic fertilizers resulted in a considerable influence on the growth and yield contributing characteristics of boro rice (BRRI dhan29). At harvest stage, the tallest plant (94.37 cm) and the greatest number of total tiller per hill (22.10) was recorded from T4. The longest panicle (26.48 cm), maximum number of total grain per plant (178.3), the highest weight of 1000 seeds (21.96 g), the maximum grain yield (10.33 t ha-1) and straw yield (15.67 t ha-1) was also recorded in T4 treatment. Although the highest biological yield was recorded from T4 treatment but statistically similar result was found from T5 treatment. The findings of the study showed that the performance of the treatment T4 was the best among all treatments in terms of growth and yields. So, the recommendation of this study is amendment of soil with 50% NPKS + 6 t poultry manure ha-1 might be an efficient practice for achieving sustainable higher boro rice (BRRI dhan29) production.

Page(s): 176-180                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 Febraury 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8109

 Md. Mahedy Alam
Department of Soil Science, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh

  Mst. Arifunnahar
Department of Entomology, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh.

  Mst. Maskura Khatun
Former M.Sc. student, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh

  Md. Ahsanul Ajad Sumon
M.Sc. student, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh.

  Md. Ashikur Rahman
M.Sc. student, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh.

  Md. Jakirul Islam
M.Sc. student, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh.

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[15] UNDP and FAO. (1988). Land Resources Appraisal of Bangladesh for Agricultural Development. Report 2. Agroecological Regions of Bangladesh,UN Development programme and Food and Agril. Org. P. 212-221.

Md. Mahedy Alam, Mst. Arifunnahar, Mst. Maskura Khatun, Md. Ahsanul Ajad Sumon, Md. Ashikur Rahman, Md. Jakirul Islam, “Effect of Different Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Growth and Yield of Boro Rice (BRRI dhan29)” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.176-180 January 2021 URL: DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8109

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Holding Iron Surface FCD 40 using Electrochemical Hard Chrome Method on Die-Cutting Two Tons

Markus Malau, Asrul Sani- January 2021 – Page No.: 181-189

Material hardening is a process method that is carried out to make materials that begin with standards become stronger and more resilient. The material used is nodular cast iron (Ferro Casting Nodular (FCD)) which has a composition of above 2.06% carbon, tensile stress 40 kg / mm2, with elongation of 12 minutes, and has a material hardness of 201 (BHN). The method used to harden the surface is the electrochemical hard chrome process with added hardening material is chrome. Material is carried out by electrochemical diffusion by providing electrical voltage, as well as the addition of heat given, so that the material becomes harder.
The results of electrochemical hard chromium surface hardening can harden the surface better and harder, so that it is used in industry and society. Rockwell hardening value is 62.82 HRC equivalents to VHN 768 and BHN is 702.2. In this hardening process uses 270 amperes of electric current, with a temperature of 60ºC and a holding time of 20.

Page(s): 181-189                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 Febraury 2021

 Markus Malau
Pancasila University, Jakarta, Indonesia

  Asrul Sani
Pancasila University, Jakarta, Indonesia

Brunete, A., Gambao, E., Koskinen, J., Heikkilä, T., Kaldestad, K. B., Tyapin, I., . . . Bottero, A. (2018). Hard material small-batch industrial machining robot. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 54, 185-199.
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Markus Malau, Asrul Sani, “Holding Iron Surface FCD 40 using Electrochemical Hard Chrome Method on Die-Cutting Two Tons” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.181-189 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/181-189.pdf

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Socio Economic Characteristics and Bio-Security Measures among Fish Farmers in Some Coastal Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria

George A.D.I and Akinrotimi O.A- January 2021 – Page No.: 190-193

The socio-economic characteristics and biosecurity measures amongst fish farmers in some coastal communities of Rivers State were assessed. Data was collected randomly from 200 fish farmers by interview and administration of structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentages were used to analyze data collected. Results obtained from the study indicated that fish farming were dominated by males (68.50%) and were mostly (48.50%) within the age bracket of 21-40years. Majority of the respondents (70.00%) were educated up to secondary level with 6-10 years experience in fish farming. Most (65.00%) of the farmers in the study area had been trained in fish farming enterprise and they are not full time farmers (42.00%). From the study area, majority (64.50%) of the farmers were fully aware of the biosecurity strategies in aquaculture production. While, a greater proportion (29.00%) of the farmers engaged in cleaning of their environment as a means of biosecurity practices. There was low level of compliance of biosecurity strategies among the fish farmers, with finance (51.00%) as a major constraint. In conclusion, the study observed that the practice of biosecurity measures was not an important issue among the farmers in the study area. It is therefore recommended that financial assistance should be made available to farmers in these communities; so as to enhance their production capacities and bio-security practices compliance.

Page(s): 190-193                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 Febraury 2021

 George A.D.I
Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

  Akinrotimi O.A
African Regional Aquaculture Centre/Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, P.M.B 5122, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

[1] Adedeji, O.B. and Okocha, R.C. (2011). Constraints to aquaculture development in Nigeria and way forward. Journal of Applied Research 7(7):1133- 1140.
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George A.D.I and Akinrotimi O.A, “Socio Economic Characteristics and Bio-Security Measures among Fish Farmers in Some Coastal Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.190-193 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/190-193.pdf

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Assessment of the Fertility Pattern of Women in North Western Nigeria

Gerald I. Onwuka, Wasiu A. Babayemi, Yusuf Idris, Tolu O. James.- January 2021 – Page No.: 194-203

Fertility behavior is conditioned by both biological and social factors. Knowledge of fertility pattern gives insight into drivers of human fertility. The paper investigated the birth pattern of women in Kebbi State, North Western Nigeria. A total of 2,256 questionnaires were distributed to the women of child bearing age using simple random sampling across five local government areas. The aim of the study was to analyze the pattern of fertility among age group of women of childbearing age and the effects of some exogenous variables on the fertility of women in the state. Poisson regression was applied for the positive count value recorded. The results from the analysis revealed that experience of birth or history of birth, financial reliant, obesity, individual age are highly significant to the study and have direct impact on fertility. Despite our ability to breed continuously, all human populations exhibit variation in reproduction.

Page(s): 194-203                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 Febraury 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8110

 Gerald I. Onwuka
Department of Mathematics (Statistics Unit) Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero.

 Wasiu A. Babayemi
Department of Mathematics (Statistics Unit) Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero.

  Yusuf Idris
Department of Mathematics (Statistics Unit) Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero.

  Tolu O. James.
Department of Mathematics (Statistics Unit) Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero.

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Gerald I. Onwuka, Wasiu A. Babayemi, Yusuf Idris, Tolu O. James,”Assessment of the Fertility Pattern of Women in North Western Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.194-203 January 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8110

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Anti-Anthropocentrism: Ecological and Artistic Implications of Birds in Thomas Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge and Tess of the d’Urbervilles

Eric Ngea Ntam, PhD- January 2021 – Page No.: 204-213

When Hardy declared insects, dogs, and birds as God’s humble creatures and his guests in his poem, “An August Midnight”, his aim was certainly to dissuade human beings from indiscriminately destroying the creatures; for they are ecological beings just as humans and equally serve as an imaginative influence. From Thomas J. Lyon’s ecocritical discourse explicated in “A Taxonomy of Nature Writing,” this paper views birds in the two novels not as mere symbols, as many critics have considered them, but as beings through which the feelings and conditions of characters, events, as well as the setting are juxtaposed to portray an interwoven connection between the entire ecosystem. The paper asserts that apart from belonging to the Great Chain of Being as humans, birds are endowed with perceptive skills from which Thomas Hardy draws inspiration for his narrative. In other words, birds are viewed in both novels to reveal the beauty of arts; such beauty which is embellished with and identifiable in the physical environment as well as Hardy’s creative and linguistic expression.

Page(s): 204-213                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 February 2021

  Eric Ngea Ntam, PhD
Department of Bilingual Letters, Faculty of Arts, Letters and Social Sciences, University of Maroua

[1] Butake, Bole, ed. “Afterwards.” Cameroon Anthology of Poetry. Bamenda: Ripple Publishers. 2015, 108.
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[4] Gerson, Sharon C. “Bird Imagery in Thomas Hardy’s Novels,” MA Thesis. Texas Tech University. May, 1977. 12.04.2021.
[5] Harvey, Geoffrey. Thomas Hardy. London: Routledge, 2003.
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[7] Widdowson, Peter. Thomas Hardy. 2nd ed. Devon: Northcote House Publishers Ltd., 2007.
[8] Hardy, Thomas. Tess of the D’Urbervilles (1891). ed. Scott Elledge. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1991.
[9] _ _ _ . The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886) ed. Phillip Mallett. New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1991.
[10] Hardy, Thomas. The Life and Work of Thomas Hardy. Ed. Michael Millgate Hampshire, Macmillan, 1984.
[11] Harvey, Geoffrey. Thomas Hardy. London: Routledge, 2003.
[12] Glotfelty, Cheryll and Harold Fromm (eds). The Ecocriticism Reader. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1996.
[13] Johnson, Trevor. A Critical Introduction to the Poems of Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1991.
[14] Lyon, J. Thomas. “Taxonomy of Nature Writing.” The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology, ed. Cheryll Glotfelty and Harold Fromm, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press,1996,. 276-81.
[15] Manes, Christopher. “Nature and Silence” The Ecocriticism Reader. Cheryll Glotfelty and Harold Fromm Eds. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1996. 15-29.
[16] Millgate, Michael. Thomas Hardy: A Biography, London: OUP, 1982.
[17] Miller, J. Hillis. “The Refusal of Involvement”. Thomas Hardy: Modern Critical Views. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. 37-53.
[18] Morgan, Rosemarie. Student Companion to Thomas Hardy. London: Greenwood Press, 2007
[19] Orel, Harold, The Final Years of Thomas Hardy, 1912-1928, New York: Macmillan, 1976.
[20] Pinion, F. B. “The Ranging Vision,” Thomas Hardy After Fifty Years. Lance St. John Butler, ed. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1978. 1-12.
[21] Schweik, Robert. “The Influence of Religion, Science, and Philosophy on Hardy’s Writings.” The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Hardy. Ed. Dale Kramer, Cambridge: CUP, 1999. 54-72.
[22] Srivastava, Nitu. “Symbolic Significance of Bird in Thomas Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge. English Language, Literature & Translation Studies. Vol.3.Issue.3.2016. 469-72. http://www.ijelr.in/3.3.16c/468-472%20Dr.%20NITU%20SRIVASTAVA.pdf. Accessed: 24.01.2021
[23] Tomalin, Claire. Thomas Hardy: The Time Torn Man. London: Penguin Books, 2006.
[24] Turner, Frederic. “Cultivating the American Garden” The Ecocriticism Reader. Glotfelty, Cheryll and Harold Fromm. Eds. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1996. 40-51.

Eric Ngea Ntam, PhD “Anti-Anthropocentrism: Ecological and Artistic Implications of Birds in Thomas Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge and Tess of the d’Urbervilles ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.204-213 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/204-213.pdf

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Flood Risk Mapping and its Effects on livelihood in Ghana using Sentinel-1 data. A case study of Accra

E. Njomaba, J. N Ofori, B.E. Aikins D. A. A Nyame- January 2021 – Page No.: 214-222

Flooding has been a major issue in Ghana, and several driving factors have been attributed to flooding in Accra. Among the factors outlined throughout the literature are climatic influences such as rainfall which results in a change in the natural hydrology of the area. Other causes include building in waterways and dumping of refuse in the drainage area. This paper seeks to develop an operational methodology using Synthetic Aperture Radar images to support the response agencies by providing timely information on flood risk areas over a period to prioritize response activities within the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA) area. The method used was a change detection algorithm where the after-flood mosaic was divided by the before-flood mosaic, resulting in a raster layer showing the degree of change per pixel. Additional Dataset to refine the flood layers were adopted such as Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Global Surface-water dataset. One of the major findings of this study is that the Ga south district is the district with the highest average flooding extent compared to the other districts within GAMA and the main reason was because of the Weija Dam being situated close to the district. When the Dam is full and being spilled over, it causes surrounding environments to experience flooding. The implication is that much attention should be given to the Ga south district to curb the menace of flooding in GAMA.

Page(s): 214-222                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 February 2021

 E. Njomaba
Laboratory of Geo-information Science and Remote Sensing, Wageningen University & Research, Gelderland, Netherlands

  J. N Ofori
Dept. of Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation, Wageningen University and Research, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, Wageningen, Gelderland, Netherlands

  B.E. Aikins
Remote Sensing & GIS Unit, Bedeston Technologies, and Consulting Services, Accra, Tema, Ghana.

  D. A. A Nyame
Department of Geography & Resource Development, University of Ghana, Legon.

[1] Kwasi Appeaning Addo et al. “Impacts of Coastal Inundation Due to Climate Change in a CLUSTER of Urban Coastal Communities in Ghana, West Africa”. Remote Sensing 3(9) (2011), pp. 2029–2050. DOI: 10.3390/rs3092029. URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs3092029.
[2] E Dogbevi. 2017. URL: https://www.ghanabusinessnews.com/2017/05/30/reconstruction-costs-after-accra- floods-estimated-at-105m-world-bank/.
[3] C Farvacque-Vitkovic et al. “Development of the Cities of Ghana: Challenges, Priorities, and Tools”. Africa Region Working Paper 110 (2008), pp. 1–157.
[4] Elissavet Feloni, Ioannis Mousadis, and Evangelos Baltas. “Flood vulnerability assessment using a GIS-based multi-criteria approach—The case of Attica region”. Journal of Flood Risk Management 13(S1) (2020), pp. 1–15. DOI: 10.1111/jfr3.12563. URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfr3.12563.
[5] N K Karley. 2009.
[6] Li Lin et al. “Improvement and Validation of NASA/MODIS NRT Global Flood Mapping”. Remote Sensing 11(2) (2019), pp. 205–205. DOI: 10.3390/rs11020205. URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs11020205.
[7] B Nyarko. “Application of a rational model in GIS for flood risk assessment in Accra, Ghana”. J Spatial Hydrol 2 (2002), pp. 1–14.
[8] Xinyi Shen et al. “Inundation Extent Mapping by Synthetic Aperture Radar: A Review”. Remote Sensing 11(7) (2019), pp. 879–879. DOI: 10.3390/rs11070879. URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs11070879.


[9] 2016. URL: https://reliefweb.int/report/ghana/ghana-floods-emergency-plan-action- epoa-mdrgh011.
[10] 2020. URL: http://www.un-spider.org/advisory-support/recommended- practices/recommended-practice-google-earth-engine-flood-mapping: Assessed on 22nd.
[11] A Annor. 2020. URL: https://www.ghanaiantimes.com.gh/displaced-weija-residents- count-their-losses-one-week-after-dam-spillage/.
[12] S. O. Ansah et al. “Meteorological Analysis of Floods in Ghana”. Advances in Meteorology 2020 (2020), pp. 1–14. DOI: 10.1155/2020/4230627. URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4230627.
[13] A Doreen. 2020. URL: https://www.graphic.com.gh/news/general-news/building-on- watercourses-human-activities-cause-Accra-floods.html.
[14] Ifrc. 2017.
[15] B Okyere. 2015. URL: https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Flooding-in-Accra-Ghana- How-can-we-help-the-victims-362650.
[16] S Peter. 2009. URL: https://www.modernghana.com/news/223780/1/flooding-in-accra- research-report.html.
[17] G Tetteh. 2017.
[18] The Human Cost of Weather-Related Disasters. Geneva, Switzerland, 1995.
[19] K Uddin, M A Matin, and F J Meyer. 2019. URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11131581.

E. Njomaba, J. N Ofori, B.E. Aikins D. A. A Nyame, “Flood Risk Mapping and its Effects on livelihood in Ghana using Sentinel-1 data. A case study of Accra” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.214-222 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/214-222.pdf

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Water Diplomacy and Water sharing problem between Bangladesh and India: a Quest for Solution
Fahmida Aktar – January 2021 – Page No.: 223-229

Water is an important resource for all time, healthiness, and development. However, one in three people worldwide doesn’t have enough water to satisfy their daily needs. Consistent with the UN, in 2025 nearly 2 billion people will live in conditions of absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the planet in areas of water stress. Bangladesh and India share 54 rivers. But there has been only one water-sharing agreement on one river that is ‘The Ganges Water Treaty-1996’. Without such agreement with Bangladesh, India began constructing dams or diverting water from many Tran’s boundary rivers. The absence of such agreements could lead to complex water-sharing conflicts within the future and should have negative, socio-economic, and political implications for bilateral relations between the two countries. This paper discussed Water Diplomacy and Water sharing problems between Bangladesh and India employed a triangulation research method Also, explain different International Treaties and laws associated with water. Also, attempt to identify a standard solution and proposals for resolve water sharing problems between Bangladesh and India.

Page(s): 223-229                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 February 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8111

 Fahmida Aktar
Associate Professor, Department of Political Studies, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh

[1] Khalid, I. (2010). Bangladesh Water Concern, South Asian Studies, 25 (1), 73-87.
[2] West Africa. Global Water Partnarship (2009). Implementing the GWP Strategy 2009-2013 Report on the Global Water Partnership Consulting Partners Meeting. https://gwp.org/globalassets/global/about-gwp/strategic-documents/gwp_cp_meeting_aug.
[3] Wouters, P. (2013). International Law–Facilitating Transboundary Water Cooperation. Elanders press.
[4] Islam, M. S. (2011 May 31). Water for Security and Development. The New Age.
[5] Islam, M. S. (2011June 28). Water Scarcity and Conflict: A Bangladesh perspective. The Daily Star.
[6] Islam, M. S. (2011 June 28). Ibid.
[7] Mohapatra, B. (2019, March 21-23). The International Conference on India-Bangladesh Trans-boundary Rivers: Management and Conflict over Water Resources in Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin. North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, India.https://networks.h-net.org/node/73374/announcements/3702782/international-conference-india-bangladesh-trans-boundary-rivers
[8] Ibid.
[9] Chan, N. W., Roy & R. Chaffin, B. (2016). Water Governance in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of Institutional and Political Context. MDPI. 8 (9), 403. https://doi.org/10.3390/w8090403.
[10] United Nations. (2015). Sustainable Development. United Nations Headquarters.
[11] Pohl, B., Carius, A. & Conca, K. (2014). The rise of hydro-diplomacy: strengthening foreign policy for transboundary waters. Adelphi Publications.
[12] Bokova, I. & Ovink, H. (2016). The Multi-track Water Diplomacy Framework: A Legal and Political Economy Analysis for Advancing Cooperation over Shared Water’s. Institute for Global Justice.
[13] Barua, A.,Deka, A. & Gulati, V. (2019). Re-Interpreting Cooperation in Transboundary Waters: Bringing Experiences from the Brahmaputra Basin. MDPI. 11(12), 2589. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122589.
[14] Nan, A.S. (2005). Track One-and-a-half Diplomacy: Contributions to Georgia-South Ossetian Peacemaking. In Fisher, R.J., (Ed.), Paving the Way: Contributions of Interactive Conflict Resolution to Peacemaking, (pp. 161–173. Lexington Books.
[15] Montville, J.V. (1991). The Arrow and the Olive Branch: A Case for Track Two Diplomacy, In Volkan, V. D., Julius, D. A. & Montville, J.V (Eds.), The Psychodynamics of International Relations (pp. 161–175). Lexington Books.
[16] Barua, A. (2018). Water diplomacy as an Approach to Regional Cooperation in South Asia: A Case from the Brahmaputra Basin. Journal of Hydrology. 567, 60–70.
[17] Wehrenfennig, D. (2008). Multi-Track Diplomacy and Human Security. Journal of Human Security, 7, 80–88.
[18] Barua, A. (2018) Op.cit.
[19] Paisley, R. K. (2018). International watercourses, international water law, and Central Asia. The Central Asian Journal of Water Research 4(2), 1-26.
[20] United Nations General Assembly. (1997). Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses: resolution. United Nations Headquarters, New York.
[21] United Nations Treaty Collections. (1992). Environment: Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. United Nations Headquarters.
[22] Giordano, M. & Wolf, A.T. (2013). The World’s International Freshwater Agreements: Historical Developments and Future Opportunities. United National Environment Programme. http://www. transboundarywaters. orst.
[23] Paisley, R. K. Op.cit.
[24] Parry, A.W. (2020). Teesta River Dispute between India and Bangladesh.INSAMER. https://insamer.com/rsm/icerik/dosya/dosya_2634.pdf.
[25] Swain, A. (1993). Conflicts Over Water-A Case Study of the Ganges Water Dispute, Security Dialogue 24 (4), 8.
[26] Ibid.
[27] Nishat, A. & Islam, F. (2000). An Assessment of the Institutional Mechanisms for Water Negotiations in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna System. International Negotiation, 30 (4), 292-295.
[28] Ibid
[29] Kolas, A., Barkved, L. J., & Bhattacharjee, J. (2013). Water Scarcity in Bangladesh Transboundary Rivers, Conflict and Cooperation. Peace Research Institute.
[30] Chaudhary, J. (2014, November 20), India renews “disastrous” river linking project.The Third pole. https://www.thethirdpole.net/2014/11/20/india-river-linking-project/.
[31] Basu, J. (2017, April 4). Teesta has one-sixteenth of water needed. The Third pole. https://www.thethirdpole.net/bn/2017/04/14/teesta-has-one-sixteenth-of-water-needed/.
[32] India, Strategic Foresight Group (2013). Rivers of Peace–Restructuring India Bangladesh Relations. Strategic Foresight Group.
[33] Bhuiya, H.K. (2017, April 19). Dhaka Wants Signing of Agreed Draft, The Independent. https://www.theindependentbd.com/post/90767.
[34] Uddin, S.S. & Sultana, S.T. (2017). Bangladesh-India Water Negotiations: Challenges and Way Forward. BIISS Journal, 38 (2), 93-118.
[35] Thakur, J. (2020). India-Bangladesh Trans-Boundary River Management: Understanding the Tipaimukh Dam Controversy 334.The ObserverResearch Foundation. www.orfonline.org/research/india.
[36] Khan, A. S., Masud, M. S. & Palash, W. (2005). Hydrological Impact Study of the Tipaimukh Dam Project of India on Bangladesh. The Institute of Water Modeling (IWM).
[37] Islam, M. S. (2013). Development, power, and the environment: the neoliberal paradox in the age of vulnerability, Routledge.
[38] Khan, A. S., Masud, M. S. & Palash, W. Op. cit.
[39] Arora, V. & Ngamjahao, K. (2012). We can live without power, but we can’t live without our land: indigenous hmar oppose the Tipaimukh Dam in Manipur. Sociological Bulletin 61(1), 109–128.

Fahmida Aktar “Water Diplomacy and Water sharing problem between Bangladesh and India: a Quest for Solution” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.223-229 January 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8111

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Nildempotency Structure of Partial One-One Contraction CIn Transformation Semigroups
S.A. Akinwunmi, M.M. Mogbonju, A.O. Adeniji, D.O. Oyewola, G. Yakubu, G.R. Ibrahim, and M.O. Fatai – January 2021 – Page No.: 230-234

The principal objects of interest in the current research are the finite sets and the contraction CIn finite transformation semigroups and the characterization of nildempotent elements in CIn. Let M_n be a finite set, say M_n={m_1,m_2,…m_n}, where m_i is a non-negative integer then α ∈ CIn for which for all q,k∈M_n, |αq-αk|≤|q-k| is a contraction mapping for all q,k∈D(α), provided that any element in D(α) is not assumed to be mapped to empty as a contraction. We show that α∈ CIn is nildempotent if there exist some minimal (nildempotent degree) m,k∈ CIn such that α^m=∅⟹α^k=α where |CIn |=1 then α(S)=1=n(V)=∅ implies |I(α) |⊆|D(α)| where |NDCIn |=1 for each n∈N. Then |ECIn |=(█(2^k@(k-n)+1)) , n,k∈N for 1≥k≥n.

Page(s): 230-234                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 February 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8112

 S.A. Akinwunmi
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe, Nigeria.

 M.M. Mogbonju
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Physical Science, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.

 A.O. Adeniji
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Physical Science, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.

 D.O. Oyewola
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe, Nigeria.

 G. Yakubu
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe, Nigeria.

 G.R. Ibrahim
Department of Statistics and Mathematical Science, Faculty of Science, Kwara State University Malete, Kwara, Nigeria

 M.O. Fatai
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, Federal University Oye-Ekiti , Ekiti, Nigeria.

[1] Howie, J.M; (1995), Fundamentals of semigroup theory, Oxford University press.
[2] Ganyushkin,O, and Mazorchuk, V; [2009]; Classical Finite Transformation Semigroups; An Introduction Springer-Verlag London Limited.
[3] Laradiji, A; and Umar, A [2004]; Combinatorial results for semigroup of order-preserving partial transformation. Journal of algebra, 278: 342-359.
[4] Gomes, G.M and Howie, J.M; (1987b), Nilpotents in symmetric inverse finite semigroups.Proc. Edinburgh Math. Soc. 30, Pp. 383-395.
[5] Sullivan, R.P; (1997), Nilpotents in partial transformations, Bull. Austral. Math. Soc. 55, Pp. 453 –467.
[6] Ibrahim, M.J; (2015), Algebraic Study of certain finite semigroups of contraction mappings, Ph.D thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nig.
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[8] Agba, J.A, Garba, G.U and Imam, A.T; (2019), The subsemigroup generated by nilpotents in the semigroup of partial ono-to-one order- preserving contraction mapping. Vol. 52 (7&9 Issue), Pp. 1-8, published by JNAMP
[9] Akinwunmi, S.A & Makanjuola, S.O (2019); Enumeration Partial Contraction Transformation Semi-groups. Vol. B, 29, pp. 70 – 77, published by JNAMP.

S.A. Akinwunmi, M.M. Mogbonju, A.O. Adeniji, D.O. Oyewola, G. Yakubu, G.R. Ibrahim, and M.O. Fatai “Nildempotency Structure of Partial One-One Contraction CIn Transformation Semigroups” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.230-234 January 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8112

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Effects of Shocks on Education Spending on Economic Growth in Nigeria

Faizah Adhama Mukhtar, Nadira Madaki Iliyasu and Maryam Rabi’u Zakariyya – January 2021 – Page No.: 235-240

The effect of shocks on budgetary education spending on economic growth in Nigeria is looked at through Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR) Model and annual data from 1981-2016. Data was obtained from central bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin and world development indicator. Result of SVAR reveals that the response of GDP to a shock on budgetary capital education spending, budgetary recurrent education spending and total federal collected revenue is significant. Response of GDP to shocks on budgetary capital and budgetary recurrent spending on education in the short run is negative but turned out to be positive in the long run. The study therefore advice that government should consider the effective use of education spending in order to achieve economic growth; and that revenue base should be broadened through effective and efficient tax system.

Page(s): 235-240                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 February 2021

  Faizah Adhama Mukhtar
Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State

  Nadira Madaki Iliyasu
Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State

  Maryam Rabi’u Zakariyya
Kano State College of Education and Preliminary studies

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Faizah Adhama Mukhtar, Nadira Madaki Iliyasu and Maryam Rabi’u Zakariyya, “Effects of Shocks on Education Spending on Economic Growth in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.235-240 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/235-240.pdf

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The Relationship Between CSR, Strategic Planning and Sustainability
Tuan Sharifah Azura Binti Tuan Zaki, Muhamad Fazil Ahmad – January 2021 – Page No.: 241-245

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) attained a high enough profile and that many consider it as a necessity for organizations to define their roles in society and here to social, ethical, legal, and responsible standards. Nowadays, there are many factors influencing the companies reporting on CSR including stakeholder pressures, the economic crisis, growing awareness of sustainability issues as well as the appearance of more and more new reporting requirements initiated by national government and stock exchanges. In Malaysia, as a rapid developing country, committed and confident in achieving the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda. The importance of addressing the topic of sustainable development has been widely acknowledged. Currently, most of such CSR studies focus on organizational perspectives, whereas it has been shown that the impact of individual perspective on the economy, the society, and the environment. This study is focusing on identifying the CSR activities implemented by corporations in Malaysia towards their stakeholders. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between the impact of CSR on their sustainability development. Specifically, conceptual framework in this study as a compilation of previous researchers mainly about sustainability, CSR, motivation and Triple bottom line. The outcomes of this study had shown the strategic planning from CSR activities have significant results with sustainable development. Furthermore, the practice of voluntary CSR will increase and as a result of an improved sustainability performance through better management information models to society. In conclusions, it is very important to place the measured outcomes of sustainability in this context in order to provide clear view of the true impact on the sustainability performance for the development of society, economy and nation in Malaysia.

Page(s): 241-245                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 February 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8113

 Tuan Sharifah Azura Binti Tuan Zaki
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu.

  Muhamad Fazil Ahmad
Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu.

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Tuan Sharifah Azura Binti Tuan Zaki, Muhamad Fazil Ahmad “The Relationship Between CSR, Strategic Planning and Sustainability” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.241-245 January 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8113

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An Assessment of Curriculum For Behaviour Change Among Learners With Emotional And Behaviour Disorders In Selected Juvenile Schools In Kenya
James Muthomi Rintaugu – January 2021 – Page No.: 246-249

In a global, regional and Kenyan perspective, there is a challenge as to the best curriculum to use for behaviour change among learners with Emotional and Behaviour Disorders (EBD). This study assessed curriculum for behaviour change among learners with EBD in selected Juvenile Schools (JS) in Kenya. The study was based on the social learning theory. Cross sectional descriptive research design was used. Target population comprised of all the learners in the selected JS and their managers in selected JS in Kenya. There was a total of 646 respondents. Probabilistic sampling techniques were used to select the sample. Questionnaires, interview schedules, focus group discussion, document analysis and observation schedules were used for data collection. Quantitative and qualitative data was collected, analyzed and presented. The study found that the adapted curriculum for learners with EBD was missing in JS despite being referral institutions for behaviour change. Similarly, the curriculum did not address problem solving and coping skills. The study recommends adaptation of the curriculum to address behaviour change.

Page(s): 246-249                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 February 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8114

 James Muthomi Rintaugu
Kenyatta University, Kenya

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James Muthomi Rintaugu “An Assessment of Curriculum For Behaviour Change Among Learners With Emotional And Behaviour Disorders In Selected Juvenile Schools In Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.246-249 January 2021 DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8114

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The Paradox of the Teaching Profession Act no. 5 of 2013 – Building from Nominalism and Realism: A Mixed Method’s Approach

Daniel Mapulanga- January 2021 – Page No.: 250-261

Professionalisation of teaching by law in Zambia was punctuated by controversy. The Teaching Profession Act that came into force in 2013 to rebrand teachers as professionals triggered controversy among the social actors and the general public. There are arguments that the law is inconsistent with the philosophy of professionalization as espoused by the Neo Weberian and Traitian theorists. Research was therefore set to examine the existence of a paradox in the Act against empirical evidence and the teachers’ own conceptualisation of profession from their natural world. The quantitative findings show that the law does not designate teachers with professional status because the mean scores per variable were all less than 5 which was the ideal standard, indicative that teachers perceived the law as alien to them. The study has exposed the inconsistencies of the teaching profession Act of 2013 by its failure to embrace the tenets of professions as propounded by the taxonomic and neo Weberian theories of professionalisation. From the focus group discussions, teachers further rejected the statute as alien and non-representative of their social world. This study has exposed the Act as having failed to borrow perspectives used in professionalising existing professional occupations operating in Zambia. The Act has detached itself from the ontological position which holds that rules of professionalisation for occupations operating within the same geographical space must be consistent. The panacea to the perceived contradictions henceforth is to repeal this Act and a new law enacted which must embrace recommendations proposed by this research.

Page(s): 250-261                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 26 February 2021

 Daniel Mapulanga
PhD Candidate, Department of Educational Psychology, Sociology and Special Education, University of Zambia LUSAKA

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Daniel Mapulanga, “The Paradox of the Teaching Profession Act no. 5 of 2013 – Building from Nominalism and Realism: A Mixed Method’s Approach” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.250-261 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/250-261.pdf

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Formative Assessment Practices of Mathematics Tutors in Selected Colleges of Education in Ghana
Emmanuel Adobah – January 2021 – Page No.: 262-271

The study focused on assessing formative assessment practices of Mathematics tutors of twelve colleges of education in Ashanti and Bono Region in Ghana. The study adopted Convergent research design to guide the study. A sample of 56 Mathematics tutors was sampled through census study. Questionnaire, interview guide and observation checklist were used to collect data from the participants. Majority used oral test to assess students at the introduction stage, mid-way (developmental stage) and at the conclusion stage of the Mathematics lessons. It was revealed that tutors scored students exercises, presentations, individual tasks and group work during Mathematics lessons. The study therefore recommended that capacity building workshops should be organized for Mathematics tutors to help them do formative assessment well. It was concluded that majority of the respondents used oral test to assess students during lessons and this might due to facts that other forms of assessment may be time consuming for the tutors.

Page(s): 262-271                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 February 2021

 Emmanuel Adobah
Department Mathematics and ICT, St. Louis College of Education, Kumasi, Ghana

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[50]. Whitebook, M., & Cassidy, D. (2014), Strengthening the mathematics -related teaching practices of the early care and education workforce: Insights from experts. Berkeley, CA: Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, University of California, Berkeley, (1-32).
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Emmanuel Adobah “Formative Assessment Practices of Mathematics Tutors in Selected Colleges of Education in Ghana” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.262-271 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/262-271.pdf

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Causes and Environmental Problems of Petrol Filling Stations in Residential Domain of Nigeria Town
Amakiri-whyte Belema Henry, Aselemi Akeuloghonaan Ernest, Akpabio M. Ufot- Akpabio – January 2021 – Page No.: 272-276

The study identified the causes and environmental problems of petrol filling stations found in residential domain of some developing nations. The study was a survey research in which data was obtained through a 6 items questionnaire on population of 228 respondents randomly sampled from the residential Neighbourhoods of Port Harcourt city local government. The data analysis was computed using Mean and Standard Deviation on a 5- point likert scale. Findings of the study reveal among others that the main causes for locating petrol filling station in residential domain of Port Harcourt city are high population, outdated and inefficient urban planning practices, and non-compliance to physical development control regulation, poor economic policies and corruption /ignorance, among others. The findings also revealed that the environmental problems of developed petrol filling station in residential domain are also numerous and such are volatile organic compound, methane and carbon monoxide to mention a few. The paper recommended among others that international bodies should organize in-service training, seminar and symposia for federal and state ministries of housing, urban development, environment, health, energy and natural resources and all the income class in Nigeria on the implications of such significant changes in urban residential districts.

Page(s): 272-276                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 February 2021

 Amakiri-whyte Belema Henry
Department of Architecture, Kenule Beeson Saro-wiwa Polytechnic Bori Nigeria

 Aselemi Akeuloghonaan Ernest
Department of Architecture, Kenule Beeson Saro-wiwa Polytechnic Bori Nigeria

 Akpabio M. Ufot- Akpabio
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Uyo, Nigeria

[1]. Boison, D. K., Asamoah, H. Y., Addison, L., Esther, A. ( 2018 ) ‘’Assessing Factors Influencing Sales Performance And Siting Of A Fuel Station Project: Study Of Spintex Road, Accra Ghana’’ International journal of social science and humanities research 6 (4) 1268-1279.
[2]. Chukwudi, G.N., and A. O. Alagbe (2015) ‘’Site Suitability Assessment of Petrol Filling Stations (PFSs) in Oyo Town, Oyo State, Nigeria: a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Approach International Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology’’ 9 (12) 8-19.
[3]. Dele S, O., (2019) Locational Analysis of Fuel Stations, in Ilesa, Osun State, Nigeria. Osun state university 245- 258.
[4]. Joan, A., (2020) ‘’Urban Spatial Risk Assessment of Fire from Fueling Stations on Buildings Case Study: Lubaga Division, Kampala City, Uganda’’ Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, 2020, 8, 57-72 .
[5]. Mohammed, M.U., Musa, I.J., and Jeb, M.U. (2014) ‘’GIS-Based Analysis of the Location of Filling Stations in Metropolitan Kano against the Physical Planning Standards’’ American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) 147-158.
[6]. Mshelia A.M., John, A., Emmanuel, D. D.( 2015)’’ Environmental Effects of Petrol Stations at Close Proximities to Residential Buildings in Maiduguri and Jere, Borno State, Nigeria’’ International Journal Of Humanities And Social Science 20 (4) 01-08.
[7]. Ojiako J.C., ekebuike A n. Ndu, C G., and igbokwe E C (2020)’’ Locational analysis of Filling station in Port Harcourt Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria’’ International Journal of Advanced Enginerring and management sciences 2 (10) 1655-1658.
[8]. Okonkwo, U. C., Orji, I.N., and Onwuamaeze, I. (2014) Environmental Impact Assessment of Petrol and Gas Filling Stations on Air Quality in Umuahia, Nigeria 13 ( 1) 12-20.
[9]. Olapeju, O. (2017) Assessing The Location and Spatial Distribution of Petrol Filling Stations in Ilaro ,Ogun State ‘’ National environmental conference of the school of environmental studies 1 -13.
[10]. Sulaiman, Y. (2019) Analysis of Locational Compliance and Fire Safety Preparedness among Petrol Filling Stations in Dutse Town, Jigawa State Yunus Confluence Journal Of Environmental Studies 13 (1) 107-118’

Amakiri-whyte Belema Henry, Aselemi Akeuloghonaan Ernest, Akpabio M. Ufot- Akpabio “Causes and Environmental Problems of Petrol Filling Stations in Residential Domain of Nigeria Town” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.272-276 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/272-276.pdf

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Proposed Improvement of Road Services Quality in Xyz Hospital With Integration of Service Quality (Servqual) Method and Kano Model

Mutmainah, Umi Marfuah, Andreas Tri Panudju- January 2021 – Page No.: 277-291

Based on data on patient visits in 2019, it shows that each month the number of patient visits experienced ups and downs in the rate of patient visits, the peak of the decline occurred in June with a reduction of 2491 people (26% from the previous month). This shows the dissatisfaction of the service felt by the patient so that there is a problem that makes some patients not come back for treatment at XYZ Hospital.
The method used in this study is the Servqual method and the Kano Model which aim to improve the quality of outpatient services at XYZ Hospital. Based on the results of the collection of Voice of Customer (VOC) which has been translated into 5 Servqual dimensions, namely Tangible, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, and Emphaty obtained 19 service attributes contained on outpatient services at XYZ Hospital.
Based on the results of the data processing of the Servqual questionnaire, it is found that the value of the gap (gap) with a positive value of 1 service attribute and 18 service attributes with a negative gap value. By using Importance Performance Analysis (IPA), it is found that 6 service attributes are the main priority for improvement. In data processing with the KANOe model of 18 attributes, it is classified that 6 service attributes are in the Attractive category, 1 service attribute is in the Indifferent category, 7 service attributes are in the Must-be category, and 4 service attributes are in the One-dimensional category. The results of processing with these two methods resulted in a quality improvement proposal with the first priority, namely friendliness and courtesy to patients and families with a gap value of -0.87 and the Must-be KANOe category. While the service attribute with the last priority is Ease in the administrative process with a gap value of -0.81 and the Attractive KANOe category.

Page(s): 277-291                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 March 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8115

Industrial Engineering Department, Muhammadiyah University of Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia

  Umi Marfuah
Industrial Engineering Department, Muhammadiyah University of Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia

  Andreas Tri Panudju
Industrial Engineering Department, Bina Bangsa University, Serang, Indonesia

[1] L. Sui Pheng and Z. Rui, “Service Quality for Facilities Management in Hospitals.” Springer Singapore, 2016, doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-0956-3.
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Mutmainah, Umi Marfuah, Andreas Tri Panudju, “Proposed Improvement of Road Services Quality in Xyz Hospital With Integration of Service Quality (Servqual) Method and Kano Model” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.277-291 January 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8115

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Impacts of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Biophysical Environment

Ekpo, C. G., Is’haq, A. B.- January 2021 – Page No.: 292-296

This study investigated the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the biophysical environment. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The entire Nigerians made up the population of the study. One thousand five hundred (1,500) respondents were selected across the six geopolitical zones using the purposive sampling procedure. Data of the study were collected via a questionnaire titled: Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Biophysical Environment Assessment Scale (ICPBEAS). The instrument was designed in a close-ended four-point Likert scale format. Data obtained for the study were analyzed using the descriptive statistics of frequency counts, mean (x) and simple percentage. The study revealed that COVID-19 pandemic has both positive and negative impacts on the environment. However, the negative impacts are more than the positive impacts. The COVID-19 pandemic has adverse impacts on the biophysical, cultural, economic, political and social aspects of Nigeria’s environment. Based on the findings of the study, the following were recommended among others: Nigerians, irrespective of class and social status, should be more conscious of how they use the biophysical environment knowing that degradation, pollution, and desecration of the environment can affect the health and wellbeing of all citizens; and government should exhibit a higher degree of sincerity in implementation of sociopolitical, socioeconomic, and sociocultural policies aimed at alleviating hunger and poverty in the country.

Page(s): 292-296                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 March 2021

 Ekpo, C. G.
University of Abuja, Nigeria

 Is’haq, A. B.
University of Abuja, Nigeria

[1] Albert-Makyur, S. D., Enwere, C., Okorie, E. J. & Bukar, Z. A. (2020). The impact of corona virus (COVID-19) on the Nigeria political economy: Government support and economic relief packages. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343431157
[2] Datonye, C. B. & Tamuno-Wari, N. (2020). COVID-19 and the Nigerian child: The time to act is now. Pan Africa Medical Journal. 35(2), 1 – 3. DOI: 10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.23286
[3] Ebonyi, A. A. & Abok, A. (2020). Sociological assessment of the perception of Nigerians on the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation, 7(5), 192 – 198. Retrieved from www.rsisinternational.org
[4] Elflein, J. (2020). Official name for coronavirus disease, Statista. Retrieved from https://www.stat ista.com/statistics/1043366/novelcoronavirus-2019ncov-cases-worldwide-by-country
[5] Eranga, I. O. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria: Palliative measures and the politics of vulnerability. International Journal of Maternal and Child Health and AIDS, 9(2), 220 – 222. Retrieved from www.mchandaids.org
[6] Islamic Development Bank (IsDB) (2020). The COVID-19 crisis and Islamic finance: Response of the Islamic Development Bank group. Retrieved from https://www.isdb.org/pub/reports/ 2020/the-covid-19-crisis-and-islamic-finance-response-of-the-islamic-development-bank-group
[7] Macapagal, P. M. (2020). COVID-19: Psychological impact. International e-Conference on COVID-19 Global Impacts. Retrieved from www.abjournals.org
[8] Nantwi, W. K. (2020). COVID-19: Impact on education and workforce. International e-Conference on COVID-19 Global Impacts. Retrieved from www.abjournals.org
[9] Nigerian Centre for Disease Control (2020). COVID-19 in Nigeria. Retrieved from https://covid19 .ncdc.gov.ng/report/
[10] Obioma, A., Reuben, A. A. & Elekwachi, A. B. (2020). Potential impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the socio-economic situations in Nigeria: A huge public health risk of unprecedented concern. Journal of Quality in Health Care & Economics, 3(4), 1 – 10. DOI: 10.23880/jqhe-16000175
[11] Sheriff, G. I. (2020). Socio-political impacts of the covid-19 pandemic on human existence and society: A critical analysis. International e-Conference on COVID-19 Global Impacts. Retrieved from www.abjournals.org
[12] UNDP (2020). The impact of the covid-19 pandemic in Nigeria: A socio-economic analysis. Retrieved from https://www.undp.org/content/dam/rba/docs/COVID-19-CO-Response/So cio-Economic-Impact-COVID-19-Nigeria-Policy-Brief-1-UNDP-Nigeria-April-2020.pdf

Ekpo, C. G., Is’haq, A. B., “Impacts of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Biophysical Environment” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.292-296 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/292-296.pdf

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ESL Teacher-Trainees’ Reading and Writing Competence: An Empirical Study

H.H.S.U. Samarakoon, K.R.W.K.H. Abeywickrama – January 2021 – Page No.: 297-305

National Colleges of Education (NCoE), being the pioneering teacher-trainers in Sri Lanka are responsible for producing prospective ESL practitioners through meaningful pre-service training. The aim of this study is to examine to which extent the ESL teacher-trainees achieve the expected reading and writing skills at the end of their pre-service training. To this end, a purposive sample of eighty prospective teachers of English in four NCoEs were tested on reading and writing skills through a standardized test, Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), in order to identify their reading and writing levels. The findings indicate that 47.5% of the total sample obtained less than 40 marks for the TOEFL writing while 41.3% of participants’ TOEFL reading results were also significantly very low. Notably, there was a positive correlation between the external final examination marks for reading and writing conducted at the NCoEs and the TOEFL test results where the correlation-coefficient value was 0.65 in reading and 0.62 in writing. This validates that the teacher trainees in the NCoEs have not achieved the required reading and writing competence in English. Thus, their capability for strengthening the English language teaching and learning in the primary and secondary education system in Sri Lanka is a question. However, the findings ensured that by standardizing the English curriculum at the NCoEs, learner outcomes can effectively be enhanced, and thereby the NCoEs may produce qualified English teachers with accepted professional standards. The study has implications for all the stake holders involved in designing and delivery of English teacher education programmes at the NCoEs.

Page(s): 297-305                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 March 2021

 H.H.S.U. Samarakoon
Department of Languages, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka

 K.R.W.K.H. Abeywickrama
Department of Languages, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka

[1] Abeywickrama, K. R. W. K. H., & Ariyaratne, W. M. (2020). Professional Development (PD) for ESL teachers’ knowledge orientation: An empirical study. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research, 4(5), 107-119.
[2] Abeywickrama, K. R. W. K. H. (2020a). ESL teachers’ perceptions and design and delivery of Professional Development. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research, 4(8), 465-474.
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[6] Aloysius, M. (2015). Problems of English teaching in Sri Lanka: How they affect teaching efficacy. Unpublished PhD. University of Bedfordshire.
[7] Angel, N. L., & Garcia, J. M. (2017). Improving English language learners’ academic writing: A multi-strategy approach to a multi-dimensional challenge. GIST Education and Learning Research Journal, 14, 49-67.
[8] Arikan, A. (2010). Effective English language teacher from the perspectives of prospective and in-service teachers in Turkey. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 9(31), 209-223.
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[10] Babu, S., & Mendro, R. (2003). Teacher accountability: HLM based teacher effectiveness indices in the investigation of teacher effects on student achievement in a state assessment programme. Retrievedfromhttps://www.winginstitute.org/uploads/docs/Teacher%20Competencies%20PDF%20final.pdf
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[14] Fernando, S. (2013). Launching phase III of the presidential initiative ‘English as a Life Skill’. Retrieved from http://link-springer-com-443.webvpn.fjmu.edu.cn/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-22464-0_14
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[17] Hosseini, M., Taghizadeh, M., Jafre, M., & Naseri, E. (2013). In the importance of EFL learners’ writing skill: Is there any relation between writing skill and content score of English essay test? International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, 6, 1-12. doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILSHS.6.1
[18] Jahin, J. H. (2012). The effect of peer reviewing on writing apprehension and essay writing ability of prospective EFL teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(11), 60-84. doi:10.14221/ajte.2012v37n11.3
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H.H.S.U. Samarakoon, K.R.W.K.H. Abeywickrama,”ESL Teacher-Trainees’ Reading and Writing Competence: An Empirical Study” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.297-305 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/297-305.pdf

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Classroom Management Practices in the Secondary Schools – Teachers’ Perspectives from Kalutara Educational Zone in Sri Lanka

Fareed Mohamed Nawastheen, Nagoor Gafoordeen, Mohamed Fulail Fathima Hifaza- January 2021 – Page No.: 306-311

Classroom management has been considered as one of the important areas in teaching – learning process. It is associated with managing students’ behaviors in the classroom, which is one of the most contributing and challenging issues in teaching career. This study aimed to investigate the classroom management practices of secondary teachers in the Kalutara educational zone. A survey research design was employed to determine teachers’ perspectives towards classroom management practices of secondary schools. A total of 40 teachers selected from three schools which were consisted of 1AB boys, 1AB girls and C mixed schools. Data collected by using a questionnaire and collected data mostly analyzed using frequency and the percentage methods. The findings indicated that, the teachers, agreed that the classroom management was an essential part of teaching. Many of them agreed that it was an essential part of teaching while some teachers considered it to be even more important than teaching. They were of the opinion that the lesson would not be successful if there is no planned classroom management. But it is noteworthy that most of the teachers were unaware of the term “classroom management”. Therefore, it is recommended that classroom management training should be given more prominence in the training programmes at school level.

Page(s): 306-311                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 March 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8116

 Fareed Mohamed Nawastheen
Department of Secondary & Tertiary Education, Faculty of Education, The Open University of Sri Lanka

  Nagoor Gafoordeen
Arabic and Islamic Civilization Unit, Faculty of Arts, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.

  Mohamed Fulail Fathima Hifaza
Mohamed Fulail Fathima HifazaWP/KL/Zahira College, Dharha town, Sri Lanka

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Fareed Mohamed Nawastheen, Nagoor Gafoordeen, Mohamed Fulail Fathima Hifaza “Classroom Management Practices in the Secondary Schools – Teachers’ Perspectives from Kalutara Educational Zone in Sri Lanka” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.306-311 January 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8116

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Teenage Pregnancy and its Influence on Female Education in Nigeria
Tolulope Funmilola OJO, Olasupo Augustine IJABADENIYI, PhD – January 2021 – Page No.: 312-315

The incidence of teenage pregnancy increases rapidly in today’s society and this has become a serious social issue in Nigeria. This despicable situation leads to several problems such as dropping out of school, health problems like high risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, pressure on the health sector, increased mortality, social and economic consequences among a host of other vices. The study therefore examines the influence of teenage pregnancy on female education in Nigeria. A review of empirical studies through literature search was carried out. The findings show that teenage pregnancy has significant influence on female education in Nigeria. In conclusion, the study shows that proper parental care and support, sensitization programs on sex education and contraceptive usage, provision of jobs and other basic amenities for families could reduce teenage pregnancy among females in Nigeria.

Page(s): 312-315                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 March 2021

  Tolulope Funmilola OJO
Department of Public Health, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti.

  Olasupo Augustine IJABADENIYI; PhD
Department of Social Justice, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti

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[3] Alabi, O. & Oni, I. O. (2017). Teenage Pregnancy in Nigeria: Causes, Effects and Control International Journal of Academic Research in Business and SocialSciences, 7(2), 17-32.
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Tolulope Funmilola OJO, Olasupo Augustine IJABADENIYI, PhD “Teenage Pregnancy and its Influence on Female Education in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.312-315 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/312-315.pdf

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Impact of Educational Intervention on Prevention of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review Protocol
Vijayakumar MB, Anil Patidar, Jayesh Patidar – January 2021 – Page No.: 316-320

Many unhealthy behaviors like addiction to harmful substance such as smoking, drinking, drug use often begin during adolescence, and leads to morbidity and mortality in low and middle income countries represent major public health challenge. We are going to conduct an overview of systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention to prevent adolescent substance abuse. The objectives of the review are to identify various interventions on prevention of adolescent substance abuse in LMICs, to provide evidence for effectiveness of such interventions and to identify the delivery platform of identified interventions.
Method and analysis: An overview of systematic review will be carried out based on Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. The review will include systematic reviews that have included RCTs and quasi experimental studies and adolescent population in low LMICs. We will include any educational / psychosocial interventions that directly or indirectly affect substance use prevention. Databases such as EMBASE, PubMed, Medline, Cinhal and Psychinfo will be searched from January 2021 to June 2021. Additionally, important government websites and references of the included studies will be scanned to identify potential records. Three authors, independently, will carry out screening and data extraction. Studies will be categorized in to various themes for the purpose of analyzing and reporting the results.
Ethics and dissemination: This review will be based on published studies and will not include human participants directly; therefore, ethical clearance is not applicable. We will disseminate the final overview findings in a peer-reviewed journal.

Page(s): 316-320                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 March 2021

  Vijayakumar MB
All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Raipur, India

 Anil Patidar
Manikaka Topawala Institute of Nursing (MTIN), CHARUSAT University, Anand, Gujarat, India

 Jayesh Patidar
Manikaka Topawala Institute of Nursing (MTIN), CHARUSAT University, Anand, Gujarat, India

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Vijayakumar MB, Anil Patidar, Jayesh Patidar “Impact of Educational Intervention on Prevention of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review Protocol” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 1, pp.316-320 January 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-1/316-320.pdf

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