Volume VIII Issue III

Synthesis of 8th order Active-Band pass filter for UHF Radio Frequency Identification System using MFB Topology
Atsuwe, B.A., Amah, A. N. and Igwue, G.A. – March 2021 – Page No.: 01-05

This paper presents the design and simulation of eight order Active Band pass filter for UHF Radio Frequency Identification System (RFID) using the multiple Feedback Topology and the gain magnitude response is simulated using MULTISIM work bench version 11.0. the result shows that the filter has a mid-band frequency that decreases from f0=40KHz (106.505dB) to f0=256KHz (87.908dB) and increases again from f0=320KHz (88.449dB) to 640KHz (95.085dB), while the Bandwidth increased from 0.959KHz to 21.537KHz (ff0=40KHz to f0=320KHz) and then decreases from 25.376KHz to 25.162KHz (f0=465KHz to f0=640KHz). The roll-off rate behaves like a single filter with values approaching -60dB/decade instead of a double stage filter. These however conform with the specifications of EPC class one Generation 2 Standard for UHF domain RFID which offer new opportunities to develop RFID systems for better performance. Therefore the filter can be used for RFID systems.

Page(s): 01-05                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 March 2021

 Atsuwe, B.A.
Department of Science Education, University of Agriculture, Makurdi-Nigeria

 Amah, A. N.
Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, Makurdi-Nigeria

 Igwue, G.A.
Department of Electrical/Electronics, University of Agriculture, Makurdi-Nigeria

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Atsuwe, B.A., Amah, A. N. and Igwue, G.A. “Synthesis of 8th order Active-Band pass filter for UHF Radio Frequency Identification System using MFB Topology” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.01-05 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-3/01-05.pdf

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Quality Characteristics of Moin-Moin Produced From Some Underutilized Legumes
Ibeogu, I.H., Egbedike, C.N., Ikegwu, O.J., Nwobasi, V.N. and Oledinma, N.U. – March 2021 – Page No.: 06-09

The study was aimed to investigate the utilization of mungbean and lab lab in the production of steam bean paste (moin-moin). The pastes produced were subjected to proximate, anti-nutrient analysis and sensory evaluation. From the result obtained, it was observed that the crude protein of moin-moin produced from mungbean 25.14 % was higher than that of lablab bean 23.69 % and cowpea (control) 22.50 %. Mungbean moin-moin had the least fat (7.07 %), ash (2.33 %), fibre (1.83 %) compared to the cowpea, fat (7.80%), ash (2.67 %), fibre (2.17 %) and lablab bean moin-moin fat (9.00 %), ash (2.50 %), fibre (2.00 %). Statistically there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the ash, fibre and carbohydrate content of moin-moin produced from cowpea, mung beab and lablab bean. The anti-nutritional factors identified in cowpea, mungbean and lablab bean moin-moin are saponin, alkaloid and tannin. The result of sensory evaluation showed that mungbean lablab bean competed favourably with cowpea moin-moin. The moin-moin produced from mungbean and lablab bean was most accepted in terms of taste. The overall acceptability of moin-moin produced from mungbean and lablab was higher which shows that substituting cowpea with mungbean and lablab bean would be effective in producing moin-moin of acceptable sensory quality.

Page(s): 06-09                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 March 2021

 Ibeogu, I.H.
Department of Food Science and Technology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

  Egbedike, C.N.
Department of Food Science and Technology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

  Ikegwu, O.J.
Department of Food Science and Technology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

  Nwobasi, V.N.
Department of Food Science and Technology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

  Oledinma, N.U.
Department of Food Science and Technology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

[1] Akusu, O.M and Kiin-Kabari, D.B (2012). Protein quality and Sensory evaluation of moin-moin prepared from cowpea/maize flour blends. African Journal of Food Science 6(3): 47-51
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[4] Asogwu, I.S and Onweluzo, J.C (2010). Effect of processing methods on the chemical composition of flour, Moin moin and Akara from Mucuna puriens. Journal of tropical Agriculture, Food and Enviroment and Extension. 9(3): 200-208
[5] Bressani, R (2002).Factors influencing nutritive value of food grain legumes: Mucuna compared to other legumes. Proceeding of workshop on food and feed from mucuna: current uses, limitation and the way forward. Pg 164-188
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[9] Osuji,C.M, Nwugo,C.P., Okoro, G.I and Ekeke, J.C (2011). Effect of volume and temperature of added water on the occurrence of phase separation in moin-moin from wet milled cowpea flour from three cowpea varieties. NIFOJ 29(2): 7-12.
[10] EI Siddig, O.A., EI Tinay. A.H., Abdalla, A.H. and EI Khalifa, A.O. (20002). Proximate composition, minerials tannins, in vitro protein digestibility and effect of cooking on protein fractions of hyacinth bean (Dolichos Lablab). J: Food Sci.Technol. 39(2);111 115.
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[15] Pearson, D. (1976). Laboratory technigues in Food Analysis. Butter worth and co-publishing Ltd Pg 51.

Ibeogu, I.H., Egbedike, C.N., Ikegwu, O.J., Nwobasi, V.N. and Oledinma, N.U. “Quality Characteristics of Moin-Moin Produced From Some Underutilized Legumes” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.06-09 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-3/06-09.pdf

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Modifying the Curriculum for gifted learners with disabilities in an inclusive classroom; The experiences of a student teacher
Professor Sylod Chimhenga, Mrs Saziso Mukomana – March 2021 – Page No.: 10-16

Modifying existing general curriculum has been an effective way to create more accessible learning environments to support all students and their teachers in various educational contexts. The study sought to establish how the implementation of the modified curriculum by student teachers can assist in the learning of the gifted disabled learners in the primary schools in Zimbabwe. The study used a qualitative research design. A purposive sampling strategy was employed to select twenty student teachers studying a Diploma in Education at Zimbabwe Open University and was on attachment in primary schools in Bulawayo. In-depth individual semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were used. Conclusions showed that student teachers used play-based strategies in teaching gifted disabled learners. The study also concluded that the student teachers’ lack of competency in managing their inclusive classrooms posed a serious problem on their daily discharge of duties. The study recommended that there is need for curriculum modification for the gifted learners with disabilities in inclusive classes so that they will be able to attain their full potential.

Page(s): 10-16                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 01 April 2021

 Professor Sylod Chimhenga
Zimbabwe Open University, Department of Disability Studies and Special Needs Education & Center for Student management

 Mrs Saziso Mukomana
Department of Teacher education, Zimbabwe Open University

[1] Ainscow, M. (2009). Psychology for Inclusive Education. New Direction in theory and Practice. London: Routledge.
[2] Ainscow, M. and Ceaser, M. (2006). Inclusive education ten years after Salamanca: Setting the Agenda, European Journal of Psychology of Education, 21(3)231- 238.
[3] Dakar Framework for Action Education for All: Meeting our Collective Commitments Text adopted by the World Education Forum Dakar, Senegal, 26-28 April 2000
[4] Heward, W.L. (2013). Exceptional Children. An introduction to Special Education. Ohio: Pearson.
[5] Hříbková, L. (2010). Curriculum and Pedagogy in Inclusive Education. London and New York: Routledge. International: International Focus Issue 2007, Vol. 83, No. 6, pp342-346.
[6] Magen M. Mutepfa, M.M Mpofu, E- Chataika, T (2007) Inclusive Education in Zimbabwe: Policy Curriculum Practice, Family and Teacher Issues.
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[8] Scott S and McNeish (2013) Leadership of Special Schools: Issues and challenges May 2013 National Centre for Social Research for CUBeC
[9] The Dakar Framework for Action: Education for All: meeting our collective commitments (including six regional frameworks for action) 2000 FranceED-2000/WS/27
[10] The Jomtien World Conference on Education (1990). Thailand.
[11] The Nziramasanga Commission of Inquiry into Education and Training (1999). Harare: Government Printers.
[12] The World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons (1983)
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[14] Tomlinson, C. A. (2013). Differentiated Instruction. In C. M. Callahan & H. L. Herberg-Davis (Eds.), Fundamentals of Gifted Education, Considering Multiple Perspectives (pp. 287-300). New York and London: Routledge.
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[17] Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1949)
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[19] World Declaration on Education for All and Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs 5-9 March 1990 UNESCO; New York.

Professor Sylod Chimhenga, Mrs Saziso Mukomana “Modifying the Curriculum for gifted learners with disabilities in an inclusive classroom; The experiences of a student teacher” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.10-16 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-3/10-16.pdf

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Form of Interaction between Characters in Novel Senandung Bisu by Aguk Irawan M.N
Syahrul Jadmika Wignya Eka Putra, Herman J. Waluyo, Sumarlam – March 2021 – Page No.: 17-21

This study analyzes the value of life in the novel Senandung Bisu by Aguk Irawan M. N. The purpose of this study is to describe the form of interaction between the characters in Aguk Irawan MN’s Senandung Bisu. Researchers used two data collection techniques, namely the library technique and the note-taking technique. The author uses a structural method or approach and sociology of literature. The research results of this novel interaction form include: 1) Superordination and Subordination, Lik Soyi’s relationship and also Zulfin who are superiors and subordinates. This is done to establish a reciprocal relationship between those who lead and those who are led. 2) Conflict. The obvious conflict seen in the novel Senandung Bisu is the dispute between Zulfin and Wuryani. Wuryani continues to demonize the Zulfin family, from stating that Zulfin is a rich asshole, to insulting Zulfin for wanting to imitate the success of his family and children, to claiming Dlori and Zulfin are a cheapskate family because they don’t want to share the abundant citrus harvest with their neighbors. 3) Exchange, the first information exchange was made by the mothers at the beginning of the story who talked about the donation given to Zulfin every time she gave birth. 4) Sexual intercourse, explicitly shown by the main character an invitation to carry out reproductive activities to have another child. A husband and wife are doing reproductive activities to share their sadness until the fetus is filled again.

Page(s): 17-21                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 April 2021

 Syahrul Jadmika Wignya Eka Putra
Master Program in Indonesian Language Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

 Herman J. Waluyo
Master Program in Indonesian Language Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

Master Program in Indonesian Language Education, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia

[1] Akbar, S., Winarni, R., & Andayani. (2013). Kajian Sosiologi Sastra dan Nilai Pendidikan dalam Novel “Tuan Guru” Karya Salman Faris. Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa Dan Sastra, 1(1), 54–68.
[2] Choeda, C. (2019). The Origin and Development of English Novel: A Descriptive Literature Review. International Journal of English Literature and Social Sciences, 4(4), 1099–1104. https://doi.org/10.22161/ijels.4429
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[14] Ratna, N. K. (2013). Paradigma Sosiologi Sastra (P. Pelajar (ed.)).

Syahrul Jadmika Wignya Eka Putra, Herman J. Waluyo, Sumarlam “Form of Interaction between Characters in Novel Senandung Bisu by Aguk Irawan M.N” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.17-21 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-3/17-21.pdf

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Documentation of Nursing Care in Majauleng Health Centre Wajo District, Indonesia
Isymarni Syarif, Besse Munawara, Abdul gafur – March 2021 – Page No.: 22-26

Nursing documentation is a means of communication to other health teams regarding client status. Nursing documentation is very important to convey information about client status, help nurses communicate in the results of observations, decisions, actions, and results of the actions of nurses from clients. The aim of this research is to find out the description of the application of nursing care in nursing documentation at the Majauleng Community Health Center. The research method is consecutive sampling technique, with a sample of 33 respondents at Majauleng Public Health Center, Wajo Regency, with the type of research is quantitative, the research design used is descriptive. The results obtained were the application of nursing care with good categories as many as 22 respondents (66.7%), while the application of nursing care with poor categories was 11 respondents (33.3%). Conclusion: Documentation of nursing care with the 3S approach (SDKI, SLKI, SIKI) at the Majauleng Health Centre Wajo District Indonesia, has basically been done well by 66.7%, but there are still nurses who do not understand the documentation of nursing care. So it takes a case discussion reflection to all nurses to improve their skills and knowledge in documenting nursing care. This must be supported by the availability of facilities and infrastructure such as the format of nursing care and it is hoped that the support of the Health Centre leadership in monitoring nursing care documentation is expected.

Page(s): 22-26                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 April 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8301

 Isymarni Syarif
Departement of Health Sciences, Islam University of Makassar

  Besse Munawara
Departement of Health Sciences, Islam University of Makassar

  Abdul gafur
Departement of Public Health, University of Pejuang Republic Indonesia

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Isymarni Syarif, Besse Munawara, Abdul gafur “Documentation of Nursing Care in Majauleng Health Centre Wajo District, Indonesia” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.22-26 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8301

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Effects of Some Fluid Flow Possessions on Unsteady Conductive Free Convective Fluid on Account to Dissipative Porous Walls
Hussaini Abdullahi and Isah Bala Yabo – March 2021 – Page No.: 27-38

The aspiration of this research paper is to study the influence of temperature dependent variable exponential viscosity, linear variable thermal conductivity and nth order chemical reaction on MHD transitory natural convection heat and mass transfer through permeable medium. The ensuing non-linear partial differential equations regulating the flow and the boundary conditions are concurrently reduced to non-dimensional form by suitable transformations. The regulating non-dimensional equations are discretized using implicit finite difference technique and solved numerically. The outcomes of the numerical solutions are depicted graphically, during which skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are set up in tabular form.

Page(s): 27-38                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 April 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8302

 Hussaini Abdullahi
Department of Mathematics, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria

 Isah Bala Yabo
Department of Mathematics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

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Hussaini Abdullahi and Isah Bala Yabo “Effects of Some Fluid Flow Possessions on Unsteady Conductive Free Convective Fluid on Account to Dissipative Porous Walls” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.27-38 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8302

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Environmental Accounting and Modern Financial Reporting of National Environmental Development in Nigeria
Alhassan Odiniya Innocent, Odaumiebi Ouserigha, Adjekughele Eyere Harriet, Nwogbo Chimezie Rose – March 2021 – Page No.: 39-45

The study examines the relevance of environmental accounting to national development services in Nigeria especially the multinational oil operations. The production activities of the oil multinationals which have their impacts on the ecosystem and natural resources. This work was borne out of the expectation of the gap that exists between the multinationals companies operating in Nigeria and their host communities; years of neglect, environmental degradation, pollution and massive outcry for redress which resulted to arm struggle with attendant consequences. To this situation, environmental accounting applies to modern reporting and showcases the environmental liabilities and costs, which in turn massively threatening the subsistence economy and causes negative effects on the lives of people. A survey carried out from the oil companies operating areas in Nigeria that is the Niger Delta region. To this premise the findings showed that the practice of environmental accounting will help to bringing about an improved environmental sustainability and effective environmental management system in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The paper really concludes that the application of prudent environmental financial accounting will bring out environmental liabilities and costs of the oil producing areas to have proper sustainable measures. It is strongly recommended that the national oil and gas sector should adopt physical and monetary approaches as well as the petroleum/manufacturing sector to employ environmental accounting to properly access the costs.

Page(s): 39-45                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 April 2021

 Alhassan Odiniya Innocent
Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

 Odaumiebi Ouserigha
Department of Accounting, Federal Polytechnic, Ekowe, Bayelsa state, Nigeria

 Adjekughele Eyere Harriet
Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

 Nwogbo Chimezie Rose
Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

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Alhassan Odiniya Innocent, Odaumiebi Ouserigha, Adjekughele Eyere Harriet, Nwogbo Chimezie Rose “Environmental Accounting and Modern Financial Reporting of National Environmental Development in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.39-45 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-3/39-45.pdf

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Macroeconomic factors: Cereal Grains Output and Prices in Nigeria
Ahmad Nazifi Muhammad, Ahmad Usman Shu’aib and Zulkiflu Abdu – March 2021 – Page No.: 46-49

Despite the facts that less attention is given to the effects of macroeconomic variables on cereal grains output in Nigeria, this study examine the effect of macroeconomic factors, output and prices of selected cereal grains in Nigeria using OLS technique and quarterly data from 2006 to 2016. The study analysed secondary data obtained from a time-series for cereal grains prices sourced from FMARD. While, data for macroeconomics variables and cereal grains outputs were obtained from the publication of Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletins. The estimated outcome form the output model for rice reveals that quarterly interest rate and money supply increases rice output, while oil price reduce rice output. However, exchange rate and inflation have no effect on the rice output. The estimated outcome for maize output model shows that inflation rate maize output in Nigeria. The result also indicates that exchange rate increase Sorghum output level. Nevertheless, interest rate, inflation, and money supply does not determine the level of Sorghum output. In addition, the estimate form the price of rice model illustrates that exchange rate, inflation and money supply increase price of rice, while interest rate decreases the price of rice in the nation. In the maize price model, exchange rate, inflation and oil price accelerates the price level of maize and money supply decelerates the price. The outcome shows that interest rate has no effect on the price of maize. Furthermore, exchange rate, inflation and oil price rises price of Sorghum in the nation. Nonetheless, interest rate and money supply does not determine the price level of Sorghum. Hence, the study suggest that since, exchange rate, inflation, interest rate and money supply affect the level of price and output of cereals grains policymakers in Nigeria should design appropriate policies to mediate and control exchange rate and inflation for sustainability of the output and price of cereal grains as well as the stability of the economy. This could be done through price control measures and fixed interest rate as well as exchange rate policy to financial institutions in the nation.

Page(s): 46-49                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 April 2021

 Ahmad Nazifi Muhammad
Department of Agric. Econs., Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Kano State, Nigeria

  Ahmad Usman Shu’aib
Department of Agriculture and Economics, Bayero University, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria

  Zulkiflu Abdu
Department of Agric. Econs., Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Kano State, Nigeria

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Ahmad Nazifi Muhammad, Ahmad Usman Shu’aib and Zulkiflu Abdu “Macroeconomic factors: Cereal Grains Output and Prices in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.46-49 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-3/46-49.pdf

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FDI, Economic performance and CO2 discharge in Nigeria
Ahmad Ahmad and Temitope J. Laniran – March 2021 – Page No.: 50-54

This study investigates the link amongcritical macroeconomic factors and CO2 discharge in Nigeria from 1981 – 2017. In achieving this objective, the study adopted an emission model that incorporate FDI inflows, GDP per capita and trade for the period of study. Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) estimation technique was used for the model estimation. The result of the study shows that both FDI and economic performance have a positive on CO2 from industries and non-industriesshort-run analysis.However,the long run estimates reveals an inverse relationship among FDI, economic performance and CO2 dischargefrom industries and non-industries. Hence, the study suggest that policymakers should upgrade polices that would continue enhancing environmental quality in the nation through facilitating the use of low emission energy and technology.

Page(s): 50-54                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 April 2021

 Ahmad Ahmad
University of Bradford, United Kingdom

 Temitope J. Laniran
University of Bradford, United Kingdom

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Ahmad Ahmad and Temitope J. Laniran “FDI, Economic performance and CO2 discharge in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.50-54 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-3/50-54.pdf

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Experiencing social civism and women freedom as tourists’ motivation: Results from a netnographic study in the Moroccan context
Soumaya El HASSOUNI – March 2021 – Page No.: 55-60

In this research we attempt to better understand the deeper motivations underlying the preferred destinations of Moroccan tourists within a trilogic perspective englobing African, Arab and Muslim context. For this reason, a theoretical framework involving both classical and operational explanatory motivation models is elaborated. A netnographic method is adopted to shed light on the main reasons regarding traveling abroad as well as criteria determining the choice of a foreign destination. Members of Moroccan virtual travelers’ community shared their viewpoints and experiences. Qualitative data is analyzed from an interpretative perspective using Qualitative Data Analysis Miner (QDA Miner) Software. Findings revealed two sets of factors namely “pull factors” and “push factors” related to a domestic poor civic minded environment. This, therefore, is considering being the main contribution of this study.

Page(s): 55-60                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 April 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8302

 Soumaya El HASSOUNI
Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, Economics and Social Science – Souissi
Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco

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Soumaya El HASSOUNI “Experiencing social civism and women freedom as tourists’ motivation: Results from a netnographic study in the Moroccan context” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.55-60 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8303

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Marble Slurry in Concrete: A review
Sourabh Soni, Er. R.S. Shekhawat – March 2021 – Page No.: 61-64

Marble slurry is a waste materialproduced during the quarrying, cutting, and finishing of marble stone. The higher quantity of waste is non-biodegradable has engendered during the mining and processing operation of dimensional stone such as marble. Throughout the long term, it has become an ecumenical disturbance by harming the climate by meaning multiple. In this way, it is needed to discover the strategy for securely arrange or reuse marble squander.
Henceforth during the last years, Various pieces of literature have been published and show huge potential.Marble slurry has been utilized in concrete with a point of substitution of concrete. A comprehensive overview of the published literature on the sustainable use of marble dust in concrete is being presented.The impact of the replacement of conventional cement by marble slurry has been studied on the properties of concrete such asin terms of Fresh, Hardened, and Durability properties of concrete.

Page(s): 61-64                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 April 2021

 Sourabh Soni
M.Tech.student, Civil Engineering Department, College ofTechnology and Engineering, MPUAT, Udaipur

 Er. R.S. Shekhawat
Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, College of Technologyand Engineering, MPUAT, Udaipur

[1] IS 2386 (Part III) – 1963. Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete Part Ill Specific Gravity, Density, Voids‘, Absorption and Bulking New Delhi(India): Bureau of Indian Standards.
[2] IS 516 – 1959. Methods of Testing For Strength of Concrete New Delhi (India): Bureau of Indian Standards.
[3] Benicia, H., Shah, T., Aksogan, O. and Kaplan, H. 2008. The durability of concrete made withgranite and marble as recycle aggregates. Journal of Materials Processing Technology208: 299-308.
[4] Hameed, M. and Sekar, A. 2009. Properties of green concrete containing quarry rock dust and marble sludge powder as fine aggregate. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences04: 83-89.
[5] [Andre, A., Brito, J., Rosa, A. and Pedro, D. 2014. Durability Performance Of Concrete Incorporating Coarse Aggregates From Marble Industry Waste. Journal of Cleaner Production65: 389-396.
[6] Silva, D., Gameiro, F. and Brito, J. 2014. Durability Performance Of Structural Concrete Containing Fine Aggregates From Waste Generated By Marble Quarrying Industry. Engineering Structures 59: 654-662.
[7] Ali A. Aliabdo, A., Elmoaty, M. and Auda, E. 2014. Re-Use Of Waste Marble Dust In The Production Of Cement And Concrete. Construction and Building Materials50: 28-41.
[8] Corinaldes, V., Moriconi, G. and Naik, T. 2010. Characterization of Marble Powder For Its Use In Mortar And Concrete. Construction and Building Materials24: 113-117.
[9] Kushwah, R., Sharma, I. and Chaurasia, P. 2015. Utilization of “Marble Slurry” In Cement Concrete Replacing Fine Aggregate. American Journal of Engineering Research04: 55-58.
[10] Aruntaş, H., Mustafa, M., Day, M. and Tekin, L. 2010. Utilization of waste marble dust as an additive in cement production. Materials & Design 31: 4039-4042.
[11] Rana, A., Kalla, P. and Csetenyi, L. 2015. Sustainable use of marble slurry in concrete. Journal of Cleaner Production94: 304-311.
[12] Gupta, A., Mandiya, R., Kumawat, V., Saini, R., Sharma, P. and Nagar, M. 2016. Use of Waste Marble Slurry in Cement Concrete as Replacement of Cement. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology04.
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[15] Singh, S., Nagar, R., Agrawal, V., Tiwari, A., and Siddique, S. 2016. A review on Properties of Sustainable Concrete using Granite dust as replacement forriver sand. Journal of Cleaner Production126: 74-87.
[16] Bostanci, S. 2020. Use of waste marble dust and recycled glass for sustainable concreteProduction.Journal of Cleaner Production251: 119785.
[17] Arel, H. 2016. Recyclability of waste marble in concrete production. Journal of Cleaner Production131: 179-188.
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[19] Ashish, D. 2018. Feasibility of waste marble powder in concrete as partial substitution of cement and sand amalgam for sustainable growth. Journal of Building Engineering15: 236-242.
[20] Pal, S., Singh, A., Paramnik, T., Kuman, S. and Kisku, N. 2016. International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology. Journal of Building Engineering03:008.
[21] Shirule, P., Rahman, A. andGupta, R. 2016. partial replacement of cement with marble dust powder. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies01: 175-177.
[22] Guendouz M., Boukhelkhal D. 2019. Properties of flowable sand concrete containing ceramic wastes.Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology33(24): 2661-2683.
[23] Guendouz M., Boukhelkhal D., Bourdot A., Babachikh O., Hamadouche A. 2020.The Effect of Ceramic Wastes on Physical and Mechanical, Properties of Eco-Friendly Flowable Sand Concrete, Ceramic Materials, IntechOpen..

Sourabh Soni, Er. R.S. Shekhawat “Marble Slurry in Concrete: A review” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.61-64 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-3/61-64.pdf

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Surviving economic crisis through pro-active strategies. Experiences from the Zimbabwean economic crisis
Josphat Nyoni, Martin Dandira, Elias Kandjinga – March 2021 – Page No.: 65-70

Existing literature argue that pro-active and innovative strategies remain the most effective strategies for firms experiencing an economic crisis. However, given the dynamic nature of economic crisis globally, this study aimed to examine the influence of the pro-active strategies on the performance of manufacturing firms during the 1996-2014 economic crisis in Zimbabwe. The study also attempted to determine the most effective pro-active strategies that manufacturing firms operating in an economic crisis need to focus on and embrace in order to survive and remain competitive during and after the crisis. The study was guided by the positivism resrach philosophy and adopted an explanatory research design. Data for this was collected using a structured questionnaire. Data was analysed for correlation using the MATLAB software.A total of 102 manufacturing firms that exercised pro-active strategies formed the sample of the study. The study showed that pro-active strategies moderately improved performance in periods of economic crisis.The findings of the study showed that pro-active strategies had a positive butmoderate influence on profitability and growth dimensions of performance. The study showed that the pro-active strategies of introducing new products, consistently seeking new opportunities and rapid expansion by taking over struggling firms during the period of economic crisis only moderately improved performance. The study concluded that manufacturing firms thatthe adoption of pro-active strategies may not significantly lead to survival and sustainability in economic crisis. The study recommends that manufacturing firms operating in economic crisis must in addition to pro-active strategies adopt other supportive and complementary strategies such as being more analytical and innovative e in all pro-activetactics and strategies in periods of economic crisis

Page(s): 65-70                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 April 2021

 Josphat Nyoni
Women’s University in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe

  Martin Dandira
Namibia University of Technology, Zimbabwe

  Elias Kandjinga
Namibia University of Technology, Zimbabwe

[1] Alonso-Almeida, M.M. and Bremser, K. (2013). “Strategic responses of the Spanish hospitality sector to the financial crisis”. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32 (1), 141–148.
[2] Atalay, M., Nilgun A., and Fulya, S. (2013). The Relationship between Innovation and Firm Performance: An Empirical Evidence from the Turkish Automotive Supplier Industry. Procedia Social and Behavioral Science, 75, 226–35.
[3] Dandira, M.,(2012). Strategy in crisis: knowledge vacuum in practitioners. Business strategy series journal, 13 (3), 128-135.
[4] Gamage S.K. N., Ekanayake, EMS., Abeyrathne, G., and Jayasundara, J.(2020). A Review of Global Challenges and Survival Strategies of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Economies, 8, 79
[5] Garcia, G., Manzano, J. C., and Ayala, C. (2020). Entrepreneurial Orientation: It’s Relationship with the Entrepreneur’s Subjective Success in SMEs. Sustainability, 12, 4547
[6] Grossberg, K.A. (2009). Marketing in the Great Recession: an executive guide. Strategy & Leadership, 37 (3), 4-8.
[7] Hadziahmetovic, A., Halebic, J., and Colakovic–Prguda, N. (2018). Economic crisis: Challenge for economic theory and policy. Eurasian Journal of Economics and Finance, 6(4), 48-55
[8] Herbane, B. (2019). Rethinking organizational resilience and strategic renewal in SMEs. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 31(5-6), 476-495.
[9] Kanyenze, G., Kondo, T., Chitambira, P.,& Martens, J.(2011).Towards a Pro-Poor and Inclusive Development Strategy for Zimbabwe. Weaver Press, Harare.
[10] Kotler, P., &Caslione, J.A. (2009). How marketers can respond to recession and turbulence. Journal of Customer Behaviour, 8 (2), 187-191.
[11] Kuckertz, A., Brändle, L., Gaudig, A., Hinderer, S., Reyes, C. A. M., Prochotta, A., & Berger, E. S. (2020). Start-ups in times of crisis–A rapid response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, e00169.
[12] Latham, S., & Braun, M. (2011). Economic recessions, strategy, and performance: a synthesis. Journal of Strategy and Management, 4 (2), 96-115.
[13] Lomberg, C., Urbig, D., Stöckmann, C., Marino, L. D., & Dickson, P. H. (2017). Entrepreneurial orientation: the shared effects in explaining firm performance. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41(6),973-998.
[14] Naidoo, V., (2010). Firm survival through a crisis: The influence of market orientation, marketing innovation and business strategy.Industrial Marketing Management, 39(8): 1311-1320.
[15] Nickell, D., Rollins, M., & Hellman, K. (2013). How to not only survive but thrive during recession: a multi-wave, discovery-oriented study. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 28 (5). 455-461.
[16] Nyoni. J., (2019). The relationship between strategies and performance in the manufacturing sector in Zimbabwe during the economic crisis. Thesis submitted for the Doctor of Business Leadership. UNISA
[17] Nyoni,J. and Mago, S., (2020). Strategies and Performance Nexus in the Zimbabwean Manufacturing Sector during the Economic Crisis. Global Conference on Business and Social Sciences Proceeding.
[18] Ogbari, ME., Ibidunni, AS., Ogunnaike, OO., Olokundun, MA.,&Amaihian, AB.(2018). ‘Comparative analysis of small business strategic orientation: implications for performance’, Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 17, (1).
[19] O’Malley, L., Story, V., and O’Sullivan, V. (2011). Marketing in a recession: retrench or invest? Journal of Strategic Marketing, 19 (3), 285-310
[20] Ondoro, C.O.,(2015). ‘Measuring organization performance” from Balanced Scorecard to balanced esg framework’.International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management United Kingdom, III, (11).
[21] Piercy, N.F., Cravens, D.W., & Lane, N. (2010). Marketing out of the recession: recovery is coming, but things will never be the same again. Marketing Review, 10 (1) 3-23
[22] Reeves, M., &Deimler, M.S. (2009). Strategies for winning in the current and post-recession environment. Strategy & Leadership, 37 (6), 10-17.
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Josphat Nyoni, Martin Dandira, Elias Kandjinga “Surviving economic crisis through pro-active strategies. Experiences from the Zimbabwean economic crisis” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.65-70 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-3/65-70.pdf

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The teacher support in addressing barriers to learning in Inclusive Early Childhood Development classroom: a case study of Bulawayo Primary schools
Mrs Saziso Mukomana, Prof Sylod Chimhenga – March 2021 – Page No.: 71-77

Zimbabwe has adopted an inclusive education system in order to address barriers to learning for learners experiencing barriers to learning in early childhood development classrooms. In this study, the researcher sought to identify the teacher support in the inclusive Early Childhood Development classroom for learners experiencing barriers to their learning. This study used the qualitative research methodology and also involved a descriptive survey design to collect data from a sample of 8 teachers and 2 teachers-in-charge for ECD classrooms. The findings showed that inclusive education promotes education for all children irrespective of their disability so that they can be educated in the same classroom with other learners of their age. The research concluded that school teachers in primary schools of Zimbabwe lacked training in the implementation of inclusive education for children with special needs. The study also concluded that ECD classrooms lacked material resources specifically classrooms, textbooks, trained teachers, tables, desks, finances, time, and computers to implement inclusive education for children with special needs. The research recommended that there is need to establish a clear and concise mandatory policy and legislation, supported by an Act of Parliament that spells out the expectations and roles of the stakeholders in the implementation of inclusive education for children with disabilities.

Page(s): 71-77                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 April 2021

 Mrs Saziso Mukomana
Zimbabwe Open University, Department of Teacher Education.

 Prof Sylod Chimhenga
Zimbabwe Open University, Department of Disability Studies and Special Needs Education

[1] Bothma, M., Gravett, S. and Swart, E. (2000).The attitudes of primary school teachers towards inclusive education. South African Journal of Education, 20(3): 200-204.
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[4] Department of Education. 2002. Draft Guidelines for the Implementation of inclusive Education (Second Draft) Pretoria: Government Printer.
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[7] Engelbrecht, P. and Green, L. (2001). Promoting learner development: Preventing and working with barriers to learning. Pretoria: Van Schaik.
[8] Fouché, C.B. and Delport, C.S.L. (2006).Research at grass roots: Introduction to the research processes.In De Vos, AS, Strydom, H, Fouché, C.B. and Delport, C.S.L. (Eds.).267-273. 2006.(3rd Ed.). Pretoria: Van Schaik: 71-85
[9] Gross, University Press.
[10] Jaeger, P. T. (2012). J. (2002). Special educational needs in the primary school: a practical guide. Philadelphia: Open Disability and the Internet. Lynne Rienner Publishers: Boulder and London
[11] Mpya, G N (2007) Managing inclusive education in the classroom with reference to the Nkangala Region, Mpumalanga, Unpublished MEd dissertation, Pretoria: UNISA.

Mrs Saziso Mukomana, Prof Sylod Chimhenga “The teacher support in addressing barriers to learning in Inclusive Early Childhood Development classroom: a case study of Bulawayo Primary schools” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.71-77 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-3/71-77.pdf

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India’s Ease of Living Index Report 2018 – A data driven approach
Deva Dutta Dubey – March 2021 – Page No.: 78-83

Government of India, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs released the first ever Ease of Living Index Report 2018. The report ranked 111 cities in India on the basis of multiple facets of urban living. The underlying data for each of the attributes was also provided. The ranking was based on a-priori weightages to different dimensions of the analysis. This paper attempts to refine the ranking and applies the technique of Partial Least Squares Path Modeling, a technique which may be an alternative for such analyses. The results show that the regression coefficients estimated through the analysis show some variation compared to the weights assigned in the report. Results prima facie indicate that emphasis of different facets of urban living is different. It is also different for different city sizes when the cities were considered as large and small. In addition to the PLSPM Model, additional models have been prepared including neural network models. The neural network and Random Forest models appear acceptable based on accuracy of fit of the models, as represented by Pseudo R2. The report for 2019 is yet to be released.
This paper is an academic paper having relevance for research in urban planning with its boundaries touching upon economics and land use. With passage of time and with evolution of the concept of ease of living and forming an index, we may witness different variables coming into play and having different loadings on the outcome of ranking of cities.
It could be useful for students of Real Estate Programs in the country and abroad as also for those pursuing Urban Planning and related academic disciplines. Familiarity with this concept and its variation will help them become better data science professionals as they seek gainful employment in various enterprises associated with urban planning and real estate development.

Page(s): 78-83                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 20 April 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8304

 Deva Dutta Dubey
Associate Professor, RICS School of Built Environment, Amity University Maharashtra

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Deva Dutta Dubey “India’s Ease of Living Index Report 2018 – A data driven approach” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.78-83 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8304

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Influence of membership of cooperative society on farmers’ income in rural areas of Kwara State, Nigeria
Abigail Gbemisola. Adeyonu, Timothy O. Agboola, Blessing O. Fadeyi, Bashir A. Tijani, Elizabeth Fisayo Oladapo – March 2021 – Page No.: 84-89

Smallholder farmers with small farm sizes, low input utilization, and poor access to effective post-harvest technology are known for low income. These challenges led to the emergence of special programs and social organizations, the most common of which is cooperative society. Yet, little is known about the effect of membership of cooperative society on farmers’ income. Hence, this study examined the influence of membership of cooperative society on farmers’ income in Kwara State, Nigeria. Primary data collected between February and March, 2015 from 191 household heads were used for this study and were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed that the mean income of farmers who were members of cooperative society, non-members of cooperative society and control group were ₦15,090±₦3,828, ₦17,686±₦18,306 and ₦11,020±₦2,378 respectively. The results of Kruskal Wallis statistic and the asymptotic significant probability, JonckeereTerpstra test for significance of the mean incomes for the various categories of farmers were significant at 1% level. The results of ANOVA test also indicated the existence of significant difference between the means of the income levels of the three categories of farmers at the 1% level. The results of the Post Hoc test for differences/equality among the various categories revealed that the average income of the control category differs greatly from those of the non-cooperative and cooperative groups but there is no significant difference between the mean income of the cooperative farmers and that of the non-cooperative farmers. Thus, membership of cooperative society had positive effect on farmers’ income in the study area. Based on this, increasing awareness and information about cooperative societies among farmers in the study area becomes imperative.

Page(s): 84-89                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 April 2021

 Abigail Gbemisola. Adeyonu
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

 Timothy O. Agboola
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Osun State University, Nigeria

 Blessing O. Fadeyi
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Osun State University, Nigeria

 Bashir A. Tijani
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Osun State University, Nigeria

 Elizabeth Fisayo Oladapo
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Osun State University, Nigeria

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[18] Kwara State Government of Nigeria (2010). Report of Kwara State Farmers’ census. Ministry of Agriculture and natural resources, Ilorin, kwara state.
[19] Kumar, V., Wankhede, K. G., &Gena, H. C. (2015). Role of Cooperatives in Improving Livelihood of Farmers on Sustainable Basis. American Journal of Educational Research, 3, 1258-1266.doi: 10.12691/education-3-10-8
[20] Ma, W., &Abdulai, A. (2016). Does cooperative membership improve household welfare? Evidence from apple farmers in China. Food Policy, 58, 94–102. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.12.002
[21] Mojo, D., Fischer, C., &Degefa, T. (2017). The determinants and economic impacts of membership in coffee farmer cooperatives: recent evidence from rural Ethiopia. Journal of Rural Studies, 50, 84–94. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.12.010
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Abigail Gbemisola. Adeyonu, Timothy O. Agboola, Blessing O. Fadeyi, Bashir A. Tijani, Elizabeth Fisayo Oladapo “Influence of membership of cooperative society on farmers’ income in rural areas of Kwara State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.84-89 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-3/84-89.pdf

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Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Remedial Work Policy In Selected Secondary Schools In Kasempa District
Lastone Musongole & Ferdinand M. Chipindi – March 2021 – Page No.: 90-100

The study aimed to explore the factors affecting the effectiveness of remedial work policy in selected secondary schools in the Kasempa District of North-Western Province of Zambia. Despite the existence of localised corrective work policy in schools and the emphasis on the need for sustained remedial work, academic achievement remained low in secondary schools of Kasempa District. This is as evidenced by results in the National Examinations at grades 9 and 12 levels. We used a descriptive case study design to collect and analyse the data. The factors explored were government and school policies on remedial work, teacher preparedness and ability to prepare various teaching/learning activities, and the head teacher characteristics and support to remedial work. On the other hand, external factors explored included parental monitoring of learners’ schoolwork, parental guidance and checking on homework, home environment and parental support to learners’ education. The study recommends that similar studies be conducted throughout the country.

Page(s): 90-100                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 21 April 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8305

 Lastone Musongole
University of Zambia

 Ferdinand M. Chipindi
University of Zambia

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Lastone Musongole & Ferdinand M. Chipindi “Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Remedial Work Policy In Selected Secondary Schools In Kasempa District” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.90-100 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8305

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Impacts of Six-Hats Critical Thinking Skills on the Achievement and Retention in Chemistry Among Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria for Sustainable Development
CHADO, Amina Mohammed (PhD), WUSHISHI, Dantani Ibrahim (PhD); IDRIS, Aisha Ozohu and BABAGANA, Mohammad(PhD) – March 2021 – Page No.: 101-104

This study investigated the Impact of Six-hats Critical Thinking Skills on Achievement and Retention in Chemistry. Among Secondary Schools Students of Niger State, Nigeria. A pre-test, post-test control group non-randomize non -equivalentcontrol group quasi experimental design was adopted. Four research questions were raised and four hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Four schools were randomly selected using simple random sampling technique. The population of the study comprises all senior secondary school two (2) chemistry students in Chanchaga Local Government Area of Niger state. A total of (161) student participated in the study using intact classes. The instruments used for data collection was Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT). The face and content validity of CAT were determined by experts in department of science education . The reliability coefficient of 0,81 was obtained using Kuder-Richardson (KR-20) method. Data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. The result shows that the group taught with SHTIP (experimental group) performed better than the one taught using conventional lecture method. Gender achievement of students did not differ significantly It was recommended that activities that allow students to think multi-directionally should be supported to ensure better comprehension of abstract Chemistry topics.

Page(s): 101-104                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 April 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8306

 CHADO, Amina Mohammed (PhD)
Department of Science Education, School Of Science and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

 WUSHISHI, Dantani Ibrahim (PhD)
Department of Science Education, School Of Science and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

 IDRIS, Aisha Ozohu
Department of Science Education, School Of Science and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

 BABAGANA, Mohammad(PhD)
Department of Science Education, School Of Science and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

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CHADO, Amina Mohammed (PhD), WUSHISHI, Dantani Ibrahim (PhD); IDRIS, Aisha Ozohu and BABAGANA, Mohammad(PhD) “Impacts of Six-Hats Critical Thinking Skills on the Achievement and Retention in Chemistry Among Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria for Sustainable Development” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.101-104 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8306

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Investigation of Virulence Factors and Effect of Chlorine and Sunlight on Carbapenems-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae from Water Samples
Busayo M. Olowe, Olufunke Adelegan, Abisoye O. Ojo – March 2021 – Page No.: 105-111

Carbapenems are the last line resort antibiotics in the fight against the diseases caused by Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceace(CPE). The study aimed to investigate the presence of virulent factors in CPE (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and effect of sunlight and chlorine on them. Thirty water samples from streams and wells were collected and their microbial quality assessment was carried out following standard procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity testing of isolates, detection of virulence factors, OXA genes and plasmid and effect of chlorine and sunlight were carried out using standard techniques. Thirty-five isolates (E. coli (fifteen, 42.9%) and K. pneumonia (twenty, 57.1%) were recovered from the water samples and 28 (80%) demonstrated multiple antibiotics resistance (MAR). The MAR organisms were further subjected to carbapenems (meropenem and doripenem) and only 2 (33.3%) of E. coli and 4 (66.7%) of K. pneumoniae were resistant to these antibiotics. The detection of virulent factors showed that out of five carbapenem-resistant organisms (CRO) investigated, 2 (40%) possessed OXA gene of 320 bp and 4 (80%) contained plasmid of >1300bp. Also, number of colony forming unit of CRO reduced with exposure rate to sunlight and chlorine. The study showed that OXA gene and plasmid were detected in isolates and revealed health risk posed to clinical therapy. However, the study revealed that sunlight and chlorine at adequate exposure and concentration are very effective in treating water contaminated with CRO, thereby reducing the incidence of health risk in the community.

Page(s): 105-111                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 April 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8307

 Busayo M. Olowe
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Basic Medicals and Applied Sciences, Lead City University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

 Olufunke Adelegan
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

 Abisoye O. Ojo
National Centre for Genetic Resources And Biotechnology (NACGRAB), Moor Plantation, Apata, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

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Busayo M. Olowe, Olufunke Adelegan, Abisoye O. Ojo “Investigation of Virulence Factors and Effect of Chlorine and Sunlight on Carbapenems-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae from Water Samples” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.105-111 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8307

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Quantification of Glycyrrhizin from Different Extract of Glycyrrhiza Glabra
Clariya Rapheal, Prasanth S.S – March 2021 – Page No.: 112-115

Identification and quantification of phytoconstituents in Glycyrrhiza glabra was carried out by HPTLC. Whereas the dried root of Glycyrrhiza glabra was extracted successively with solvent like hexane, chloroform and methanol respectively. The phytochemical screen of each extract was performed and compares the result. The Total phenolic content of each extract were carried out using Gallic acid as reference. In that the methanolic extract had a higher amount of total phenolic content.. The anti oxidant activity of each extract were carried out by DPPH assay using ascorbic acid as reference standard. This assay revealed that methanolic extract had a lower IC 50 value .The quantification of glycyrrhizin in each extract was carried out by HPTLC using silicagel F254nm plate which was developed in optimized solvent system of Chloroform:Methnol:water (6:3.5:0.5v/v/v).HPTLC revealed that methanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was having higher amount of Glycyrrhizin content.

Page(s): 112-115                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2021

 Clariya Rapheal
Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Westfort College of pharmacy

 Prasanth S.S
Department of pharmaceutical analysis, Alshifa college of pharmacy

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Clariya Rapheal, Prasanth S.S “Quantification of Glycyrrhizin from Different Extract of Glycyrrhiza Glabra” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.112-115 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-3/112-115.pdf

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Conflicting Tensions in Decolonising Proscribed Afrocentric Hair Beauty Culture Standards in Ghanaian Senior High Schools
Osuanyi Quaicoo Essel – March 2021 – Page No.: 116-122

Africans have suffered stigmatisation and discrimination at the hands of the colonialists. The hair of the Black African has been negatively labelled as reclusive, elusive and shrinking kinks by the colonialists. This mentality of the colonialists equally manifested in Ghanaian colonial schools established by the early missionaries and the colonialists’ governments. They bastardised and proscribed some Afrocentric hairstyles and beauty culture practices in schools in the name of good grooming and hygiene. This negative remnant of mental enslavement and the colonial legacy of anti-Afrocentric hairstyles in Ghanaian schools lingers on and is still perpetuated by some Ghanaian school authorities in Senior High Schools in contemporary times. In the effort to decolonise the bastadised and proscribed Afrocentric hairstyle practices in Ghanaian schools, this article explored the contradictions and or conflicting tensions in the process. The study found that the Ghanaian public schools proscribe Afrocentric hairstyles with no substantial scientific evidence that wearing afro and rasta inhibits the acquisition of creative and innovative thinking, and academic performance or progress of the students. Neither have the schools established from their arguments that wearing Afrocentric hairstyles negatively impacts on the socio-moral and cultural wellbeing of the Ghanaian society or indigenous culture.It recommends that the Ghana Education Service and the Conference of Heads of Assisted Senior High Schools (CHASS) must work together to review the hair policies for students,so that it will not be a bottleneck for students to have access to education, which is their fundamental right enshrined in the 1992 constitution.

Page(s): 116-122                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8308

 Osuanyi Quaicoo Essel
Fashion & Textiles Education Unit, Department of Art Education, University of Education, Winneba (Ghana)

[1] Alhassan, S. W. (2020). “We Stand for Black Livity!”: Trodding the Path of Rastafari in Ghana. Religions, 11, 374, 1-10. doi:10.3390/rel11070374
[2] Citifmonline.com. (2015). School bans students with ‘unkempt’ hair from writing WASSCE. http://citifmonline.com/2015/04/22/school-bans-students-with-unkempt-hair-from-writing-wassce/
[3] Essel, O. Q. & Acquah, E. K. (2016). Conceptual art: The untold story of African art. Journal of Literature and Art Studies, 6(10), 1203 – 1220.
[4] [4] Essel, O. Q. (2017). Searchlight on Ghanaian iconic hands in the world of dress fashion design culture (Unpublished Thesis). University of Education, Winneba.
[5] Essel, O. Q. (2019). Decolonising Ghana fashion education and training history. International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 7(7), 381 – 392.
[6] Essel, O. Q. (In press). Hair and body fashion identity narratives in ‘the Return of the Slaves’ exhibition.
[7] Elliot, J. (2016, May 26). Elliot Jane on the Rock Newman show. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fF9s0as_d_4
[8] Morrow, W. (2014). 400 years without the comb: Sewing the inferior seed. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SH7nNdz3ImY
[9] Mwaura, W. (2016). South African schools under attack over Afro hairstyles ban. https://www.dw.com/en/south-african-schools-under-attack-over-afro-hairstyles-ban/a-19513159
[10] Myjoyonline.com. (2019). Let it grow: Why the policy against long hair in schools must beabolished. https://www.myjoyonline.com/opinion/let-it-grow-why-the-policy-against-long-hair-in-schools-must-be-abolished/
[11] Nkrumah, K. (1963). The African genius. Speech delivered by Osagyefo
[12] Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, President of the Republic of Ghana, at the Opening of the Institute of African Studies on 25th October, 1963.
[13] Nkrumah, K. (1964). Consciencism. Panaf Books Ltd.
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[20] Yin, R. K. (2018). Case study research and applications: Design and methods. Sage

Osuanyi Quaicoo Essel “Conflicting Tensions in Decolonising Proscribed Afrocentric Hair Beauty Culture Standards in Ghanaian Senior High Schools” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.116-122 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8308

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The impact of Lean Inventory Management Practices on Firm Performance: A Study of Selected Oil and Gas Companies in Rivers State, Nigeria
Kenneth Ugochukwu NNADI, Augustine Egwu NDU OKO – March 2021 – Page No.: 123-135

This study examined the effect of lean inventory strategies on firm performance in the oil and gas industry in Nigeria using a regression approach. Lean inventory was measured using two dimensions; namely, just in time and total quality management, while firm performance was measured in terms of productivity and delivery performance. The study further examined the moderating effect of organizational support on lean inventory practices and firm performance. The sample comprises 96 senior employees from 10 selected oil and gas companies in Rivers State, with a 79% response rate. The employees were purposely selected from three functional departments: production, human resource and marketing. All variables were measured on an interval scale using Likert type questions with five ordered options. The study found that that both just in time and total quality management have positive and highly significant effect on both productivity and delivery performance. Both lean inventory strategies significantly account for approximately 72% and 67% of the variance of firm productivity and delivery performance, respectively. However, for each performance measure, the magnitude of the effect of just in time is much higher than that of total quality management. The study established the fact that organizational support has a positive moderating influence on the relationship between inventory leanness and firm performance. Based on these findings, the study recommends that oil and gas companies should support the use of an integrated lean inventory approach that combines both just in time and total quality management as a way of improving productivity and meeting corporate delivery targets. However, more emphasis should be placed on just in time strategy.

Page(s): 123-135                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 04 May 2021

 Kenneth Ugochukwu NNADI
Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria

 Augustine Egwu NDU OKO
Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria

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Kenneth Ugochukwu NNADI, Augustine Egwu NDU OKO “The impact of Lean Inventory Management Practices on Firm Performance: A Study of Selected Oil and Gas Companies in Rivers State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.123-135 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-3/123-135.pdf

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Geospatial Application in Desertification Monitoring-Rajasthan, India
K.Rajendram & N.R.Patel – March 2021 – Page No.: 136-143

Desertification is a significant environmental problem in the arid and semi-arid regions, mainly caused by climate variations, change, and anthropogenic activities. The characteristic of rainfall of Rajasthan is seasonal, erratic, and higher variability is resulting in increasing aridity and degradation of vegetation growth and desertification. This study’s prime objective is to analyze vegetation trends using long-term NDVI from AVHRR for desertification monitoring. Surface vegetation is the most important indicator to assess desertification. In this study, long-term NOAA-AVHRR-GIMMS3G (1983-2011) Normalize Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time trends were used as a proxy for Net Primary Production (NPP). To assess the vegetation trend, annual, seasonal, and monthly NDVI, and its mean, maximum, standard deviation, and NDVI Anomaly Index, integral NDVI (iNDVI) were computed. Spatial and temporal variability rainfall and drought were studied using monthly rainfall data from 1983 to 2011 for 102 rain gauge stations. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was computed for all rain gage stations then the SPI results were interpolated. The iNDVI/RF trends were estimated to assess the desertification processes. The 3-month SPI and NDVI anomaly index’s spatial pattern during drought years have a higher negative anomaly during the months from July to September in the greater part of Rajasthan. For example, in 2002, higher SPI values were noticed at Bikaner (August, -3.33, July,-3.13, and September, -2.76) and Chirawa (September,-3.02, August, -2.41). The trends of iNDVI/RF ratio results suggest that about 37 % of the study area was experienced decreasing trends of vegetation growth, ongoing degradation, and desertification process. The districts of Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Sikar, Bikaner, Churu, and the northwestern part of Barmer are mostly affected by land degradation. About 45% of the study area was experienced the stable condition. Only 9% showed strong positive trends in vegetation growth.

Page(s): 136-143                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 May 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8309

1Department of Geography, Eastern University,Chenkalady,Sri Lanka

Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS),Indian Space Research Organization, No4, Kalidas Road,
Dehradun, India.

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K.Rajendram & N.R.Patel “Geospatial Application in Desertification Monitoring-Rajasthan, India ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.136-143 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8309

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Effect of Total Debt Service, Capital stock and Inflationon Economic Growth in SSA: Difference GMM Analysis

Wycliffe Mugun – March 2021 – Page No.: 144-154

Over the past decades, the 1980s to mid-2005 rising debt levels raised concerns for many developing Nations. This was evidenced by the High Indebted Poor Countries Initiativean emblem of African countries struggle to tackle the debt problem. However, owing to the fact that there are limited studies on total debt service, various studies indicate divergent views on the effect of total debt service on economic growth. For this reason, it is not clear whether or not total debt service affect economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of total debt service on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The random effect model results indicated that total debt service had positive and statistically significant relationship with economic growth in SSA. One step difference Generalized Method of Moments results showed that total debt service had a positive and insignificant relationship with economic growth, capital stock had positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in SSAwhile inflation had positive and statistically insignificant relationship with economic growth. The study recommends that SSA countries should exhibit restrain in contracting new external debt since total debt servicing was associated with decline in economic growth and also the governments should establish and adopt an optimal balance between external and domestic debt to maintain steady economic growth. The study concluded that SSA to actively engage in international trade since it facilitates technology transfer, exchange of information and opportunities to realize economies of scale and high volume of investment.

Page(s): 144-154                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 May 2021

 Wycliffe Mugun
Department of Economics, Kaimosi Friends University College, Kenya

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Wycliffe Mugun “Effect of Total Debt Service, Capital stock and Inflationon Economic Growth in SSA: Difference GMM Analysis” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.144-154 March 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-3/144-154.pdf

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Melatonin: One molecule one- medicine for many diseases, coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease (Covid-19); Function in plants
Ravindra B. Malabadi, Kiran P. Kolkar, Neelambika T. Meti, Raju K. Chalannavar – March 2021 – Page No.: 155-181

This review paper highlights the role of melatonin in many diseases, coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease (covid-19) and multi-physiological functions in plants. Based on its ubiquitous distribution (animal, human, plant, fungi, bacteria, algae), and multi-directional activity, melatonin is recommended as one of the most versatile biological signal of nature. Melatonin, so called a Hormone of darkness, has a high safety profile and potential to be used as COVID-19 therapy. Melatonin is a light sensitive molecule used in the therapy of sleeping disorders- insomnia, glaucoma, stroke, cancers, puberty, Alzheimers disease, Parkinson disease, ultraviolet light skin damage protection, thrombocytopenia, in smoking cessation, headache protection, migrane, and as an antioxidant. Melotonin is present in different parts of all the plant species studied, including leaves, stems, roots, fruits and seeds. Melatonin plays an important aspect to regulate the several physiological role of plants viz. circadian regulator, cytoprotector, growth promoter, antioxidant and free radical scavenger. In plants, melatonin also promotes rhizogenesis, cellular expansion and provide defense against environmental stress condition. Melatonin aids plants in terms of root growth, leaf morphology, chlorophyll preservation and fruit development.

Page(s): 155-181                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 April 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8310

 Ravindra B. Malabadi
Department of Applied Botany, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574199, Mangalore, Karnataka State, India

 Kiran P. Kolkar
Department of Botany, Karnatak Science College, Dharwad, Karnataka state, India

 Neelambika T. Meti
Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of IT and Biotechnology, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune-Satara Road, Katraj, Pune – 411046, Maharashtra State, India

 Raju K. Chalannavar
Department of Applied Botany, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574199, Mangalore, Karnataka State, India

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Ravindra B. Malabadi, Kiran P. Kolkar, Neelambika T. Meti, Raju K. Chalannavar “Melatonin: One molecule one- medicine for many diseases, coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease (Covid-19); Function in plants” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.155-181 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8310

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Barriers of the Visually Impaired Persons in the electoral process in Zambia
Pauline Mileji, Beatrice Matafwali & Gistered Muleya – March 2021 – Page No.: 182-188

The study sought to identify barriers faced by persons with Visual Impairment in the electoral process in Zambia. A phenomenological research study design was used. Data was collected using interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Purposive sampling procedure was used to sample thirty participants.The key findings were that the Visually Impaired persons face many barriers of which the following were part of; lack of education, lack of social network, lack of confidentiality,ignorance,fear,stigma,inaccessible information, transport and suitable facilities.The study recommends that adequate civic education should be delivered to the Visually Impaired persons.In this regard, there is need to adopt the human rights model that will allow the Visually Impaired persons to participate at all levels of the electoral process.

Page(s): 182-188                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 May 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8311

 Pauline Mileji
Kwame Nkrumah University, Zambia

 Beatrice Matafwali
University of Zambia

  Gistered Muleya
University of Zambia

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Pauline Mileji, Beatrice Matafwali & Gistered Muleya “Barriers of the Visually Impaired Persons in the electoral process in Zambia” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.182-188 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8311

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Vaccine Development for Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Disease (Covid-19); Lipid Nanoparticles

Ravindra B. Malabadi, Kiran P. Kolkar, Neelambika T. Meti, Raju K. Chalannavar – March 2021 – Page No.: 189-195

This review aims to highlight the rationale for the development of mRNA-lipid nanoparticle based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus, a major threat to human population and declared as global pandemic viral disease (COVID-19). The detection of double mutation (the mutation sites E484Q and L452R) in a new variant, called B.1.617 in India is very dangerous coronavirus strain is the major concern. India’s double mutant strain (B.1.617) could be considered as a variant of concern responsible for the second wave. There are many efforts to develop antiviral drugs or natural remedies or development of vaccine for SARS-CoV-2. Plants were also used as the best expression platforms for the SARS-CoV-2 antigen production. There are many antiviral drugs have been tested against SARS-CoV-2. Nanotechnology has a potentiality in COVID-19 treatment and vaccine development. Nanotechnology based vaccines are safe, easy to design, synthesize, or scale up in larger volume compared to the traditional vaccine approaches. The production of non-replicating mRNA-lipid nanoparticle based vaccines is one of the major breakthrough and promising in the recent development of the production of vaccines. Lipid nanoparticles are biocompatible due to their lipid properties and not harmful to the human body; hence, they can be selectively applied in the fields such as biomedical science particularly in the development of vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.

Page(s): 189-195                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 May 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8312

 Ravindra B. Malabadi
Department of Applied Botany, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574199,Mangalore, Karnataka State, India

  Kiran P. Kolkar
Department of Botany, Karnatak Science College, Dharwad, Karnataka state, India

  Neelambika T. Meti
Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of IT and Biotechnology, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Maharashtra State, India

  Raju K. Chalannavar
Department of Applied Botany, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574199,Mangalore, Karnataka State, India

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Ravindra B. Malabadi, Kiran P. Kolkar, Neelambika T. Meti, Raju K. Chalannavar “Vaccine Development for Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Disease (Covid-19); Lipid Nanoparticles ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.189-195 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8312

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The Effect of Irrigation Scheduling and Mucuna Pod Granule on Yield of Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batata).
Tolubanwo, S.E.; Okereke, N.A.A; Oti, N.N Nwandikom, G.I, and Madubuike, C.N- March 2021 – Page No.: 196-201

The experiment was carried out during the 2017 and 2018 dry season to evaluate irrigation scheduling and mucuna pod granule fertilizer on the yield of orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP). The treatments are made up of four fertilizer rates (0, 200, 400 and 600kg/ha), one irrigation method (Furrow), three irrigation scheduling (once every two days (E2D), once every three days (E3D) and once every four days (E4D) and one OFSP variety (mother delight). The experiment’s design was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times. The size of the plot was 4m x 5.1m, and there are 36 plots with a one-meter alley within plots and two meters between reps. The average irrigation duration per plot was nine minutes. The mucuna pod was harvested, dried, ground and its chemical composition was determined. The actual volume of the mucuna pod required for the experiment was calculated, and the same applied to the plots. After harvest, the treatments of 600kg/ha rate (600M) and E3D for 2017 gave the highest average weight of Vine (12.46t ha-1 and 11.16t ha-1), total weight of roots (9.11t ha-1 and 9.44t ha-1) and marketable roots (8.89t ha-1 and 7.22t h-1). While in 2018, the treatments of 600kg/ha rate (600M) and E3D for 2018 gave the highest average weight of Vine (31.77t ha-1 and 27.03t ha-1), total weight of roots (20.78t ha-1 and 16.28t ha-1) and marketable roots (19.47t ha-1 and 15.23t ha-1). The 600M/E3D also gave the highest weight of Vine + leave, weight of root, root girth and root length per stand. The profits of the produce sold for both years from NPK and Mucuna wereN 238,139.5 and N 426,078.4 respectively. We can conclude from this study, that 600M/E3D gave the highest yield when compared to other treatments in the tables and should be recommended.

Page(s): 196-201                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 May 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8313

 Tolubanwo, S.E.
National Root Crops Research, Institute Umudike (NRCRI)

  Okereke, N.A.A
Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO)

  Nwandikom, G.I
Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO)

  Oti, N.N
Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO)

  Madubuike, C.N
Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO)

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Tolubanwo, S.E.; Okereke, N.A.A; Oti, N.N Nwandikom, G.I, and Madubuike, C.N, “The Effect of Irrigation Scheduling and Mucuna Pod Granule on Yield of Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batata).” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 3, pp.196-201 March 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8313

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