Volume VIII Issue V

Discovery Learning and Problem-Based Instructional Approaches: Effect of Secondary School Students’ Interest in Biology
EJEH Chantal Ijeoma, AKUDOLU, Lilian Rita- May 2021 – Page No.: 01-07

The study investigated the effect of discovery learning and problem-based instructional approaches on secondary school students’ interest in Biology. Three research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design for the study. The population of the study was 753 senior secondary school year two (SS2) biology students in Oshimmili North local government area of Delta state. A sample of 159 SS 2 biology students was involved in the study. The instrument for data collection wasBiology Interest Scale (BIS)validated by lecturers in the Department of Science Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka and Delta State University, Abraka and one experienced secondary school biology teacher. The reliability of BISwas established using Cronbach Alpha to be 0.93. Data collected by administering the instruments as pretest and posttest before and after treatment were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance. The finding of the study revealed that there was significant difference between the mean interest scores of the students taught using discovery learning, problem-based instruction and conventional method in favour of discovery learning followed by problem-based learning. The study recommended that orientation and seminars should be organized by school administrators for biology teachers to aid them in the mastery of discovery and problem-based learning and how to integrate them in the learning process of biology.

Page(s): 01-07                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 June 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8501

 EJEH Chantal Ijeoma
Asagba Mixed Secondary School, Asaba, Delta State

 AKUDOLU, Lilian Rita
Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

[1] Alfieri, L., Brooks, P. J., Aldrich, N. J., & Tenenbaum, H. R. (2011). Does discovery-based instruction enhance learning? Journal of Educational Psychology, 10 (3), pp. 1–18.
[2] Barrows, H. S. (2000). Problem-based learning applied to medical education. Springfield, IL: Southern Illinois University School of Medicine.
[3] Cambell, N.A. (2015). Biology (4thed.). United Kingdom: The Benjamin Cumming.
[4] Datom, A. N. (2015).Effectiveness of demonstration and guided discovery methods oninterest and achievement of upper basic science students in Taraba State, Nigeria. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
[5] Erickson, B.L., Peters, C. & Strommer, D.W. (2006). Teaching First-Year College Students Revised and Expanded Edition of Teaching College Freshmen. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 3(1), pp. 12 – 36
[6] Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review, 235-266.
[7] Hussain, L., & Umar, A. (2012).Role of CAI on the interest and retention of students at secondary school level. Academic Research International, 3(2), 336 – 345.
[8] Jonassen D. H., & Hung, W. (2012). Problem-based learning. In: N. M. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning, pp. 2687-2690.
[9] Mader, S.S. (2017). Biology: (8thed.) New Mexico: McGraw-Hill Publisher.
[10] Mattingly, C., Lutkehaus, N.C., & Throop, C.J. (2008). Bruner’s search for meaning: A conservation between psychology and anthropology. Ethos, 36, 1-28.
[11] Oziokor, C. C. (2015). Effect of guided discovery method on academic achievement and interest of senior secondary school students in food and nutrition in Nsukka education zone of Enugu State.(Unpublished M.ED Thesis)University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
[12] Udo, M. E. (2010). Effect of guided discovery, students-centred demonstration and the expository instructional strategies on students’ performance in chemistry. An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia, 4(4), 389-398.
[13] Wood, D. (1975). A Study of Assisted Problem-Solving. British Journa of Psychology. 66 (2), pp. 181-191
[14] Yoon, H., Woo, A. J., Treagust, D.F., & Chandrasegaran, A.L. (2014). The efficacy of problem-based learning in an analytical laboratory course for preservice chemistry teachers. International Journal of Science Education, 36 (1), 79-102.
[15] Zejnilagic-Hajric, M., Sabeta, A., & Nuic, I. (2015). The effects of problem-based learning on students’ achievements in primary school chemistry. Bulletin of the Chemists and Technologists of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 44, 01-07.

EJEH Chantal Ijeoma, AKUDOLU, Lilian Rita, “Discovery Learning and Problem-Based Instructional Approaches: Effect of Secondary School Students’ Interest in Biology” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.01-07 May 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8501

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The Impact of Technology on the Aged in Zambian Society
E. Choongo, N. Hamooya, E. Mbewe, I.Mwiinga , F. Ngoma – Moono – May 2021 – Page No.: 08-14

The study sought to investigate the impact of technology on the aged in the Zambian society.
The objectives of the study were to,establish what kind of technology is being used by the aged. To determine how technology has affected the aged. To determine how the aged cope with the ever changing technology. To assess what the aged feel are the best solutions to solve the problem of technology
This was a case study that used an interview guide to collect data. The sample included 12aged people at the divine providence home in Chawama Lusaka district.
The major findings of the study were that most of the aged were not aware of the new kinds of technology around because they had been isolated from the Zambian society when it came to technology and that the only kinds of technology they were aware of were telephones, radios and televisions. Therefore, the remedy would be that the government should formulate policies that aim at integrating the aged and having them imparted with some basic technological knowledge, to enable them move at the same pace with everyone else in this fast growing world. As well as educating the entire society around them on how best to integrate them in this technological world.

Page(s): 08-14                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 June 2021

 E. Choongo
University of Zambia

  N. Hamooya
University of Zambia

  E. Mbewe
University of Zambia

University of Zambia

 F. Ngoma – Moono
University of Zambia

[1] Abadzi, H. (2003) Improving Adult Literacy Outcomes: Lessons from Cognitive Research for Developing Countries. Operations Evaluation Department. Washington, D.C.: World Bank
[2] Abanyam, N.L. (2011). A Concise Introduction to Sociology of Education. Makurdi: ABC Associate Press.
[3] Abidemi, A. R. (2005), Elderly Family Care Situation : Daily Activities, Housing andPhysical Wellbeing in Nigeria Int. Union for the Scientific Study of Population XXV, International Population Conference.Tours, France.
[4] Bertera, E. M., Bertera, R. L., Morgan, R., Wuertz, E., &Attey, A. M. (2007). Training OlderAdults to Access Health Information. Educational Gerontology, 33, 483-500.
[5] Charles, J.O. (2011). Human Environment, Behaviour and Child Welfare. Calabar: Unical Printing Press.
[6] Cohen, L. (2010). Eldercare Locator Launches Campaign to Help Older Adults StayConnectedThrough Technology. Michigan: Elderly locater.
[7] Cohen and Marian (1994). Research Methods in Education. 4th Ed. London: Croom Helm.
[8] Dzurgba, A. (2011). The Tiv and their Culture. Ibadan: John Archers (Publishers) Limited.
[9] Giddens, J.A. (2010). Sociology. New Delhi: Polity Press.
[10] Griffith(2013)https://changeagents365.org/resources/ways-to-stay-engaged/thegerontological-societyofamerica/Communicating%20with%20Older%20Adults%20Low_GSA.pdf
[11] Hill W. C. and Cudney, S. (2006). Influence of a computer intervention on the psychologicalstatus of chronically iII rural women: preliminary results. Nursing Research, Vol. No 1issue 55(1), 34. New York: Harper & Row.
[12] Howard J.H and Howard D.V. (1997) Learning and Memory; Handbook of human factorsand the older adult. San Diego: Academic Press.
[13] Hutto, C. and Bell C. (2014). Social media gerontology: understanding social media usage among a unique and expanding community of users. Hawaii: 47th HawaiiInternational conference.
[14] Kamwengo M. (2001) Aging and the Elderly in Zambia: Perspectives and issues. New Delhi: Sterling International.
[15] Mboto, W.A. (2002). Introduction to Sociology of the Aged. Calabar Clear lines Publications.
[16] Sijuwade, P. O. (2008). Elderly Care by Family Members: Abandonment, Abuse and Neglect. The Social Sciences. 3(8): 542-547 Medwell Online Journals.
[17] Stromquist, N. P. (2008)The political benefits of adult literacy: Presumed and real effects International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 2 (1–2) (2008), pp. 88-101.
[18] United Nations (2015). World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision. Key Findings and Advance Tables, 13.
[19] Van der Heide, L. A. (2012) Implementation of Care TV in care for the elderly: the effects feelings of loneliness and safety and future challenges. Technology and Disability. Switzerland : Speeuwenberg.

E. Choongo, N. Hamooya, E. Mbewe, I.Mwiinga , F. Ngoma – Moono “The Impact of Technology on the Aged in Zambian Society” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.08-14 May 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8301

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Bangladesh Imports Tea despite Being an Age-Old Tea Exporting Country

Professor Mohammad Lutfar Rahman, Professor Dr Harwindar Singh, Dr Khairir Khalil – May 2021 – Page No.: 15-17

Tea consumption in Bangladesh is increasing 3 percent per annum but its production is increasing 1 percent only. Due to not increasing tea production with the pace of increase in consumption, the title of Bangladesh as a tea exporting country has already been changed to a tea importing country costing at least US$ 70 million annually importing 30 million kg tea to meet the deficit every year. Country may save the hard-earned foreign exchange through increase in tea production from present 85 million kg to 120 million kg in order to stop importing tea, rather export tea utilizing every hectare garden land under tea plantation properly to increase yield per hectare from present 1500 kg to 2500 kg per hectare.

Page(s): 15-17                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 June 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8502

 Professor Mohammad Lutfar Rahman
Professor and Registrar, IUBAT—International University of Business Agriculture and Technology

 Professor Dr Harwindar Singh
Associate Professor, School of Business, Malaysia University of Science and Technology

  Dr Khairir Khalil
School of Business, Malaysia University of Science and Technology

NO References

Professor Mohammad Lutfar Rahman, Professor Dr Harwindar Singh, Dr Khairir Khalil “Bangladesh Imports Tea despite Being an Age-Old Tea Exporting Country” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.15-17 May 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8502

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Determinant Factors of Women Showing Interest in Pursuing Post Graduate Studies
MS. Ismiya Begum, M.I Nasrin – May 2021 – Page No.: 18-23

This study is entitled “Determinant factors of women showing interest in pursuing post graduate studies”. The purposes of this study to find out the reasons which contribute to Muslim women’s interest in pursuing postgraduate studies. Quantitative research method has been applied to undertake this study. Primary and secondary data have been collected from the Muslim female graduates in the south eastern University of Sri Lanka in order to accomplish the purposes of this study. This study has been carried out having South Eastern University of Sri Lanka as the place of research and focusing on approximately 200 Muslim female graduates of South Eastern University of Sri Lanka who graduated from the Faculty of Arts and Faculty of Islamic Studies and Arabic Languages from the year 2014 to the year 2019. For collecting primary data questionnaires were distributed among the female graduates who graduated from the South Eastern University of Sri Lanka after completing their bachelor’s degree from the year 2014 to the year 2019 and the data have been collected. For collecting secondary data books, university documents, newspaper articles, magazines and the contents of websites relevant to women’s education have been used to access the information required for the purpose of this study. Questionnaire data have been analyzed with SPSS statistical software using regression analysis method, through which the relationship between dependent and independent variables has been examined. The finding of this study Factors such as developing educational qualifications and gaining and expertise in a particular field are respectively the most influencing factors in Muslim women wanting to pursue postgraduate studies. Factors such as emerging as excellent resource person, securing promotion are the ones having extremely less influence in Muslim women wanting to pursue postgraduate studies. At the same time, the factor of becoming a best female leader has no bearing at all in Muslim women showing interest in pursuing post graduate studies.

Page(s): 18-23                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 June 2021

 MS. Ismiya Begum
Department of Islamic Studies, Faculty of Islamic Studies and Arabic Language, South Eastern University of Sri Lanka

  M.I Nasrin
Department of Islamic Studies, Faculty of Islamic Studies and Arabic Language, South Eastern University of Sri Lanka

[1] Amin, Sonia Nishat (1996). The World of Muslim Women in colonial Bengal. Leiden.
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[5] Rauf Zain (2009) Educational Challenges of Muslims and proposals. Ibnu Khaldoun Research Centre for Social Sciences – Thihariya
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[7] Jameel S.H.M (1990). Thoughts about the higher education of Muslims, Kalmunai. Islamic Books Publishing Bureau
[8] Aneesa S. ( 2014 ). Participation of Muslim women in public life: A study focusing on Kinniya Area. Faculty of Islamic Studies & Arabic Language – SEUSL
[9] Fathima Minsara J. Mazahir S.M.M ( 2015 ). The Growth of Higher Education of Muslim Women: A Study focusing on Elamalpotha Area. Faculty of Islamic Studies & Arabic Language – SEUSL
[10] Begam A.R.F Educational Status of Muslim Women in the Eastern Province: A special research, Koralaipattu West. Faculty of Islamic Studies & Arabic Language – SEUSL
[11] Walli Nayagi Ramalingam (2006) Women’s Education among Communities in Jaffna: A study. Kumaran Book Publishing house
[12] Hasbullah.S.H Saifudeen,N.P.M. (2000) Education of Muslims in Sri Lanka ( Education of Muslim Women and Higher Education. Colombo.

MS. Ismiya Begum, M.I Nasrin “Determinant Factors of Women Showing Interest in Pursuing Post Graduate Studies” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.18-23 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/18-23.pdf

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Effect of Spacing on Growth performance and Nutrient Quality of Moringa (Moringa stenopetala) under the Semi-Arid conditions of Nigeria
Abdullahi, S., and Maishanu, H.M – May 2021 – Page No.: 24-27

Moringa is a treasured plantdue to its exceptionally high nutritional content and drought-tolerant in the tropics and subtropics. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of spacing on Growth performance and Nutrient quality of Moringa (Moringa stenopetala) under the semi-arid conditions of Sokoto, Nigeria. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used and replicated three times. Data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and significant differences exist among the means, Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) will be used to separate the mean values. Results from this study revealed that spacing had no significant influence on number of leaves (NL), plant height (PH) and collar diameter (CD) except for number of branches (NB) with 6 NB each at 15 x 15 cm and 20 cm x 20 cm. The study further reveals an increase in leaf area index (LAI) with the values of 1.00 cmand 1.03 cmat 15 cm x 20 cm and 20 cm x 30 cm, root-shoot ratio of 2.53 cm and 2.50 cm at 15 cm x 15 cm and 15 cm x 20 cm respectively. Biomass accumulation were also higherwith the values of 39.57 g and 5.9 g for fresh and dry weight both at 15×15 cm plant spacing. However, 20×20 cm plant spacing had indicated higher concentrations of both micro nutrients (Mg, Na, P, S) and macro nutrients (Cr, Fe, Mn and Sr). Therefore, Moringastenopetalaproved to have a good growth performance at a medium plant spacing and could provide nutritional needs of not only human but also livestock in semi-arid region of Nigeria.

Page(s): 24-27                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 June 2021

 Abdullahi, S.
Department of Forestry and Environment, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria

  Maishanu, H.M
Department of Biological Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria

[1] Aderounmu, A.F. (2010). Silvicultural Requirements for Regeneration of Vitelleriaparadoxa. PhD. Thesis, University of Ibadan.
[2] Amaglo, N. K., Timpo, G. M., Ellis, W. O. And Bennett, R. N. (2006). Effect of Spacing and Harvesting Frequency on the Growth and Leaf Yield of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam), a Leafy Vegetable Crop. Moringa and other Highly Nutritious Plant Resources: Strategies, Standards and Markets for Better Impact on Nutrition in Africa. Paper presented at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Accra, Ghana November 16-18. Retrieved from http://www.moringafarm.com
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Abdullahi, S., and Maishanu, H.M, “Effect of Spacing on Growth performance and Nutrient Quality of Moringa (Moringa stenopetala) under the Semi-Arid conditions of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.24-27 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/24-27.pdf

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Relationship between Administrators Economic Status and Job Performance of School Administrators in Public Senior Secondary Schools of North-West Nigeria
MUHAMMAD Saratu Mera – May 2021 – Page No.: 28-32

The study examined the relationship between administrators’ economic status and job performance of school administrators in public senior secondary schools of north-west Nigeria.The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population for the study comprised of all senior secondary schools in North-west zone of Nigeria. The zone has a total population of 1317 Senior Secondary Schools, 1317 Principals and 3210 teachers. Random sampling technique was used to sample four out of the seven states with a total of 766 senior secondary schools and 19046 teachers as target population of the study.Research advisor (2016) table for determining sample size was used to determine the sample size of the study which recommended a total of 306 teachers as sample size of the study. Questionnaire tagged “Administrators Economic status and job Performance Questionnaire” was used to elicit information from the respondents of the study.The Instrument was validated by experts in the field of educational management and that of test and measurement in the Faculty of Education, UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto. A pilot study was conducted using test-retest method, cronbach alpha method was used to measure the two set of data and a reliability index of 0.71 was realized.Data collected was analyzed using frequency counts, Tables, and percentages while the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient at 0.05 level of significance with the help of statistical package for social science. Findings of the study revealed that: there was no significant relationship between administratorsbouyant account and job performance of school administratorsand administrators material possessions doesn’t have any relationship with job performance of school administrators.

Page(s): 28-32                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 June 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8503

 MUHAMMAD Saratu Mera
Department of Educational Foundations, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria

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[19] Orepolous, P. (2003). The Long Run consequences of Living in Poor Neighborhood.Quarterly Journal of Economics. 118(4), 1533-1575
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[22] Vellymalay, S.N. (2012). Parental involvement at Home: Analyzing the Influence of Parents Socio-Economic Status. Student of science 3(1), 1-6
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MUHAMMAD Saratu Mera “Relationship between Administrators Economic Status and Job Performance of School Administrators in Public Senior Secondary Schools of North-West Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.28-32 May 2021 DOI: DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8503

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Farmers’ Perception and Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change and Variability in Some Selected Villages of Nigeria
Gwari, B.M, Owolabi, E.S, Dantata,D , Abdulazeez, M and Mubarak, UJ – May 2021 – Page No.: 33-38

The study was carried out to evaluate how farmers in some selected villages in Kwaya Kusar Local Government Area, Southern Borno Nigeria, have perceived and adapted to climate change. Data was collected from 120 farmers through simple random sampling procedure. Purposive sampling was also used in the selection of key informants who have opinions and experience on the topic of study. Interviews as well as structured questionnaire were administered on respondents through Personal contact, with assistance of employed trained enumerators in their various communities. The analysis revealed that about 66.8% of the respondents were male, 59.1% were literate and 75% of the respondents had involved in farming for more than 5years.This implies that majority of the respondents had being in farming for many years. Majority of the farmers in Selected villages had a perception that climate was changing and the effects of these changes includes drying up of seedlings after germination, increase in soil erosion in some cases, loss of farmlands and crops due to flooding, water shortage according to their responses.. As a result of these farmers had responded by adapting. In this regard, age of the household, education, access to information on climate change through extension services, access to credit, changes in temperature and precipitation were found to have significant influence on the probability of farmers to perceive and/or adapt to climate change. With the level of perception to climate change being more than that of adaptation, the study suggests that more policy efforts should be geared towards helping farmers to adapt to climate change. The paper suggested policy frame work geared toward the improvement ofthe livelihood of rural women and the farmers in general.

Page(s): 33-38                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 June 2021

 Gwari, B.M
Environmental Studies Division, NIFFR PMB 6006 Niger State, Nigeria

  Owolabi, E.S
Federal University of Kashere, Gombe, Gombe State Nigeria

Federal University of Kashere, Gombe, Gombe State Nigeria

  Abdulazeez, M
Environmental Studies Division, NIFFR PMB 6006 Niger State, Nigeria

  Mubarak, UJ
Environmental Studies Division, NIFFR PMB 6006 Niger State, Nigeria

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[4] Amobi, D & Onitsha, T. (2015). Governance and climate change in Nigeria: A public policy perspective. Journal of Policy and Development Studies, 9(2), 199-210.
[5] Abdulkadir, A.(2017). Climate change and its implications on human existence in Nigeria: review. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 10(2), 152-158.
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[9] Onu , F.M., & Ikehi, M. E.(2016). Mitigation and adaptation strategies to the effectsof climate change on the environment and agriculture in Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary ScienceVolume 9, Issue 4Ver. I (Apr. 2016), PP 26-20
[10] Apata T. G., Samuel, K. D., &Adeola, A. O. (2009). Analysis of Climate change perception and Adaptation among Arable Food Crop Farmers in south Western Nigeriapaper presented at the conference of InternationalAssociation of Agricultural Economics pp. 2-9.
[11] IPCC, (2014): Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Edenhofer, O., R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J.C. Minx (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
[12] Ole, M., Cheikh, M., Anette, R., &Awa, D. (2009). Farmers Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Strategies in Rural Sahel. Journal of Environmental Management 4(3) 804-816.
[13] Building Nigeria’s Response to Climate Change (BNRCC) (2008). Annual Workshop of Nigerian Environmental Study Team(NEST): The Recent Global and Local Action on Climate Change, held at Hotel ,Millenium, Abuja, Nigeria; 8-9thOctober,2008
[14] Lobell, D.B., Burke, M.B., Tebaldi C, Mastrandrea, M.D., Falcon, W.P., &Naylor, R.L. (2008). Prioritizing Climate Change Adaptation Needs for Food Security in 2030, Science 319 (5863), PP. 607-10.
[15] Hassan, R & Nhemachena, C (2008) Determinants of African Farmers’ Strategies for adaptation to climatechange. African Journal of Resource Economics 2 (1) pp 83-104.
[16] Molua, E. L. (2008). Turning up the heat on African Agriculture: The impact of climate change on Cameroon’s agriculture, African Journal of Agriculture and Resource Economics 2 (1) pp 45-64.
[17] NPC, (2017). National Population Commission Projection, 2016
[18] Yirga, C. T. (2007). The dynamics of soil degradation and incentives for optimal management in Central Highlands of Ethiopia. PhD thesis. Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension, and Rural Development. University of Pretoria, South Africa.
[19] Pattanayak, S.K., Mercer, D.E., Sills, E &Jui-Chen, Y. (2003). Taking stock of agroforestry adoption studies. Agroforestry Systems 57 (3), 173–186.
[20] Caviglia-Harris, J. (2002). Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Rondônia, Brazil: Do Local Farmer Organizations Impact Adoption Rates? Department of Economics and Finance, Salisbury University.
[21] Glwadys A. G (2009). Understanding Farmers’ Perceptions and Adaptations to Climate Change and Variability.vThe Case of the Limpopo Basin, South Africa IFPRI Discussion Paper 00849. February 2009
[22] Maddison, D. (2006). The perception and adaptation to climate change in Africa. CEEPA. Discussion Paper No. 10. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
[23] Nhemachena, C., &Hassan, R. (2007). Micro-level analysis of farmers’ adaptation to climate change in Southern Africa. IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 00714. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C.

Gwari, B.M, Owolabi, E.S, Dantata,D , Abdulazeez, M and Mubarak, UJ “Farmers’ Perception and Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change and Variability in Some Selected Villages of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.33-38 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/33-38.pdf

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Effect of Manufacturing Capacity Utilization on Economic Growth: An Empirical Evidence of Nigeria
Oniyide F. V., Ogunjinmi O.O. – May 2021 – Page No.: 39-48

This study examines the effect of manufacturing capacity utilization on economic growth in Nigeria given the decadence that has been experienced in the manufacturing sector using annual data from 1980 to 2018 sourced from World Development Indicators (WDI) and Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The study employs Johansen and the Canonical cointegration technique and impulse response function in order to investigate the response of manufacturing capacity utilization to a shock in gross domestic product proxy for economic growth. The Johansen cointegration result reveals a long run relationship among the variables. The empirical result reveals that manufacturing capacity utilization insignificantly decreases gross domestic product in the first model while across the second and third model, manufacturing capacity utilization significantly increases gross domestic product in Nigeria in the long run. Therefore, the study concludes and recommends that government should set up institutional framework that will revamp the moribund manufacturing sector thereby harnessing its full potential in order to contribute to economic growth and development.

Page(s): 39-48                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 June 2021

 Oniyide F. V.
Economics Department, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

 Ogunjinmi O.O.
Economics Department, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

[1] World Bank (2005), World Bank Development Indicators. Washington D.C.
[2] Aregbeyen, J. B. O. (2016). Nigeria’s Manufacturing Sector: Performance and Challenges. In Nigeria’s Industrial Development, Corporate Governance and Public Policy, edited by N. I. Nwokoma, W. A. Ishola, 71-80. Lagos: University of Lagos Press.
[3] Adofu, I., Taiga, U. U and Tijani, Y. (2015). Manufacturing Sector and Economic Growth in Nigeria. Donnish Journal of Economics and International Finance, 1(1): 1-6.
[4] World Development Index (2012). “The World Bank.” 2012. https://www.worldbank.org/.
[5] Adeoye, B. and Akinsola, F. (2016). Green Growth Strategy in the Manufacturing Sector: Lessons for Emerging Economies. In Nigeria’s Industrial Development, Corporate Governance and Public Policy, edited by N. I. Nwokoma, W. A. Ishola, 287-305. Lagos: University of Lagos Press
[6] Central Bank of Nigeria, (2012). CBN, Statistical Bulletin, Abuja.
[7] National Bureau of Statistics (2013). Annual statistical Bulletin. Abuja: NBS.
[8] Ayorinde, F. and Ola, O. (2001). The Technological Response of the Manufacturing Sector to Trade Liberalization in Nigeria, Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, 43(1): 145.
[9] Central Bank of Nigeria, (2011). CBN, Statistical Bulletin, Abuja
[10] Alematu, A., David, T. A., Ochugudu, A. I. and Audu, T. (2020). Stock Market Development and the Performance of the Manufacturing Sector in Nigeria. International Journal of Advannced Research in Management and Social Sciences, 9(2): 46-66.
[11] Afolabi, A. and Laseinde, O. T. (2019). Manufacturing Sector Performance and Economic Growth in Nigeria.International Conference on Engineering for Sustainable World, 1-7.
[12] Abdullahi, M., Ladan, A. S. and Musa, A. S. (2019). Nexus between Commercial Banks’ Loan to Manufacturing Sector and Economic Growth In Nigeria. International Journal of Management Studies, Business and Entrepreneurship Research, 4(3): 16-27.
[13] Eze, O. R. (2014). Impact of Fiscal Policy on the Manufacturing Sector Output in Nigeria: An Error Correction Analysis. British Journal of Business and Management Research, 1(2): 31-54.
[14] Tunde, A. B. (2016). Stabilization Policies and Industrial Sector Performance in Nigeria.In Nigeria’s Industrial Development, Corporate Governance and Public Policy, edited by N. I. Nwokoma, W. A. Ishola, 385-411. Lagos: University of Lagos Press.
[15] Opaluwa, D., Umeh, J. C. and Abu, A. A. (2020). The Effect of Exchange Rate Fluctuations on the Nigerian Manufacturing Sector.African Journal of Business Management, 4(14): 2994-2998.
[16] Nelson, R. A. (1989). On the Measurement of Capacity Utilization.The Journal of Industrial Economics, 37(3): 273-286.
[17] Solow, R. M. (1957). Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function.Review of Economics and Statistics, 39: 312-320.
[18] Kirkley, J., Morrison, C. J. and Squires, D. (2002). Capacity and Capacity Utilization in Common-pool Resource Industries.Environmental and Resource Economics, 22: 71-97.
[19] Klein, L. R. (1960). Some Theoretical Issues in the Measurement of Capacity.Econometrics, 28(2): 272-286.
[20] Morrison, C. J. (1985). Primal and Dual Capacity Utilization: An Application to Productivity Measurement in the U.S. Automobile Industry. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 3(4): 312-324.
[21] Berndt, E. R. and Morrison, C. J. (1981). Capacity Utilization Measures Underlying Economic Theory and an Alternative Approach.American Economic Review, 71(2): 48-69. Central Bank of Nigeria, (2011). CBN, Statistical Bulletin, Abuja.
[22] Diewert, W. (1974). Functional Forms for Revenue and Factor Requirements Function. International Economic Review, 15(1): 119-130.
[23] Penélope, P-L. &Thirlwall, A.P. (2013). A New Interpretation of Kaldor’s First Growth Law for Open Developing Economies. University of Kent KDPE School of Economics Discussion Papers, 1312. Retrieved from: https://www.kent.ac.uk/economics/documents /research/papers/2013/1312.pdf.
[24] Imoughele, L. E. (2014). Empirical Investigation of the Impact of Monetary Policy on Manufacturing Sector Performance in Nigeria.International Journal of Education and Research, 2(1): 1 – 20
[25] Kida, M. I. and Angahar, J. S. (2020). Industrialization and Economic Growth in Nigeria.https://www.researchgate.net/publication.
[26] Onakoya, A. B. (2018). Macroeconomic Dynamics and the Manufacturing Output in Nigeria.Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 9(2): 43-54.
[27] Kida, M. I. and Angahar, J. S. (2020). Industrialization and Economic Growth in Nigeria.https://www.researchgate.net/publication.
[28] Amos, N. B., Ajike, E. O. and Akinlabi, B. H. (2014). Policy Reversal and its Implication on the Economic Growth of Nigeria: A Study of the Nigeria Manufacturing Sector. International Journal of Economic and Business Review, 2(9): 11-19.
[29] Lütkepohl, H., 2005. New Introduction to Multiple Time Series Analysis.Springer Science & Business Media.

Oniyide F. V., Ogunjinmi O.O. “Effect of Manufacturing Capacity Utilization on Economic Growth: An Empirical Evidence of Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.39-48 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/39-48.pdf

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Emergence of Managerial Capitalism in India
Dr. Bhavna Sood – May 2021 – Page No.: 49-55

The present paper aims at analyzing whether and to what extent Alfred Chandler’s managerial capitalism-as he defined it, appeared and controlled the industrial development of India. An attempt has been made to trace the development of Indian industries during the British rule, the problems faced by the early entrepreneurs and finally the managerial system adopted by them for the continued expansion of their industries. This is then compared to A. Chandler’s concept of managerial capitalism and some conclusions/hypothesis formed.

Page(s): 49-55                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 June 2021

 Dr. Bhavna Sood

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[4] Banerjee, T.S., “Internal Market of India;1834-1900″(Calcutta 1966)
[5] Basu S.K., “The Managing Agency System In Prospect & Retrospect” (Calcutta 1958)
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[25] Wacha D.E. “The Life and Work of J.N.Tata” (Madras 1951)

Dr. Bhavna Sood, “Emergence of Managerial Capitalism in India” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.49-55 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/49-55.pdf

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Health Implications of Students Recreation in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Omotayo Ben, Olugbamila, Olusola Olufayo, Oluwatimilehin Oluborode, Austin Sanya Olowoyo and Tobi Adediran – May 2021 – Page No.: 56-63

This paper examines the health implications of recreation activities among undergraduate students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was employed for the study. Eight undergraduate’s hall of residence comprising four each for male and female were identified, three halls of residence each from male and female hostel were randomly selected. 1018 rooms were identified across the selected halls of residence out of which 102 rooms which represents 10% of the total number of rooms were selected for questionnaire administration. The study revealed that academic work schedule, mood, personal interest and awareness are the significant deterring factors to students participation in recreational activities, also, majority of the students perceived recreation as beneficial to their health and wellbeing. The correlation analysis between proximity to recreational facility and duration of recreation also showed that proximity does not influence recreational participation with an R value of 19.5%. A regression model with R= 92.7% revealed a strong relationship between hours spent recreating and health benefits experienced. The study concludes that policies that will encourage participation in recreational activities should be encouraged.

Page(s): 56-63                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 12 June 2021

 Omotayo Ben, Olugbamila
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

 Olusola Olufayo
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

 Oluwatimilehin Oluborode
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

 Austin Sanya Olowoyo
Department of Architecture, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Nigeria

 Tobi Adediran
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

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Omotayo Ben, Olugbamila, Olusola Olufayo, Oluwatimilehin Oluborode, Austin Sanya Olowoyo and Tobi Adediran “Health Implications of Students Recreation in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.56-63 May 2021 URL : https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/56-63.pdf

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Health Belief of Elderly Women as Predictor of Health-Seeking Behavior to Breast Cancer Prevention in Kauru Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria
Kwarbai, A. M., Atulomah N.O & Oghosanine, J. O – May 2021 – Page No.: 64-69

The study investigates the health belief of older women as predictors of health-seeking behaviors to breast cancer prevention in Kauru Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional survey. A Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 394 elderly women in Kauru Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The demographic information and research question were analyzed using descriptive statistics while the research hypotheses were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Linear regression at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed 41.6% of the elderly women had average knowledge of breast cancer prevention, 46.7% high level of susceptibility to breast cancer, 35.5% perceived severity, 39.3% perceived barriers, 39.8% perceived benefits. There was a significant relationship between the health belief and behavioral skills on breast cancer prevention (r= 0.881, p< 0.05). The most significant predictors of breast cancer prevention among the Elderly women is perceived severity (ß = 0.157; t =2.543; p < 0.05). Next in terms of magnitude of predictor is perceived susceptibility (ß = 0.114; t = 2.542; p < 0.05), perceived benefits (ß = 0.127, t =1.139; p < 0.05) and perceived barriers (ß = 0.112, t =1.533; p < 0.05).Hence, the four health belief variables had significant contribution to breast cancer prevention. The study recommends that, government and non-governmental health agencies scale-up campaigns specifically tailored to change negative attitudinal barriers as well encourage Brest Self-Examination among women in the northern region of Nigeria. Healthy lifestyle is the best form of prevention of breast cancer prevention among women.

Page(s): 64-69                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 June 2021

  Kwarbai, A. M.
Department of Public and Applied Health, Babcock University, Nigeria

  Atulomah N.O
Department of Public and Applied Health, Babcock University, Nigeria

  Oghosanine, J. O
Department of Public and Applied Health, Babcock University, Nigeria

[1] Abdulkareem, F. (2013). Epidemiology and Incidence of Common Cancers in Nigeria. https://nairametrics.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/EPIDEMILOGY-AND-INCIDENCE-OF-COMMON.pdf
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[6] Adewole, I.F. (2018). Teaching thematic analysis: Overcoming challenges and developing strategies for effective learning. The Psychologist, 26(2), 120–123.
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[12] Akinkuolie, A. A., Etonyeaku, A. C., Olasehinde, O., Arowolo, O. A., & Babalola, R. N. (2016). Breast cancer patients’ presentation for oncological treatment: A single centre study. Pan African Medical Journal, 24(1).
[13] Akinkuolie, A.O., Etonyeaku, O.O., Olasehinde, R.A., Arowolo, U.O., & Babalola, E.A (2019). The incidence of belief structures associated with Breast Self Examination. Social Behavior and Personality, 29 (3), 223–230
[14] Akuoko, C. P., Armah, E., Sarpong, T., Quansah, D. Y., Amankwaa, I., & Boateng, D. (2017). Barriers to early presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer among African women living in sub-Saharan Africa. PloS one, 12(2), e0171024.
[15] Clegg-Lamptey, J. N. A., (2019). Psychosocial aspects of breast cancer treatement in Accra, Ghana. East African Medical Journal, 86(7). https://doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v86i7.54152.
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[17] Dzakah, R.O (2010) Knowledge, attitude, and practice of self-breast examination among female university students at Presbyterian University College, Ghana. American Journal of Research Communication. Vol 1(11): 395- 404
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[19] Haji-Mahmoodi, A.S (2012). Knowledge, awareness, and practices concerning breast cancer among Kuwaiti female school teachers. Alexandria Journal of Medicine, 48(1)
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[21] Jimoh, N.J (2018) Attitudes to knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE) in Port Harcourt. Nigerian Journal of Medicine, B (20): 166- 170
[22] Morounke, S. G., Ayorinde, J. B., Benedict, A. O., Adedayo, F. F., Adewale, F. O., Oluwadamilare, I., … & Benjamin, A. (2017). Epidemiology and incidence of common cancers in Nigeria. Population, 84(82,231,000), 166-629.
[23] Obaji N., (2013). Awareness and Practice of Breast Self-Examination among Market Women in Abakaliki, South East Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci. Res, 3(1):7-12.
[24] Ogunbiyi, O.O., Elsebai N., Abdelfatah F., Shoma A., and Elshamy K. (2019) Effects of Peer Education on the Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self-Examination among Mansoura University Female Students. Journal of American Science. vol. 9(10): 253 – 261
[25] Ohene-Yeboah, Y., & Adjei, O.O (2016) Awareness and Practice of Breast Self-Examination among Market Women in Abakaliki, South East Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci. Res, 3(1):7-12
[26] Oluwatosin, Y. O. (2019). The influence of socio-cultural factors on breast cancer screening behaviors in Lagos, Nigeria. Ethnicity & health, 24(5), 544-559.
[27] Opoku, Y.O (2016) Breast cancer knowledge, attitude and practice among nurses in Lagos, Nigeria. Acta Oncol., 40: 844-848
[28] Pool, A.D., & Judkins, O.O., (2019). Factors Influencing Lifestyle Modification among Persons with Hypertension in Punakha, Bhutan (Doctoral dissertation, Burapha University).
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Kwarbai, A. M., Atulomah N.O & Oghosanine, J. O “Health Belief of Elderly Women as Predictor of Health-Seeking Behavior to Breast Cancer Prevention in Kauru Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.64-69 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/64-69.pdf

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Psycho-Cognitive Factors Associated With Solid Waste Disposal among Residents of Sagamu Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Sosanwo, T. S., Adeniran, A. E & Balogun, A. R. – May 2021 – Page No.: 70-73

Solid waste management is one of the world’s most serious issues. The purpose of this study was aimed at eliciting information on psycho-cognitive factors associated with solid waste disposal among residents in Sagamu local government area, Ogun State, Nigeria.A simple random sampling technique was used in selecting three hundred and eighty-five respondents. A validated questionnaire which was self-administered was used for data collection. Data collected were analysed by using descriptive statistics of frequency tables, charts, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics of correlation, and multiple regression. The findings showed a mean score of knowledge measured on a 10-point reference scale as a mean and standard deviation of 7.4±2.3. The respondents’ attitude measured on a 30 point rating scale showed a mean score and standard deviation of 16.52±4.5. The respondent’s overall perception to improper waste disposal measured on a 51-point rating scale showed a mean score and standard deviation of 7.70 ±1.60. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents had good knowledge of solid waste disposal, moderate attitude and perception on solid waste disposal. Mass media (radios, televisions, newspapers, posters, magazines) should be used to facilitate change in attitudes, practices, and perception of the residents towards waste disposal.

Page(s): 70-73                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 June 2021

 Sosanwo, T. S.
Department of Public and Applied Health, Babcock University, Nigeria

 Adeniran, A. E
Department of Public and Applied Health, Babcock University, Nigeria

 Balogun, A. R.
Department of Public and Applied Health, Babcock University, Nigeria

[1] Afon, A. O. (2007). Informal sector initiative in the primary sub-system of urban solid waste management in Lagos, Nigeria. Habitat International, 31(2), 193-204.
[2] Bakare, W. (2016) Solid Waste Management in Nigeria. Bio-Energy Newsletter 5: 68-72.
[3] Barloa, P., Lapie, P., & P. de la Cruz, P. (2016). Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Solid Waste Management among Undergraduate Students in a Philippine State University. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 6, 6.
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[8] Kalu, C., Modugu, W. W., &Ubochi, I. (2009). Evaluation of solid waste management policy in Benin metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. African Scientist, 10 (1): 1-7
[9] Kaoje A. U., Sabir A. A., Yusuf S., Jimoh A. O &Raji M. O. (2017). Residents’ perception of solid waste disposal practices in Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 11(2), 94-102.
[10] Kaza, Silpa. Yao, Lisa C., Bhada-Tata, Perinaz., Van Woerden, Frank. (2018). What a Waste 2.0: A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management to 2050. UrbanDevelopment; Washington, DC: World Bank. World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/30317 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.”
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[14] Remigios. M. V. (2010). An overview of the management practices at solid waste disposal sites in African cities and towns. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. 12(7): 233 – 239.

Sosanwo, T. S., Adeniran, A. E & Balogun, A. R. “Psycho-Cognitive Factors Associated With Solid Waste Disposal among Residents of Sagamu Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria.” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.70-73 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/70-73.pdf

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Prevalence, Perception and Enabling Factors Associated With Cigarette Smoking among Senior Secondary School Students in Festac Town, Amuwo-Odofin Local Government Area, Lagos State
Chigbu, L.C., Oyewole, O. & Akhamiokhor, V. K – May 2021 – Page No.: 74-79

Tobacco consumption through cigarette smoking is one of the world’s leading preventable causes of non-communicable diseases and premature death accounting for six million preventable deaths each year. Adolescent experimentation with a highly addictive drug like nicotine, easily leads to a lifetime of tobacco dependence. Early age of smoking initiation among young people may predispose them to long-term negative effects. This assess the Prevalence and Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Senior Secondary Students in FESTAC Town, Amuwo-Odofin Local Government Area, Lagos State.A cross-sectional study was conducted among senior secondary school students enrolled in public schools within FESTAC Town. A population of 368 students were sample was selected through a multistage sampling technique. A validated questionnaire with Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 0.85, was used to gather data. The instrument assessed knowledge, attitudinal dispositions and perception of students to cigarette smoking. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS version 23. The study highlighted that the prevalence of cigarette smoking among the respondents is 6.8%, although about 39.4% of the respondents have tried or experimented with cigarette smoking. In regards to attitudinal disposition towards cigarette smoking, many 68.8% of the respondents showed positive attitudinal disposition towards cigarette smoking. Many 3.6% showed positive perception about cigarette smoking. Majority 87.3% showed high enabling factors of cigarette smoking. Majority 80.7% of the respondents indicated that they have never thought of smoking, Nearly all 92.9% of the respondents indicated that they do not think about taking part in smoking, few 3.0% who indulge in smoking indicated they have plans to stop smoking and only 6.5% of the respondents indicated that they have stopped smoking.The study concluded that the prevalence of smoking among was high which was also similar to other studies that have been conducted both locally and globally. This suggests that there is a need for the education sector to create early cost-effective interventions and education campaigns that target pre-secondary and secondary school students. These interventions should extend to their place of residence so that influences in the home environment and social surroundings that contribute to cigarette smoking are also tackled.

Page(s): 74-79                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 June 2021

 Chigbu, L.C.
Department of Public and Applied Health, Babcock University, Nigeria

 Oyewole, O.
Department of Public and Applied Health, Babcock University, Nigeria

 Akhamiokhor, V. K
Department of Public and Applied Health, Babcock University, Nigeria

[1] Abikoye, G., &Fusigboye, A. (2011). Gender, locus of control and smoking habits of undergraduate students. African journal of drug and alcohol studies, 9(2), 71-80.
[2] Adeloye, D., Auta, A., Fawibe, A., Gadanya, M., Ezeigwe, N., Mpazanje, R., Dewan, M.T., Omoyele, C., Alemu, W., Harhay, M., &Adewole, I.F. (2019). Current prevalence pattern of tobacco smoking in Nigeria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health, 19.
[3] Albangy, F. H., Mohamed, A. E., &Hammad, S. M. (2019). Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Arar City, Saudi Arabia. The Pan African medical journal, 32, 156.
[4] Aldiabat, K.M., &Navenec, C.L. (2013). Developing Smoking Cessation Program for Older Canadian People: An Application of Precede-Proceed Model. American Journal of Nursing Science, 2, 33.
[5] Alex-hart, B., Opara, P., &Okagua, J. (2014). Prevalence of alcohol consumption among secondary school students in Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria. Nigerian journal of paediatrics, 42, 39-45.
[6] Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. (2009). Smoking’s Immediate Effects on the Body. https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/assets/factsheets/0264.pdf
[7] Ebirim, C.I., Amadi, A.N., Abanobi, O.C., &Iloh, G.U.P. (2014). The prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among adolescents in Owerri, South-Eastern Nigeria. Health, 6(12), 1532–1538.
[8] Fawibe A.E., Shittu, A.O. (2011). Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smokers among undergraduates of the University of Ilorin, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract, 1–5.
[9] Gana, G. J., Idris, S. H., Sabitu, K., Oche, M. O., Abubakar, A. A., &Nguku, P. M. (2018). Prevalence and perception of cigarette smoking among out of school adolescents in BirninKebbi, Northwestern Nigeria. The Pan African medical journal, 30, 304.
[10] Green, L.W., Kreuter, M. W. (2005). Health program planning: An educational and ecological approach (4th Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
[11] Itanyi, I. U., Onwasigwe, C. N., Ossip, D., Uzochukwu, B., McIntosh, S., Aguwa, E. N., Wang, S., Onoka, C. A., &Ezeanolue, E. E. (2020). Predictors of current tobacco smoking by adolescents in Nigeria: Interaction between school location and socioeconomic status. Tobacco induced diseases, 18, 13.
[12] Katulanda, P., Liyanage, I. K., Wickramasinghe, K., Piyadigama, I., Karunathilake, I. M., Palmer, P. H., & Matthews, D. R. (2015). Tobacco smoking among school children in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. Asia-Pacific journal of public health, 27(2), 278–287.
[13] Luecha, T.,Peremans, L., Dilles, T.,Rompaey, B.V. (2019). The prevalence of alcohol consumption during early adolescence: a cross-sectional study in an eastern province, Thailand, International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, Vol. 24, No. 2, 160–176.
[14] Momoh, V.A. (2009). The Effect Of Health Education On Smoking Among Road Transport Workers In Yaba And Amuwo – Odofin Motor Parks, Lagos State.
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[16] Osuh, M. E., Fagbule, O. F., &Olatunji, Y. D. (2020). Prevalence and predictors of susceptibility and future intention to smoke cigarettes among school-going adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. The Pan African medical journal, 37, 230.
[17] Owonaro, P. A., &Eniojukan, J.F. (2015). Cigarette Smoking Practices, Perceptions and Awareness of Government Policies among Pharmacy Students in Niger Delta University in South-South Nigeria. Pharmaceutical and Biosciences Journal, 3(5), 20-29.
[18] Oyewole, B. K., Animasahun, V. J., & Chapman, H. J. (2018). Tobacco use in Nigerian youth: A systematic review. PloS one, 13(5), e0196362.
[19] Rachiotis, G., Muula, A. S., Rudatsikira, E., Siziya, S., Kyrlesi, A., Gourgoulianis, K., &Hadjichristodoulou, C. (2008). Factors associated with adolescent cigarette smoking in Greece: results from a cross sectional study (GYTS Study). BMC public health, 8, 313.
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[23] Salawu, F.K., Damburam, A., Desalu, A.A., Olokoba, A.B., &Agbo, J. (2011). Cigarette smoking habits among adolescents in Northeast Nigeria. Niger Postgraduate Medical Journal, 18, 26–29.
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Chigbu, L.C., Oyewole, O. & Akhamiokhor, V. K, “Prevalence, Perception and Enabling Factors Associated With Cigarette Smoking among Senior Secondary School Students in Festac Town, Amuwo-Odofin Local Government Area, Lagos State” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.74-79 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/74-79.pdf

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Assessment of Variations in Air Quality in Wet & Dry Seasons: A Case Study of Borokiri, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Levi-Okoli Ifeyinwa Chikerenma; Briggs-Kamara Apaemi, Sigalo Friday Barikpe, Iyeneomie Tamunoobereton-Ari – May 2021 – Page No.: 80-83

This study measured the criteria air pollutants of Borokiri and its environs in order to evaluate the air quality level of the area in comparison with the WHO guidelines/acceptable limits. A portable gaseous emission analyzer, the BOSEAN Gas Detector, which collects and stores data independently was used for the measurement of ambient air quality. The Suspended particulate matter was measured with an EGVOC SPM Monitor, which operates by counting and sizing the number of particles in the air. The measurements were done for both dry and wet season at different times during these seasons. From the findings, only the ozone (O3) level is safe enough within the study area, with respect to the WHO guidelines. All the other pollutants are highly unsafe for the people of the study area. The particulate matter mean concentrations (both PM2.5 and PM10) were lower in wet season compared to dry season. This was attributed to the time of data collection during the wet season, which was during the COVID-19 lockdown, with little or no activities going on in the study area. The rain effect could also have washed down the pollutants.

Page(s): 80-83                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 June 2021

 Levi-Okoli Ifeyinwa Chikerenma
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Briggs-Kamara Apaemi
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Sigalo Friday Barikpe
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 Iyeneomie Tamunoobereton-Ari
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

[1] Gehring, U., A. H. Wijga, M. Brauer(2010). “Traffic-related air pollution and the development of asthma and allergies during the first 8 years of life.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 181(6): 596-603.
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[3] Ryan, P. H., D. I. Bernstein, J. Lockey(2009). “Exposure to traffic-related particles and endotoxin during infancy is associated with wheezing at age 3 years.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 180(11): 1068-1075.
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Levi-Okoli Ifeyinwa Chikerenma*; Briggs-Kamara Apaemi, Sigalo Friday Barikpe, Iyeneomie Tamunoobereton-Ari “Assessment of Variations in Air Quality in Wet & Dry Seasons: A Case Study of Borokiri, Port Harcourt, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.80-83 May 2021 URL : https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/80-83.pdf

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Isolation and characterization of Botrytis antigen from Allium cepa L. and its role in rapid diagnosis of neck rot
Prabin Kumar Sahoo, Amrita Masanta, K. Gopinath Achary, Shikha Singh – May 2021 – Page No.: 84-88

Early and accurate diagnosis of neckrot in onions permits early treatment which can enhance yield and its storage. In the present study, polyclonal antibody (pAb) raised against the protein extract from Botrytis allii was established for the detection of neck rot using serological assays. The pathogenic proteins were recognized by ELISA with high sensitivity (50 ng). Correlation coefficient between infected onions from different stages and from different agroclimatic zones with antibody titres was taken as the primary endpoint for standardization of the protocol. Highest positive correlation (r ¼ 0.999) was observed in stage I and II infected samples of North-western zone, whereas low negative correlation (r ¼ _0.184) was found in stage III infected samples of Western zone with developed pAb. Linear positive correlations (R2) exist between antigenic proteins at all the stages of infection and the developed pAb titres. Hence, the developed pAbs could be used to detect the presence of the fungal pathogen at an early stage. This study recommends the use of these developed antibodies in rapid diagnosis of neckrot in onions.

Page(s): 84-88                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 June 2021

 Prabin Kumar Sahoo
Rama Devi Women’s University, Vidya Vihar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

 Amrita Masanta
Rama Devi Women’s University, Vidya Vihar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

 K. Gopinath Achary
Imgenex India Pvt. Ltd, E-5 Infocity, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

 Shikha Singh
Rama Devi Women’s University, Vidya Vihar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

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Prabin Kumar Sahoo, Amrita Masanta, K. Gopinath Achary, Shikha Singh “Isolation and characterization of Botrytis antigen from Allium cepa L. and its role in rapid diagnosis of neck rot” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.84-88 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/84-88.pdf

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Assessment of Cybersecurity Practices in Electronic Banking among Agro-Entrepreneurs in Obio/Akpor L.G.A, Rivers State, Nigeria
Ugwuja V.C and Ekpo M. E – May 2021 – Page No.: 89-96

The study assessed cyber security practices adopted by agro-entrepreneurs in Obio/Akpor L.G.A, Rivers State. The specific objectives were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of agro-entrepreneurs in Obio/Akpor L.G.A, identify electronic banking products accessed by agro-entrepreneurs, ascertain fraud experiences of agro-entrepreneurs in accessing electronic banking products, identify cybersecurity control measures adopted by agro-entrepreneurs, and to ascertain factors that influence level of adoption of cybersecurity measures among agro-entrepreneurs. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire, administered on 90 respondents using two-stage sampling procedure. The data were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The finding showed that 83.3% of the respondents were male, 43.3% of the respondents were in the age bracket of 31-40 years, and married agro entrepreneurs were 71.1%. Electronic banking products mostly utilized by the respondents were SMS Alert, online fund transfer, balance enquiry, Debit card and Automated Teller machine (ATM).Agro-entrepreneurs experienced risks of unsuccessful transaction through POS in which their accounts were debited, they also experienced threats such as smishing in which they released their banking details through SMS and money was debited from their account. Agro-entrepreneurs adopted cybersecurity measures such as avoiding lonely ATM, ignoring text messages and email that request for banking details. Also, the regression result on the rate of adoption of cybersecurity measures by agro entrepreneurs indicate that farming status, cooperative membership, annual income and internet access were significant factors influencing rate of adoption of cybersecurity measures. The study recommends that Central Bank of Nigeria should impose on banks with the responsibility of educating customers deeply not only superficially on the risk involved in electronic banking, and banks should provide financial products and services that will expose customers to mild risks.

Page(s): 89-96                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8504

 Ugwuja V.C
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

  Ekpo M. E
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Ugwuja V.C and Ekpo M. E “Assessment of Cybersecurity Practices in Electronic Banking among Agro-Entrepreneurs in Obio/Akpor L.G.A, Rivers State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.89-96 May 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8504

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Discrimination through Beautification and Changing Pattern of Body Images of Young Women of Dhaka City (Gulshan, Dhanmondi, Mohammadpur & Hazaribag) A Critical Analysis from the Lens of Social Science Perspectives
Samiya Sultana, Abdur Rahman Mohammad Thamim – May 2021 – Page No.: 97-111

Beautification concept has changed drastically by the impact of modernization, globalization and capitalization. By the pursue of modernization, discrimination through beautification is emerging. To the society of Bangladesh, especially in Dhaka city, discrimination through beautification is emerging as a rising concept. In the culture of Dhaka city discrimination through beautification of women was existing but now a day’s its emerging vastly. And to eradicate this discrimination women are leaning to beauty parlor which are the new emergence of capitalization. Women of Dhaka city are now believing in beauty parlor concept for their beautification and changing body images. This paper investigated the factors thatinfluence the discrimination through beautification and changing body images of women of Dhaka city (Gulshan, Dhanmondi, Mohammadpur and Hazaribag). The study elicited information from 290 women respondents and 50 male IDI participants comprising (aged 18-35); through a multi-stage sampling technique. The study found that most respondents; 64% from Gulshan, 88% from Dhanmondi, 73% from Mohammadpur and 60% from Hazaribag think that a beautiful girl is more demandable in our society for marry. In addition, the respondents think that a beautiful girl gets more attention in everywhere (58%, 51%, 49% and 58% respectively in Gulshan, Dhanmondi, Mohammdpur and Hazaribag). Socio-cultural factors still greatly impede on women beautification pattern and shaping their body images. Accordingly, the main research findings of this research were to find out what are the factors that influence the emergence of discriminatory way of beautification and changing pattern of body images.

Page(s): 97-111                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 June 2021

 Samiya Sultana
Program Officer, Shastho Shurokkha Foundation, Bangladesh

 Abdur Rahman Mohammad Thamim
Lecturer, Department of International Relations, Bangladesh University of Professionals (BUP), Bangladesh

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Samiya Sultana, Abdur Rahman Mohammad Thamim “Discrimination through Beautification and Changing Pattern of Body Images of Young Women of Dhaka City (Gulshan, Dhanmondi, Mohammadpur & Hazaribag) A Critical Analysis from the Lens of Social Science Perspectives” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.97-111 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/97-111.pdf

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An Assessment of Benefits and Reasons for Urban Trees Flattening in Nigeria Garden City

Ayagere Selete Ayebaemi, Amakiri-Whyte Belema Henry and Beebee Bonny – May 2021 – Page No.: 112-118

Hasty urban improvement and agglomeration with their connected anthropogenic actions have a tendency to be associated with demolition of urban planted trees, hitherto the available trees and greenery zones plays significant role in the environment. The recent study assessed urban trees benefits and demolition causes in Nigeria garden city of Port Harcourt, capital of rivers state with possible replication in other cities in Nigeria. Primary and secondary data sources were used whereas the former sources include designed questionnaire and conversation survey, the later sources comprise of related literature. The data was analysed using accurate percentage, mean, standard deviation and regression. The findings showed that unplanned urban areas (t = 11.240) , hasty urban development (t = 7.786), poor tree planting consciousness (t = 7.738), non-enforcement of urban trees laws (t = 3.432), fetching of fossil fuel and lumbering actions (t =2.991). Also considered are hasty urban development (t = 7.786), poor tree planting consciousness (t = 7.738), non-enforcement of urban trees laws (t = 3.432), fossil fuel and lumbering actions (t =2.991) exist as the major causes or reason behind the illegitimate loss of urban trees. The result lay forward that significant variation exists among the urban land uses that effect loss of urban greenery at {F = 29.483, P<0.001}. The result rated protection from sum ray, air pollution prevention, preventing the city from heat; physical aesthetics, comfort and quality environ etc. are the environmental benefit of the available natural and urban planted trees in Nigeria. They accounted for 85.99 percent of positive benefits experienced in the city. The study recommends among others for the formulation of the appropriate policies in this direction, government through relevant authorities such as urban planning and other environmental protection agency should monitor and enforce relevant regulations on trees planted to protect the urban environment.

Page(s): 112-118                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 June 2021

 Ayagere Selete Ayebaeni
Department of Architecture Ken Saro – Wiwa Polytechnic Bori, Nigeria, Ken Saro -Wiwa Polytechnic Bori, Nigeria

 Amakiri-whyte Belema Henry
Department of Architecture Ken Saro – Wiwa Polytechnic Bori, Nigeria, Ken Saro -Wiwa Polytechnic Bori, Nigeria

 Neebee Bonny
Department of Urban and Regional Planning Ken Saro – Wiwa Polytechnic Bori, Nigeria

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Ayagere Selete Ayebaemi, Amakiri-Whyte Belema Henry and Beebee Bonny “An Assessment of Benefits and Reasons for Urban Trees Flattening in Nigeria Garden City” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.112-118 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/112-118.pdf

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Heat Generation and Dufour Influences on MHD Convective Flow through an Inclined Channel

Achogo, Wisdom Hezekiah, Isobeye George, Nwagor Peters – May 2021 – Page No.: 119-126

The theoretical assessment of the impacts of velocity, temperature, concentration varieties and magnetic fields on convective intermittent stream was studied on an electrically directing, viscous and incompressible fluid through a permeable medium in a slanted plane. A bunch of coupled partial differential equations emerging from the issue were converted to space dependent ordinary differential equations with a single term perturbation techniques and solved systematically by the technique of undetermined coefficients. The answers for the temperature, concentration and velocity were shown in plots. From the plots, the accompanying outcomes have been drawn; it is seen that expansion in the Prandtl number declines the temperature, expansion in the Reynolds number reduces the temperature and concentration of the fluid, expansion in the Schmidt number abates the concentration making it more critical at the centre of the flow region, expansion in penetrability prompts expansion in the speed and expansion in the magnetic field prompts decline in the speed, a decrease in the temperature profile is noted owing to the increase in the heat generation, expansion in Dufour number increases both the temperature and speed profiles.

Page(s): 119-126                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 June 2021

 Achogo, Wisdom Hezekiah
Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of education, Rumuolumeni, Nigeria.

  Isobeye George
Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of education, Rumuolumeni, Nigeria.

 Nwagor Peters
Department of Mathematics/Statistics, Ignatius Ajuru University of education, Rumuolumeni, Nigeria.

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Achogo, Wisdom Hezekiah, Isobeye George, Nwagor Peters “Heat Generation and Dufour Influences on MHD Convective Flow through an Inclined Channel” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.119-126 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/119-126.pdf

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Efficacy of behaviour contracts in decreasing inappropriate behaviour of Male and Female Secondary School Adolescents with permissive Attitude towards Premarital Sex
Anagbogu, Mercy Aku; Nwokolo Chinyelu; Ezeani, Maritha Ifeyinwa – May 2021 – Page No.: 127-132

This study investigated the effect of behaviour contracts in decreasing inappropriate behaviour of secondary school adolescents with permissive attitude towards premarital sex. The design for the study is quasi-experimental, non-randomised pre-test and post-test, control group research. The sample comprised 64 students purposively selected from a population of 260 students. A standardised instrument “Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Scale (PSPS)” was used for data collection. The internal consistency reliability coefficient for the instrument is 0.73.Data was collected through direct delivery of the instrument to the respondents. Mean scores were used to answer the research questions, while the null hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA). The norm of the instrument guided the decision. The finding of the study revealed among others that contracting technique is effective in reducing adolescents’ permissive attitude towards premarital sex. The findings further revealed that the differences in the effect of Behaviour Contracts on male and female secondary school adolescents with permissive attitude towards premarital sex are not significant. Based on the findings and implications of the study, it was recommended that Guidance Counsellors should adopt the use of the techniques in counselling and therapy among secondary school students to modify their permissive attitude towards premarital sex.

Page(s): 127-132                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 June 2021

 Anagbogu, Mercy Aku
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

  Nwokolo Chinyelu
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Ezeani, Maritha Ifeyinwa
Department of Guidance and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

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[9]. Hawkins, E., Kingsdorf, S., Charnock, J., Szabo, M., Middleton, E., Phillips, J., &Gautreaux, G. (2011). Using behaviour contracts to decrease antisocial behaviour in four boys with autistic spectrum disorder at home nad at school. British Journal of Special Education, 38, 202-208.
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Anagbogu, Mercy Aku; Nwokolo Chinyelu; Ezeani, Maritha Ifeyinwa “Efficacy of behaviour contracts in decreasing inappropriate behaviour of Male and Female Secondary School Adolescents with permissive Attitude towards Premarital Sex” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.127-132 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/127-132.pdf

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Public Debt and Economic Growth: The Nigerian Experience
Chukwuemeka Nwamuo, Ph.D, Samuel Agu, Ph.D – May 2021 – Page No.: 133-141

The study investigated the impact of public debt on the economic growth in Nigeria. Annual time series data were obtained from theCentral Bank of Nigeria Statisticalfor the period 1981to2019 on the variables used for the study. Unit root test was conducted using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test and Phillips-Perrontest techniques and the results showed that the variables werestationary though at different levels. Co-integration test was also conducted using Johansen co-integration test method and the result showed that the variables in the model were co-integrated meaning that the variables have a long run relationship. The error correction mechanism showed that the coefficient of multiple determination (R2) in the overparameterized model was 0.890783 while it was 0.846548 in the parsimonious model. The short run regression result showed that external debt has a negative and insignificant impact on the economic growth in Nigeria. The short run result also showed that domestic debt has a positive and significant impact on the economic growth in Nigeria while credit to private sector has a negative and insignificant impact on the economic growth in Nigeria.The result from long run dynamic analysis revealed thatexternal debt has a negative and insignificant impact on the economic growth in Nigeria while domestic debt has a positive and significant impact on the economic growth in Nigeria. The long run dynamic analysis also showed that credit to private sector has a positive and significant impact on the economic growth in Nigeria. Based on these findings, it was recommended that government should reduce the rate at which it takes external loans to finance its activities. Moreover, domestic debts should be properly managed by channeling it towards those activities that will stimulate economic growth.

Page(s): 133-141                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 June 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8505

  Chukwuemeka Nwamuo, Ph.D
Department of Economics, Obong University, Obong Ntak, Akwa Ibom state – Nigeria

 Samuel Agu, Ph.D
Department of Banking and Finance, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu campus

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Chukwuemeka Nwamuo, Ph.D, Samuel Agu, Ph.D “Public Debt and Economic Growth: The Nigerian Experience” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.133-141 May 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8505

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Antecedents of Corporate Income Smoothing of Financially Distress Likelihood Quoted Companies in Nigeria
Rachel Konyefa Dickson (Ph.D.) – May 2021 – Page No.: 142-150

The incessant income smoothing of corporate organisations has generated much concern by corporate reporting practitioners and academics worldwide. Though income smoothing is legal, it is deceptive. This study focused on the antecedents of income smoothing by financial distress likelihood quoted companies in Nigeria. It specifically examined the firm size, Leverage, board independence, managerial ownership and board gender diversity on income smoothing of financial distress likelihood zone companies in Nigeria.
It is an experimental research design covering six (5) years from 2014 to 2019. The entirety of the study was 114 non-financial companies quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange, while 59 companies constituted the sample size arrived at using Altman’s Z-Score. TheEckle methodological model was usedfor the assessment of income smoothing before applying the dichotomous variable approach. Content analysis of annual financial reports of sampled companies was employed, and data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as Pearson correlation, variance inflation factor, panel and pooled least square regressions.
This study revealed that firm size,Leverage,board size, and managerial shares shareholdings have a positiverelationship with income smoothing. Simultaneously, board independence and board gender diversity have no significant influence and were also negatively related to income smoothing of financial distress likelihood companies in Nigeria. We, therefore, recommendthat an independent board made up of male and female of different disciplines and professional qualification in accounting and finance should be encouraged irrespective of the size of the firm. The recommendation is based on the need to ensure financial reporting quality instead of smoothing income even when the firm is at the threshold of financial distress in Nigeria

Page(s): 142-150                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 June 2021

 Rachel Konyefa Dickson (Ph.D.)
Department of Management, Faculty of Management Sciences, Niger Delta University

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Rachel Konyefa Dickson (Ph.D.) “Antecedents of Corporate Income Smoothing of Financially Distress Likelihood Quoted Companies in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.142-150 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/142-150.pdf

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The Role of Students Motivation in Teaching Arabic as a Second Language in Dubai
Mohamed Moghazy – May 2021 – Page No.: 151-157

The Arabic language is a massive component of cultural attachment for non-native Arabic speakers’ students in the United Arab Emirates. The study of Arabic is not only crucial for liturgical but also for personal reasons. Students who study Arabic for communication purposes only limit their scope of use. On the other hand, students who pursue Arabic to connect with their ancestry, understand Islam’s religion, and achieve personal satisfaction tend to explore much more. Teachers are involved in the learning and mastery of the Arabic language through methods of teaching and motivational quotes during class. This study evaluates which teaching methods are appropriate, which factors affect students’ motivation, and the role of motivation in teaching and understanding Arabic. Additionally, this study answered three questions:
a. What is the role of motivation on students’ part during the teaching of Arabic as a second language?
b. What roles do teachers play in the motivation of students to learn Arabic as L2?
c. What is the impact of various teaching methods on students’ motivation while teaching the Arabic language as a second language?
This research involves 20 students of Arabic language learners and has lived in the United Arab Emirates for their lifetime. Also, they have studied Arabic as a second language in Dubai private schools.The findings urge teachers and stakeholders to motivate students through motivational remarks and hope, support personal learning, employ collaborative activities, make activities time-bound, give prizes and good feedback, provide direction, do not press hard, use interactive technologies to make learning pleasant, and encourage personalized learning.

Page(s): 151-157                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 June 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8506

 Mohamed Moghazy
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA

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Mohamed Moghazy “The Role of Students Motivation in Teaching Arabic as a Second Language in Dubai” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 4, pp.151-157 May 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8506

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The Impact of Management Information Systems on Educational Organisation Performance: Case Study at Namibian College of Open Learning
Rakkel Kanandjembo and Asokan Vasudevan (PhD) – May 2021 – Page No.: 158-162

The purpose of this study is to help NAMCOL identify the impact of Management Information Systems (MIS) on organisation performance. In the competitive environment where organisations operate in, organisations need to evaluate the implementation of management information systems to quantify their impacts on the organisational performance. The study consisted of 33 employees from the supervisory and management cadre of Namibian College of Open Learning through a mixed method approach for data collection and analysis. The study found that there is a significant relationship between the three independent variables which are technology, organisation management and organisation structure with the dependent variable which is organisational performance. The ANOVA results for all three hypothesis tests show a significance level of 0.000 which means that the results for the organisation, technology, management and organisational performance have a positive significant relationship.

Page(s): 158-162                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 June 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8507

 Rakkel Kanandjembo Department of Open University Malaysia

  Asokan Vasudevan (PhD)
INTI International University and Colleges

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Rakkel Kanandjembo and Asokan Vasudevan (PhD) “The Impact of Management Information Systems on Educational Organisation Performance: Case Study at Namibian College of Open Learning ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.158-162 May 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8507

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Income and Education on Teenage Pregnancy in Isheri Olofin Community Ogun State, Nigeria
Akhamiokhor, V. K., Oyerinde, O & Chigbu, L. C. – May 2021 – Page No.: 163-169

Female teenagers over the years engage in acts of sexual intercourse with members of the opposite sex. However, this act of sexual intercourse poses a great challenge to health services, since sex at this tender age exposes them to a lot of risks, such as teenage pregnancy. This study therefore identified the socio-economic determinants of teenage pregnancy in Isheri Olofin community, Ogun State, Nigeria. Cross-sectional research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study is 2,409 comprising of female teenagers in Isheri Olofin community, Ogun State, Nigeria. Taro Yamane formula was used to derive the sample size of 377. A structured questionnaire was administered resulting in a response rate of 100.0%. The data gathered was analyzed with the aid of statistical product and service solutions (SPSS) version 21.0 software involving frequency distributions and correlation. Findings revealed that income has a significant effect on teenage pregnancy (R = 0.516, R2=0.266, p = 0.000 < 0.05); and education has significant effect on teenage pregnancy (R = 0.578, R2=0.334, p = 0.000 < 0.05). From the study, it is evident that income and education has a significant effect on teenage pregnancy individually in Isheri Olofin community, Ogun State, Nigeria. Based on the findings, the study recommends that to reduce the rapid growth of teenage pregnancy in Isheri Olofin community, Ogun State, Nigeria, awareness programs and education should become a priority in the community by the government. These programs should be focused on educating teenagers on sexual intercourse and its implications for young ones.

Page(s): 163-169                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2021

 Akhamiokhor, V. K. 1Department of Department of Public and Applied Health, Babcock University, Nigeria

  Oyerinde, O
Department of Public and Applied Health, Babcock University, Nigeria

 Chigbu, L. C.
Department of Public and Applied Health, Babcock University, Nigeria

[1] Adebayo O. (2014). Factors associated with teenage pregnancy and fertility in Nigeria. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development. 5(2), 62-70.
[2] Agbemenu, K. (2011). An integrated review of comprehensive sex education for adolescent girls in Kenya. Journal of nursing scholarship, 43(1), 54-63.
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[8] Ayuba, I., & Gani, O. (2012).Outcome of teenage pregnancy in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Ethiop J Health Sci, 22, 45-50.
[9] Bandura, A. (2016). Social foundations of thought and action. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
[10] Bearinger, L.H., Sieving, R. E, Ferguson, J, Sharma, V. (2017). Global perspectives on the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents: patterns, prevention and potential. The lancet 369, 1220-31.
[11] Kinby, D. (2011). No Easy Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teenage Pregnancy, http://www.plannedparenthood.org/library/TEEN-PREGNANCY
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[14] Nwosu, C. (2015). Socio-demographic determinants of adolescent fertility in Zambia. (Masters of Arts), University of the Witwatersrand.
[15] Okafor, F.E. (2017). Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy in rural Nigeria. J Youth Adolescence, 24, 419-38.
[16] World Health Organization (2017). Adolescent health– Inter country Consultation on the promotion of health of adolescent girls through maternal and child health programmes. Nicosia, Cyprus: World Health Organisation.

Akhamiokhor, V. K., Oyerinde, O & Chigbu, L. C. “Income and Education on Teenage Pregnancy in Isheri Olofin Community Ogun State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 4, pp.163-169 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/163-169.pdf

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Advanced Programming: The Future Implication on Cryptocurrency-Digital Money Mining and Energy Consumption
Orlunwo Placida Orochi, Ojekudo Nathaniel – May 2021 – Page No.: 170-175

Advanced blockchain programming is extremely complex while the basic idea is simply to decentralize data storage so as not to own, control or manipulate such information by a central actor. This article focuses on the emerging phenomenon of energy sustainability mining cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies are digital financial assets for which a cryptographic decentralized technology guarantees ownership and transfers of property. The increase in market value and the increasing global popularity of cryptocurrencies are giving rise to a number of energy consumption concerns. This introductory article discusses the main energy consumption trends in the academic study related to cryptocurrencies and underlines the contributions of the works selected in literature, using both descriptive and qualitative approaches. The information used is secondary, obtained from journals, conference papers examined, work paper and reports by consultants dealing with cryptocurrency mining’s energy consumption. We argue that cryptocurrencies may perform useful functions and add value for money, but there are reasons for favoring market regulation. Although this goes against the original libertarian reasoning behind cryptocurrencies, it seems a step forward in improving the welfare of energy consumption.

Page(s): 170-175                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 June 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8508

 Orlunwo Placida Orochi Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Computer Science Department, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

  Ojekudo Nathaniel
Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Computer Science Department, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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Orlunwo Placida Orochi, Ojekudo Nathaniel “Advanced Programming: The Future Implication on Cryptocurrency-Digital Money Mining and Energy Consumption” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 4, pp.170-175 May 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8508

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Impact of Covid-19 on Labor Markets in Nzoia River Basin, Kenya
Ernest Othieno Odwori- May 2021 – Page No.: 176-190

Nzoia River Basin lies entirely within Kenya along the border with Uganda in the Lake Victoria Basin, and has a population of about 3.7 million people that is rapidily growing and require jobs to earn a livelihood. The urgent measures taken by Governments around the world to curb the rapid spread of COVID-19 has resulted into shortened working hours, furloughs, and work-from-home plans, all of which have had a direct effect on labor markets. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on labor markets in Nzoia River Basin, Kenya. A cross-sectional research design was used. Three counties were randomly selected from the basin for study with Busia representing the lower catchment, Kakamega middle catchment and Trans Nzoia upper catchment. This study used in-depth expert interviews coupled with brainstorming sessions with selected stakeholders from national and county governments, private sector, academia and scientists, field observations, recently published literature and industry experiences to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on labor markets in Nzoia River Basin. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of this study reveal that COVID-19 has had a major impact on labor markets within Nzoia River Basin and the impact on Kenya’s economy since the first case was reported on 13 March 2020 has been severe on all sectors. Different types of workers have been differentially impacted by the pandemic. There is need to develop new skills for workers in a number of sectors in the areas of emotional intelligence, virtual skills, teamwork, autonomous working, thinking skills, technical skills, creativity and effective communication. The very highly preferred mode of delivering services by organizations in the basin is normal program, followed by flexible schedules as highly preferred, mixed (working from home/telecommuting/teleworking/remote work and flexible schedules) was of medium preference and working from home/telecommuting/teleworking/remote work showed low preference. Despite a number of organizations wanting to adopt working from home/telecommuting/teleworking/remote work as the mode of delivering services, they were faced with a lot of difficulties that prevented them from taking off. Ability to digital technologies and computers, adaptation to emerging modes of communication and communication tools, operating in the same room as other family members, and the length of work schedule are among the crucial challenges faced. This study contributes to the rapidly growing body of knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects on labor markets, paving the way for further future studies. The results of this study are crucial for national and county governments, the private sector, and higher education institutions, as they can be used to establish training plans for the evolving labor markets that will arise during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Such training programs would aid in maintaining our labor force and, as a result, reducing the pandemic’s negative effects.

Page(s): 176-190                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2021

 Ernest Othieno Odwori
Department of Water, Environment and Natural Resources, Kakamega County, P.O. Box 36-50100, Kakamega, Kenya

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Ernest Othieno Odwori “Impact of Covid-19 on Labor Markets in Nzoia River Basin, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) volume-8-issue-5, pp.176-190 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/176-190.pdf

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Impact of Financial Intermediation on the Growth of Small Scale Businesses in Nigeria
Alhassan Odiniya Innocent, Adjekughele Eyere Harriet, Nwogbo Chimezie Rose, Williams Blessing Nkemakonam, Ifidi Bodisere Judith Dienein- May 2021 – Page No.: 191-200

This study examined the impact of financial intermediation on the growth of small scale businesses in Nigeria. Secondary data was collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The specific objectives of the study were to; ascertain the impact of deposit money banks credit on small scale businesses in Nigeria, to determine the impact of savings on small scale businesses in Nigeria, to ascertain the impact of banks total asset on small scale businesses in Nigeria. The research design was ex-post facto research design, and the study used multiple regression analysis statistical technique. The results revealed that deposit money banks credit to small scale enterprise do not have significant impact on small scale businesses in Nigeria, savings does not have significant impact on small scale businesses in Nigeria, bank total asset have significant impact on small scale businesses in Nigeria. Thus, we conclude that financial intermediation influenced small scale businesses positively and significantly in Nigeria. Recommendations were that banks should be more efficient in mobilizing and allocating funds to entrepreneurs in the real sector. The regulatory authorities should continuously take measures to liberalize the financial system to avoid any form of shock on the system.

Page(s): 191-200                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2021

 Alhassan Odiniya Innocent
Department of Accounting, Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

 Adjekughele Eyere Harriet
Department of Accounting, Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

 Nwogbo Chimezie Rose
Department of Accounting, Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

  Williams Blessing Nkemakonam
Department of Accounting, Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

 Ifidi Bodisere Judith Dienein
Department of Accounting, Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

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Alhassan Odiniya Innocent, Adjekughele Eyere Harriet, Nwogbo Chimezie Rose, Williams Blessing Nkemakonam, Ifidi Bodisere Judith Dienein “Impact of Financial Intermediation on the Growth of Small Scale Businesses in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) volume-8-issue-5, pp.191-200 May 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/191-200.pdf

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The significance of resorcinol/resorcylate in the structure of anti-cancer therapeutics targeting Hsp90: Synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies.

Garba Suleiman, Muktari Isa Shago, Abba Mohammed, Mohammed Nuhu Alamai- May 2021 Page No.: 201-207

The number of people suffering from cancer has been increasing rapidly over the years, placing a huge burden on our societies. The development of heat shock protein (hsp) inhibitors, especially Hsp90 signifies an alternative method for cancer therapy. Thanks to the plenty of similar overlapping regions that exist between cancer and Hsp90, proteins associated with cancer have been able to regulate the expression of Hsp90 via heat shock fator-1 (HSF-1). Because of the relationship between Hsp90 with Cancer, Alzheimer and Parkinson’s diseases we will put more emphasis on synthetic methodologies, structure–activity relationships and the significance of structures containing resorcinol moiety targeting those disorders

Page(s): 201-207                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8509

 Garba Suleiman
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria

  Muktari Isa Shago
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria

  Abba Mohammed
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria

  Mohammed Nuhu Alamai
College of Health Science & Technology, Nguru, Yobe State, Nigeria

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Garba Suleiman, Muktari Isa Shago, Abba Mohammed, Mohammed Nuhu Alamai, “The significance of resorcinol/resorcylate in the structure of anti-cancer therapeutics targeting Hsp90: Synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies.” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) volume-8-issue-5, pp.201-207 May 2021 
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8509

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Local Government Autonomy and Development of Local Areas

Ketebu-Orubebe, Theodora E., Dr. Anthony Egobueze, Dr. Osai, O. Jason – May 2021 Page No.: 208-216

The areas in question in this discussion are those of each LG which are therefore to be found in both the urban and rural sectors, but predominantly in the latter. The issue of interest to this review here is an overview of how LG autonomy has impacted on the development of the locality, in particular the rural localities. Quite some work has been done on the development of the rural areas by the Nigerian LGs. The critical aspects in the local or rural development issue include availability of network of earth or tarred roads, electricity supply, pipe borne water, schools, health centres or cottage hospitals, mass transit system, telecommunication, political development, etc. The literature on LGs’ efforts to develop the local areas in Nigeria shows that the respective LGs have been showing varying concerns of development efforts to make positive impact on the lives of the local people. The efforts may have been rather low, but all over the country, LGs have tried in varying degrees to meet the needs and aspirations of their localities in three main approaches. First, some LGs have established Development Area Councils or Committees, so as to take governance closer to the people. Such LGs include Lagos, Yobe, Bauchi (Yobe State, 2003, Bauchi State, 2004). The second approach adopted by some LGs is the appointment of Ward Committees to handle or supervise some development projects which are being executed directly by the LGs or executed by them on behalf of the Federal or State governments. The third approach is the use of community development associations (CDAs) (Akoptor, 1995) or Town Improvement Unions as critical agents in community development even though they have been less utilized (Ikelegbe, 2005). There are also extension workers who are located in the third category. They are used by LGs especially for agricultural purposes. They move within and between ward or village areas educating farmers, advising and assisting them on the application of newly introduced seedlings, the use of insecticides and irrigation farming. Irrigation farming is predominant in many LGs in the Northern States of Nigeria where Fadama farming has been largely successful. That is, taking farming to the local farmers through biotechnology of improved seedlings, insecticides, extension services, irrigation and micro credit schemes. And the LGs have been uncompromising in asking for democratically elected LGs as part of their holistic development efforts. Using any of the approaches, the LGs, subject to the financial, personnel and other resource autonomy granted to them, have been rehabilitating earth roads, culverts, local or community markets, renovating some school buildings and erecting some new ones. They have been establishing some cottage hospitals or health centres, refurbishing pipe borne water structures, sinking or refurbishing bore holes, executing rural electrification projects, providing improved seedlings with respect to yams, cassava in particular, maize, oranges, coconut, tomatoes, rice, millet, etc. They have also been promoting political participation and governance. As already stated, these projects are executed in different localities having regard to the priorities of the people. The number of projects executed varies from one LG to another. But the literature, some interviews conducted by these writers show that the impact of LGs on the localities is rather sparse or lean and the people of each locality cannot but be full of complaints of inadequacies and dissatisfaction in the development strides of the LGs (Aghayere, 2008; Omoruyi, 1995; Mukoro, 2001; Ikelegbe, 2005).

Page(s): 208-216                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 July 2021

Rivers State University, Nigeria

  Theodora E.
Rivers State University, Nigeria

  Dr. Anthony Egobueze
Rivers State University, Nigeria

  Dr. Osai, O. Jason
Rivers State University, Nigeria

No References

Ketebu-Orubebe, Theodora E., Dr. Anthony Egobueze, Dr. Osai, O. Jason “Local Government Autonomy and Development of Local Areas” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) volume-8-issue-5, pp.208-216 May 2021  DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2021.5206

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An Interpretation and Implementation of Chatbot Using Dialog Flow for an Education Domain
Kiran Kumar T.M, Sangeetha M R – May 2021 – Page No.: 217-220

A chatbot is a computer programme that interacts with users using natural language or text, giving the impression that the user is conversing with an assistant. In order to produce the necessary response, most chatbots use Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. Previously, chatbots merely gave the impression of intelligence by using far simpler pattern matching. however, in this paper the authors had been made an attempt to implement a chatbot using Dialogflow technology which will be helpful for implementing bot for an education domain specifically for the MCA Department. This bot will be useful for the students who willing to know the information about the MCA department.

Page(s): 217-220                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 July 2021

 Kiran Kumar T.M
Assistant Professor, Dept of MCA, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur

 Sangeetha M R
Project Student, Dept of MCA, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur

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Kiran Kumar T.M, Sangeetha M R “An Interpretation and Implementation of Chatbot Using Dialog Flow for an Education Domain” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 5, pp.217-220 May 2021 URL : https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-5/217-220.pdf

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