Volume VIII Issue VII

Literature Review: Effect of Cooperative Learning on Intrinsic Motivation
Christopher Lynn Brown – July 2021 – Page No.: 01-07

The purpose of this literature review is to understand what cooperative learning is, how it affects student intrinsic motivation, identifying some barriers to implementing it, and examine reasons for its failure in some classrooms. This literature review analyzed and critiqued nine empirical studies from around the world and discussed one foundational study, which were all located using Eastern New Mexico University’s Golden Library and professor suggestion. The findings of this literature review show that cooperative learning has a positive impact on student intrinsic motivation, but has problems being appropriately implemented and fails in certain situations. The implications that can be drawn from this author’s research are that cooperative learning is not merely group work, that cooperative learning has a positive impact on student intrinsic motivation, that student age may affect the ability to utilize cooperative learning, that teacher training is desirable in implementing cooperative learning, and that student preparation all have a direct influence on the success or failure of cooperative learning in the classroom.

Page(s): 01-07                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 05 August 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8701

 Christopher Lynn Brown
Department of Education, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, NM, USA

[1] Baumgardner, C. (2015). Cooperative Learning as a Supplement to the Economics Lecture. International Advances in Economic Research, 21(4), 391–398. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11294-015-9545-9
[2] Crow, S. R. (2006). What Motivates a Lifelong Learner? School Libraries Worldwide, 12(1), 22–34.
[3] Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum.
[4] Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M (2009). Intrinsic motivation inventory. Retrieved from http://www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT/ measures/IMI scales.php
[5] Deutsch, M. (1949). A Theory of Co-operation and Competition. Human Relations, 2(2), 129–152. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872674900200204
[6] Estrada, J. A. C., González-Mesa, C. G., Llamedo, R., Martínez, B. S., & Pérez, C. R. (2019). The impact of cooperative learning on peer relationships, intrinsic motivation and future intentions to do sport. Psicothema, 31(2), 163–169. http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2018.305
[7] Eymur, G., & Geban, Ö. (2017). The Collaboration of Cooperative Learning and Conceptual Change: Enhancing the Students’ Understanding of Chemical Bonding Concepts. International Journal of Science & Mathematics Education, 15(5), 853–871. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-016-9716-z
[8] Ferrer-Caja, E., & Weiss, M. R. (2002). Cross-Validation of a Model of Intrinsic Motivation with Students Enrolled in High School Elective Courses. The Journal of Experimental Education, 71(1), 41–65. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220970209602056
[9] Fernández-Espínola, C., Robles, M. T. A., Collado-Mateo, D., Almagro, B. J., Viera, E. C. & Fuentes-Guerra, F. J. G. (2020). Effects of Cooperative-Learning Interventions on Physical Education Students’ Intrinsic Motivation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(4451), 4451. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124451
[10] Frey, B. (2018). The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (Vols. 1-4). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781506326139
[11] Froiland, J. M., & Worrell, F. C. (2016). Intrinsic Motivation, Learning Goals, Engagement, and Achievement in a Diverse High School. Psychology in the Schools, 53(3), 321–336. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21901
[12] Ghodbane, T., & El Achachi, H. H. (2019). Narrowing the Achievement Gap between EFL Students in Oral Expression through Cooperative Learning. Arab World English Journal, 10(2), 365–378.
[13] Ghufron, M. A., & Ermawati, S. (2018). The Strengths and Weaknesses of Cooperative Learning and Problembased Learning in EFL Writing Class: Teachers and Students’ Perspectives. International Journal of Instruction, 11(4), 657–672. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2018.11441a
[14] Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1984). Structuring Groups for Cooperative Learning. Organizational Behavior Teaching Review, 9(4), 8–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/105256298400900404
[15] Johnson, D.W., & Johnson, R.T.,(2007). The Cooperative Learning Center at the University of Minnesota. http://www.co-operation.org.
[16] Ning, H., & Hornby, G. (2014). The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Tertiary EFL Learners’ Motivation. Educational Review, 66(1), 108–124. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2013.853169
[17] O’Hara, D. (2017, December 18). The intrinsic motivation of Richard Ryan and Edward Deci. American Psychology Association. https://www.apa.org/members/content/intrinsic-motivation
[18] Panitz, T. (1999). The Motivational Benefits of Cooperative Learning. New Directions for Teaching & Learning, 1999(78), 59. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.7806
[19] Sears, D. A., & Pai, H.-H. (2012). Effects of Cooperative Versus Individual Study on Learning and Motivation After Reward-Removal. Journal of Experimental Education, 80(3), 246–262. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312018003273
[20] Shi, W., & Han, L. (2019). Promoting Learner Autonomy through Cooperative Learning. English Language Teaching, 12(8), 30–36. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v12n8p30
[21] Skinner, E., Furrer, C., Marchand, G., & Kindermann, T. (2008). Engagement and disaffection in the classroom: Part of a larger motivational dynamic? Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 765–781.
[22] Slavin, R. E. (1980). Cooperative Learning. Review of Educational Research, 50(2), 315–342. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543050002315
[23] Slavin, R. E. (2014). Making Cooperative Learning Powerful. Educational Leadership, 72(2), 22–26. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181336
[24] Tran, V. D. (2019). Does Cooperative Learning Increase Students’ Motivation in Learning? International Journal of Higher Education, 8(5), 12–20. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v8n5p12

Christopher Lynn Brown “Literature Review: Effect of Cooperative Learning on Intrinsic Motivation” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.01-07 July 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8701

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Impact of Environmental Issues in Construction Sector: Bangladesh Perspective
Salman Rahman Rasel, PhD, Dr. Md. Sadrul Amin – July 2021 – Page No.: 08-12

The common features of most of the Asian cities are high density of population, scarcity of land, unplanned growth and expansion of cities and overall environmental and ecological degradation. Some of the developing countries of Asian have already been alarmed by the present situation and to avoid the future disaster the impact of environmental issues needed to be prioritized. Bangladesh faces the constant challenges of rampant poverty, high population density, and increasing population rate. Poor people are arsenic contaminated and urban people are mostly exposed to the polluted air, recurring natural disasters and a dwindling natural resource base. It is one of the poorest countries of the developing world, with a low resource base, a very low land-man ratio, and is threatened by both natural hazards and overexploitation. However this resource base is under see threat and environmental planning is necessary to signal any hope for survival with dignity and sustainability. Therefore, Bangladeshi peoples need awareness, protection and national environmental policy. With this objective, the Government of Bangladesh had established several Commissions and Committees since the independence of the country. So it is necessary to consider that a well-arranged framework for a global analysis is important in respect of environmental impact in construction sector to current situation. Environmental impact and construction engineering is the most discussed subject in the present time. It becomes the central issue not only for Bangladesh context as well as in the international debate in the early part of twenty first century. The land, water, air, sea, ocean, hill, mountain, roads, transport, industry and its sound, human, animals, insects, trees etc. consisting of whole environment. The development & survival of human fully depend on the peaceful and balanced coexistence of the environment. But most regretfully, the human society is destroying the equilibrium of nature by changing and mishandling the mineral resources. As a result the human society is facing the natural disasters with certain intervals. Therefore it is essential to rethinking that a good-arranged structure for a historical study is significant in respect of environmental impact in construction.

Page(s): 08-12                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 August 2021

 Salman Rahman Rasel, PhD
Local Government Engineering Department (LGED), Sherpur Sadar, Sherpur, Bangladesh

 Dr. Md. Sadrul Amin
Department of Environmental Science, American Independent University, California, USA & Ex-Dean, Faculty of Post Graduate Studies, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science & Technology University, Bangladesh

[1] Alam, M. J. B., 1996, Risk Assessment and Management of Selected Pesticides Generally Used in Bangladesh, M. Sc. Eng. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, BUET, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
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[4] Baurne, G., 1999, Bangladesh – land of rivers, a mission report in water resources in Bangladesh, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.

[5] Danida Ministry of Foreign Affair (DMFA), 1997, Environmental Profile: Bangladesh, Country Strategy for Strengthening Environmental Considerations in Danish Development Assistance to Bangladesh, DMFA.
[6] ESCAP, 1987, Coastal Environmental Management Plans for Bangladesh, ESCAP publication.
[7] Rahman, M. H., 1997, ‘Protection of Water Resources in Bangladesh’, Proc. of the IX World Water Congress, Montreal, Canada.
[8] SEIK, F. T., 1998, ‘Managing Transport Demand in Asian Cities’ in report of the regional conference on Promoting Sustainable Consumption in Asian Cities, United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), Fukuoka Office, Japan.
[9] The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 1971, Man’s Impact on Environment – an assessment and recommendation for action, The MIT press, Cambridge, USA.

Salman Rahman Rasel, PhD, Dr. Md. Sadrul Amin “Impact of Environmental Issues in Construction Sector: Bangladesh Perspective” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.08-12 July 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-7/08-12.pdf

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Strategies for Effective Use of TVET Advocacy in Promoting Gender Equity of Students in TVET Institutions in Uganda: Multiple Informants Perceptions
Aidah T. Nganda, Dr. Salome Nyambura, Dr. Francis Kirimi – July 2021 – Page No.: 13-21

This study explored strategies for effective use of TVET advocacy in the promotion of gender equity of TVET students in the Central Region, Uganda. Thus, a convergent-parallel mixed methods research design, with a survey strategy was adopted, to achieve the objectives. Two theories including the feminist socialization theory and subject-task value theories guided the conceptualization of this study. The study targeted 5,791 students, 240 instructors, 60 institutional leaders, 42 district leaders, 4 Ministry of Education and Ministry of Gender Labour and Social Development officials, and 21 civil society organisation gender advocates. Purposive sampling was used to select 9 institutional leaders, 3 district leaders, and 2 ministry officials while convenience sampling was used to select 5 gender advocates. Likewise, stratified random sampling was used to select 185 students and 56 instructors. Therefore, a sample size of 260 informants was used. Questionnaires, interview guides, and observation checklists were used to collect the desired data. The quantitative data was cleaned, coded, and entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 21 for analysis. Frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations, and bar graphs were used to present the analysed data. Qualitative data was analysed using the thematic method and presented using verbatim and indirect reporting. The findings revealed a low-status quo for TVET, moderate use of different TVET advocacy strategies, and affirmed that effective use of TVET advocacy enhanced gender equity of students in Uganda. The study recommended that TVET institutions effectively implement different advocacy strategies, the Uganda government to employ experts for TVET advocacy and increase the budget for supporting the implementation of different advocacy strategies.

Page(s): 13-21                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 06 August 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8702

 Aidah T. Nganda
Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

 Odaumiebi Ouserigha
Doctoral student, Department of Educational Foundations, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

 Dr. Salome Nyambura
Lecturers, Department of Educational Foundations, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

 Nwogbo Chimezie Rose
Lecturers, Department of Educational Foundations, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

[1] Adelakun, O. A., Oviawe, J. I., & Barfa, G. I. (2015). Strategies for Enhancing Females’ Participation in Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Nigeria. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 2(4), 110-120.
[2] Atari, O. D., & Mckague, K. (2015). South Sudan: Stakeholder’s views of Technical and Vocational Education and Training and a framework for action. Journal of Vocational education and training, 169-186.
[3] Atkins, L., & Flint, K. J. (2015). Nothing changes: Perceptions of vocational education in England. International Journal of Training Research, 13(1), 35-48.
[4] Ayonmike, C. S., Okwelle, P. C., & Okeke, B. C. (2015). Towards Quality Technical Vocational Education and Training (Tvet) Programmes in Nigeria. Journal of Education and Learning, 25-34.
[5] Cheruiyot, S. K., & Wanyaga, F. M. (2019). Gender Inclusion in TVET: An Examination of Sustainable Interventions in Selected TVET Institutions in Kenya’s Sustainable Development in Education. International Journal of Science, Technology, Education and Management Research, 4(3), 39-55.
[6] Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011). Research Methods in Education (7th Edition). New York: Routledge.
[7] Creswell, W. J. (2014). Research Design; Qualitative, Quantitative & Mixed Approaches (4th Edition). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
[8] Eccles, J. (2005). Gender Achievements and Motivation. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expectancy-value_theory#Subjective_task_values.
[9] Gore, J., Ellis, H., Fray, L., Smith, M., Lloyd, A., Berrigan, C., . . . Holmes, K. (2017). Choosing VET: Investigating the VET Aspirations of School Students. Adelaide, Australia: National Centre for Vocational Education Research.
[10] ILO. (2016). Compilation of Assessment Studies on Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET): Lao People’s Republic, Mongolia, The Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. Bangkok: International Labour Organisation.
[11] Jones, S. K. (2011). Girls Secondary Education in Uganda: Assessing Policy within the Women’s Empowerment Framework. Gender and Education, 23(4), 285-413.
[12] Kell, P. (2010). VET Shifting Responses to Inequality, Disadvantage, and Equity. International Journal of Training Research, 2(8), 98-102.
[13] Kushmakar, B. (2016, July). Gender Equality and Social Inclusion in Vocational Education and Training. Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 3(11), 29-39.
[14] Mbirianjau, W. L. (2009). Access to and Participation of Women in Science-oriented Vocation Education and Training. Nairobi: Kenyatta University Unpublished Masters’ Thesis.
[15] Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES). (2013). National Strategy for Girls’ Education in Uganda (2015-2019). Kampala, Uganda.
[16] Mjelde, L. (2007). The Magical Properties of Workshop Learning. Bern: Peter Lang.
[17] MoES. (2011). Skilling Uganda: BTVET Strategic Plan 2012/13-2021/2. Kampala, Uganda: Ministry of Education and Sports
[18] Mugenda, O., Kimani, E. N., Maina, L. W., & Wainaina, M. (2010). Female Representation at Various Levels of Education in Kenya: Identifying Opportunities for Policy, Actions, and Linkages. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers.
[19] Ngugi, M., & Muthima, P. (2017). Female Participation in Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Subsector; The Kenyan Experience. Public Policy and Administration Research, 7(4), 9-23.
[20] Okello, B. (2012). Factors Influencing the Attitude Towards Technical Vocational Education and Training in Uganda. Nairobi: Kenyatta University, Unpublished PhD Thesis.
[21] Olelewe, J. C., Orji, T. C., Onisen, E. C., & Ikemelu, R.-K. C. (2019). Constraints and Strategies for Effective Use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) for Collaborative Learning in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria: Perceptions of TVET Lecturers. Education and Information Technologies, 25, 239-258
[22] Pirzada, G. (2020, July 20). Effect of including global TVET worldview in TIMT (TVET Institute Management Training) on Vocational Institute Management in Pakistan.
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[31] Wheelahan, L., & Moddie, G. (2016, November). Global Trends in TVET: A Framework for Social Justice. Brussels, Belgium.
[32] World Economic Forum (WEF). (2019). Global Gender Gap Report 2020. Geneva: World Economic Forum

Aidah T. Nganda, Dr. Salome Nyambura, Dr. Francis Kirimi “Strategies for Effective Use of TVET Advocacy in Promoting Gender Equity of Students in TVET Institutions in Uganda: Multiple Informants Perceptions” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 6, pp.13-21 July 2021 URL: DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8702

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Cnidoscolus Aconitifolius – An Overview
Dias Dileep E, Sarathlal P S, Dr. Ajith Babu T K, Ayishath Shabna – July 2021 – Page No.: 22-24

Cnidoscolus aconitifoliusis commonly known as Chaya, tree spinach or spinach tree. It is large, fast growing and leafy perennial shrub. It has a succulent stem that exude a milky sap on creating a cut. The plant was traditionally used to treat various clinical conditions. The plant is believed to be originated in the Yutican peninsula of Mexico. It is a popular leafy vegetable in Mexico and Central America. Which is similar to spinach. The plant is rich in good source of protein, vitamins, calcium and iron and is also a powerful antioxidant. Traditionally the plant is used for the management of hypercholesteremia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, hyper lipidemic and kidney stones. The review was designed to highlight the pharmacological effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius plant.

Page(s): 22-24                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 August 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8703

 Dias Dileep E
Malik Deenar College of Pharmacy, Kerala, India

 Sarathlal P S
Malik Deenar College of Pharmacy, Kerala, India

 Dr. Ajith Babu T K
Malik Deenar College of Pharmacy, Kerala, India

 Ayishath Shabna
Malik Deenar College of Pharmacy, Kerala, India

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[4]. John OB, Opeyemi OA. Effect of processing methods on nutritional composition, phytochemicals, and anti-nutrient properties of chaya leaf (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius). African J Food Sci. 2015;9(12):560–5.
[5]. Communication S. Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivity of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Euphorbiaceae). J Med Plants Res. 2007;1(3):063–
[6]. Aye PA. Effect of processing on the nutritive characteristics, anti-nutritional factors and functional properties of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves (Iyana Ipaja). Am J Food Nutr [Internet]. 2012;2(4):89–95. Available from: http://www.scihub.org/AJFN
[7]. Achi NK, Ohaeri OC, Ijeh II, Eleazu C. Modulation of the lipid profile and insulin levels of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats by ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves and some fractions: Effect on the oral glucose tolerance of normoglycemic rats. Biomed Pharmacother [Internet]. 2017;86:562–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2016.11.133
[8]. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius-Invasive species compendium/CABI/cabi.org/isc/datasheet
[9]. Flora of Panama. Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, USA. 2019
[10]. Samuel A Onasanwo, Ademola A Oyagbemi and Adebowale B Saba. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the ethanolic extracts of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in rats and mice. J Basic Clin PhysiolPharmacol, 2011

Dias Dileep E, Sarathlal P S, Dr. Ajith Babu T K, Ayishath Shabna “Cnidoscolus Aconitifolius – An Overview” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 6, pp.22-24 July 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8703

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Lepidagathis Keralensis: An Overview
Poornima M, Alan Jacob, Dr. AjithBabu T K, Malavika T.M – July 2021 – Page No.: 25-27

Lepidagathiskeralensis family Acanthaceaeis a plant endemic to Kerala. The genus comprises about 110 species, mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical countries with 33 species in India. It is a hard prostrate shrub with woody root stalk. It is found in lateritic hills near sea coast mainly in exposed lateritic rocks. Commonly it is known as Paramullu. Previous studies showed that, plant is a rich source of many bioactive constituents and it possesses medicinal properties. Here the review designed to point out the pharmacological effect of Lepidagathiskeralensis.

Page(s): 25-27                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 09 August 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8704

 Poornima M
Malik Deenar College of Pharmacy, Kerala, India

 Alan Jacob
Malik Deenar College of Pharmacy, Kerala, India

 Dr. AjithBabu T K
Malik Deenar College of Pharmacy, Kerala, India

 Malavika T.M
Malik Deenar College of Pharmacy, Kerala, India

[1]. Ali Sobhanizadeh, HoshangYadegari, BahmanFazeli-nsaab, BarataliFakheri. Introduction on application of herbal medicine. The 1st annual Iranian agriculture research coference.2015 July; 1-11.
[2]. RefazAhmd Dar, MohmdShahnawaz, Parvaiz Hassan Qazi. General overview of medicinal plants. A review the journall of phytopharmacology.2017;6(6):349-351.
[3]. Sharmila. S, Nalli. R, Surumbayee. M, Ramya. EK. GC-MS Analysis of bio-active components in petroleum ether extract of Lepidagathisscariosa (Nees.)-Acanthaceae. IJPR.2019 Feb;54(1):56-63.
[4]. PalakkalLeena, N.H. ZeinulHukuman, A.R. Biju, MullapallyJisha. Studies on methanolic extract of Lepidagathiskeralensis as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1M HCl. Journal of electrochemical science and technology. 2019 Jan;10(2): 231-243.
[5]. P.V Madhusoodanan, N.P Singh. A new species of Lepidagathiskeralensis(Acanthaceae) from south India. New bulletin.1992;27(2):301-303.
[6]. Lepidagathiskeralensis. Kerala plants. in. 2018 Mar.
[7]. P.M. BeebiRazeena, M.Mini.Bioefficiency and phytochemical analysis of Lepidagathiskeralensis of Acanthaceae. World journal of pharmaceutical and sciences.2017Apri; 3(2):124-126.
[8]. Leena. P, ZeinulHukman N H, Jisha. M. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of crude extract of Lepidagathiskeralensis. IJRP. 2017;8(3):321-326
[9]. LeenaPalakkal, ZeinulHukuman. N.H, Jisha. M. Antioxidant activities and chemical composition of various extracts of Lepidagathiskeralensis. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical science. 2017 June;7(06): 182-189.

Poornima M, Alan Jacob, Dr. AjithBabu T K, Malavika T.M “Lepidagathis Keralensis: An Overview” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.25-27 July 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8704

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Effects of Yarn Specification and Yarn Count on the Weight and Drapability of “Akwete” an Ibo Traditional Fabric in Nigeria
Anucha Hope Ogechukwu, Yahaya Hadiza T, Shock Lucy P – July 2021 – Page No.: 28-34

Yarn specification and yarn count refers to the number of plies or threads count in both the warp and weft per one centimetre square (cm2) in a woven fabric. It determines the heaviness, lightness and the texture of a woven fabric which invariably affects the drapability of the fabric. The purpose of this study was to ascertain through laboratory tests, the adverse cause, acceptability and the low patronage to the use of the akwete fabrics in Nigeria; and the impact of yarn specification, count, fabric thickness as the properties of the fabric. The experiment was carryout using samples of 100% Nigerian cotton wax and an akwete woven fabrics, each placed as the control and experimental products respectively, with the aid of the following instruments and equipment: cusik drape tester, drape meter Essdiel thickness gauge, empty tin (improvised apparatus), standard counting glass, and a thermometer in a textile design laboratory at Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The findings of the study revealed that yarn count and fabric thickness had significant effect on the weight and drapability to the akwete woven fabric. In view of the findings, the study recommended that for the akwete woven fabric to be light in weight and comfortable to the wearer, the yarn count must be reduced to gain a less fabric thickness and rayon yarns should be used while weaving instead of cotton yarns to improve the texture and the appearance of the fabric.

Page(s): 28-34                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 August 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8705

 Anucha Hope Ogechukwu
Home Economics Department, Federal College of Education, Kano, Nigeria

 Yahaya Hadiza T
Home Economics Department, Federal College of Education, Kano, Nigeria

 Shock Lucy P
Home and Rural Economics Department, Plateau State College of Agriculture Garkawa Plateau State, Nigeria

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Anucha Hope Ogechukwu, Yahaya Hadiza T, Shock Lucy P “Effects of Yarn Specification and Yarn Count on the Weight and Drapability of “Akwete” an Ibo Traditional Fabric in Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.28-34 July 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8705

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Integration of Culture into Teaching of English: A Case of Ole Kulet’s Blossoms of the Savannah
Solomon Simwa – July 2021 – Page No.: 35-37

Globally, no single culture is perfect or self-sufficient. Cultural development involves building on the positive cultural aspects and discarding the negative ones, mostly through inter-cultural contacts. Kenya being a multicultural country has learners from diverse cultural backgrounds, something that needs to be taken care of by teachers. However, there is little research in this critical area. The purpose of this paper was to find out the cultural norms, values and practices inherent in modern Maasai culture that impede girl-child education as seen in the set book Blossoms of the Savannah. The paper adopted a qualitative design and case study research methodology while utilizing radical feminism as the main theoretical framework. The raw data was collected using content analysis of the novel due to the fact that it is a set book in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examination (K.C.S.E) English course. The findings include unemployment in families, materialistic nature of modern society, school drop-outs due to early marriages, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), domestic violence against women among others. The findings are useful to curriculum developers, parents, teachers of English language, and students. The study recommends that the curriculum should incorporate even more culture-related novels to provide a wider forum for discussion of such issues in education as well as cater for learners from diverse cultural backgrounds.

Page(s): 35-37                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 August 2021

 Solomon Simwa
Adjunct Lecturer, Department of Educational Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya

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Solomon Simwa “Integration of Culture into Teaching of English: A Case of Ole Kulet’s Blossoms of the Savannah ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.35-37 July 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-7/35-37.pdf

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Ethnographic and Costume Regalia of Paari-gbiele Festival in Northern Ghana
Nyamawero Navei – July 2021 – Page No.: 38-47

Paari-gbiele is an annual post-harvest festival celebrated by the Sisaala indigenes of Tumu Traditional Area in the Sissala East Municipality of the Upper West Region of northern Ghana. It is celebrated annually to mark the end of successful farming season. It also serves as a momentous occasion for the glorification of the almighty God and the revered agriculturally related deities of the indigenes of Tumu Traditional Area for their protection and blessings of seasonal bumper harvests to the farmers. Paari-gbiele equally provides suitable platform for indigenous education, communal interaction and cohesion which significantly contributes to the revitalisation and promotion of the rich cultural ideals of the Sissala people of Tumu Traditional Area. In spite of the aforementioned sociocultural relevance of Paari-gbiele for which reason it is celebrated annually, there exists scanty or no documentary account on the ethnographic and costume regalia of the festival. The study therefore examined Paari-gbiele festival to establish its ethnographic foundation and the costume regalia utilised during its celebration. Guided by qualitative ethnographic design, the study collected data from thirteen (13) purposively sampled respondents (Chiefs and elders) in Tumu Traditional Area through the use of focus group discussion, unstructured observation and photography. The findings of the study were discussed using visual, descriptive and thematic analytical tools. The study concludes that the celebration of Paari-gbiele festival has a long-standing ethnographic background whereby its annual celebration is characterised by the adornment of glamorous traditional costume regalia with codified cultural connotations and relevance to the people of the Tumu Traditional Area. It is therefore recommended that the chiefs and elders of Tumu Traditional Area should endeavour to continuously deploy such unique traditional costume regalia during the annual celebration of Paari-gbiele to preserve their culture and harness the associated tourism and educational values of the festival.

Page(s): 38-47                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 August 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8706

 Nyamawero Navei
Tumu Senior High Technical School,Tumu, Upper West Region, Ghana

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Nyamawero Navei “Ethnographic and Costume Regalia of Paari-gbiele Festival in Northern Ghana” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.38-47 July 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8706

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Investigating the Factors Affecting the Use of the E-Delivery Services
Yasir Abdullah ALzaydi, Mohammad Alzubi, Abdoulrahman Jounaidi, Zakarya Mohsen Muthanna Mohammed – July 2021 – Page No.: 48-53

Recent expansion in IT has paved the way for an electronic revolution that has led to the development of electronic services. Consumer e-services companies help to save expenses, speed up delivery and serve additional customers. Consequently, many companies have already shifted to the electronic environment or plan to shift their services and commodities. The qualities of each sort of product and service are important to recognize in this context. The purpose of this research is to determine the factors that impact the use of e-services.

Page(s): 48-53                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 August 2021

 Yasir Abdullah ALzaydi
Al- Madinah International University, Malaysia

 Mohammad Alzubi
Al- Madinah International University, Malaysia

 Abdoulrahman Jounaidi
Al- Madinah International University, Malaysia

 Zakarya Mohsen Muthanna Mohammed
Al- Madinah International University, Malaysia

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Yasir Abdullah ALzaydi, Mohammad Alzubi, Abdoulrahman Jounaidi, Zakarya Mohsen Muthanna Mohammed “Investigating the Factors Affecting the Use of the E-Delivery Services” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.48-53 July 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-7/48-53.pdf

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Strobilanthes Kunthianus: An Overview
Ayishath Shabna, Syed Asadulla, Dr. Ajith Babu T K, and Dias Dileep E – July 2021 – Page No.: 54-55

The use of herbal drugs in developing newer drug technology has increased to a greater extent. Strobilanthes species are widely spread in Asia and are endemic to Western Ghats India. They are known to have many traditional uses such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-osteoarthritics etc. Strobilanthes kunthianus is widely distributed in the grassland of Nilgiri hills and blooms once in 14 years and they are also known to have many traditional uses. This review focuses on basic studies such as phytochemical screening and pharmacological effect of plant.

Page(s): 54-55                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 14 August 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8707

 Ayishath Shabna
Malik Deenar College of Pharmacy , Kerala, India

 Syed Asadulla
Malik Deenar College of Pharmacy , Kerala, India

 Dr. Ajith Babu T K
Malik Deenar College of Pharmacy , Kerala, India

 Dias Dileep E
Malik Deenar College of Pharmacy , Kerala, India

[1] Balasubramaniam G, Sekar M, Ravi S, Badami S. Isolation and structural characterisation of Phytoconstituents from Strobilanthes kunthianus.Pharmacogn J.2020;12(6)suppl:1605-11
[2] Balasubramaniam G, Sekar M, Varadarajan M, Badami S. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Strobilanthes kunthianus in Experimental Animal Models.Research J. pharm. and tech.2020; 13(12):5844-5850
[3] Balasubramaniam G, Sekar M, Ravi S, Badami S. Pharmacognostical, Physicochemical and Phytochemical Evaluation of Strobilanthes kunthianus (Acanthaceae). Pharmacogn J.2020;12(4):731-41
[4] Bera S, Das S, Kalindi D. Botany, pharmacology and conservation status of wonder flower: Neelakurinji (Strobilanthes kunthianus(Nees)T. Anderson ex Benth).2020

Ayishath Shabna, Syed Asadulla, Dr. Ajith Babu T K, and Dias Dileep E “Strobilanthes Kunthianus: An Overview” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.54-55 July 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8707

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ACE2: A Double-Edged Sword Against SARS CoV-2 Associated Cardiovascular Complications and Endothelial Dysfunction
Pratima Kumari, Shaligram Sharma – July 2021 – Page No.: 56-61

The outbreak of novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) during late December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, has become a pandemic of global concern in a very short time, impacting human life and economic slowdown. The severity of SARS-CoV2 infection can be ascertained by an increased number of human deaths, specifically in older populations and patients with predisposed cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications. SARS CoV-2 binds to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptors on host cells, followed by its internalization, rapid multiplication, and instigate cytokine storm. This review aims to decipher the role of ACE2 in SARS-CoV2 infected patients with pre-existing CVD conditions. While in CVD patients, stimulation of ACE2 expression protects against CVD-associated complications through antagonizing the detrimental effects of Angiotensin II (Ang II) to maintain vascular homeostasis and production of nitric oxides in blood vessels. It is still unclear why CVD patients are at higher risk of SARS-CoV2 infection and have a higher mortality rate. Endothelial Cells (ECs) are monolayers of cells covering the inner wall of blood vessels and all major organs in our body. They play an essential role in maintaining normal vasculature; therefore, ECs dysfunction has been considered the CVD hallmark. Improvement in CVD is related to the restoration of ECs function. Exploring the role of ECs dysfunction concerning the SARS-CoV2-CVD molecular axis could help decipher why CVD patients are at increased risk of novel coronavirus-related fatalities.

Page(s): 56-61                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 August 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8708

 Pratima Kumari
Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA 30303

 Shaligram Sharma
Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA 30303

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Pratima Kumari, Shaligram Sharma “ACE2: A Double-Edged Sword Against SARS CoV-2 Associated Cardiovascular Complications and Endothelial Dysfunction” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.56-61 July 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8708

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Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Isolates from Pus Specimens Collected from a General Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Sumona Rahman Shewly, Mosa. Hafsa Akter Ane, Tamanna Zerin, Md. Altaf Hossain – July 2021 – Page No.: 62-66

Antibiotic resistance and its rapid spread among pathogenic bacterial isolates are regarded as major public health issues around the world. The study aims to detect pyogenic bacteria in pus samples and assess their antibiotic susceptibilities to various antibiotics commonly employed in chemotherapeutic interventions. This is a retrospective study in which 297 pus samples were obtained from patients in the year 2018 to 2020 for aerobic culture and sensitivity testing. In total, 32% (95) of the samples yielded positive results, whereas, 68% (202) yielded negative results. The most commonly occurring pathogen was E. coli (65) followed by Pseudomonas spp. (14), Staphylococcus aureus (9), Klebsiella spp. (4) and Acinetobacter spp. (3). Patients aged 51 and up were the ones who were largely afflicted by the pus infection. Males were shown to be more susceptible to infection than females. Amikacin, Ceftazidime, Meropenem, Cefotaxime, Netilmicin, Mecillinam, and Fosfomycin were the most susceptible drugs for Klebsiella spp., followed by Meropenem for E. coli, Cloxacillin, Doxacillin, Cefotaxime, and Amoxiclave for S. aureus. However, Pefloxacin and Amoxiclav were both effective against Pseudomonas spp., while Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Doxacillin, Tazobactam+Piperacillin, Imipenem, Netilmicin, and Trimethoprim were effective against Acinetobacter spp. The antibiotic, Ampicillin was found to be resistant to all of the microorganisms tested. In general, most of the isolates were found to be resistant to the majority of the antibiotics. As a result of our research, clinicians will be able to make better decisions when selecting appropriate antibiotics, which aid in patient care and judicious usage, preventing the development of drug resistance in those who are already susceptible.

Page(s): 62-66                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 16 August 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8709

 Sumona Rahman Shewly
Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, 51, Siddeswari Road, Dhaka-1217, Bangladesh

 Mosa. Hafsa Akter Ane
Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, 51, Siddeswari Road, Dhaka-1217, Bangladesh

 Tamanna Zerin
Department of Microbiology, Stamford University Bangladesh, 51, Siddeswari Road, Dhaka-1217, Bangladesh

 Md. Altaf Hossain
nsaf Barakah Kidney and General Hospital, 11, Shahid Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Dhaka-1217, Bangladesh

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Sumona Rahman Shewly, Mosa. Hafsa Akter Ane, Tamanna Zerin, Md. Altaf Hossain “Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Isolates from Pus Specimens Collected from a General Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.62-66 July 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8709

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COVID-19 Vaccine: Challenges of the distribution and vaccination in North-West Nigeria and the way forward.

Usman Tijjani, Maryam Sadiq, Ayodele Lamidi, Mu’azu Muhammad, Dr. Ismaila Saidu Galadima, Jibrailu L. Maliyogbinda, Sr – July 2021 – Page No.: 67-76

This cross-sectional study examines the challenges of COVID-19 vaccines: distribution and vaccination across the seven (7) states of the North-West region of Nigeria that include Katsina, Kaduna, Kano, Kebbi, Zamfara, Sokoto, and Jigawa states. A summary of secondary data was obtained at the website of the Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC) and the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) on the 14th and 15th of July 2021. A simple descriptive analysis was conducted on the data. The research findings revealed that a total number of 17,016 laboratory confirmed cases were reported; 747,800 AstraZeneca Vaccines were distributed, a total number of 221,829 people were vaccinated with the first dose of the vaccine as of 15th of July 2021. Out of the 17,016 laboratories’ confirmed cases, more than half (53%) were recorded from Kaduna state while less than 1% were reported in Zamfara state. The reason for such several confirmed cases in Kaduna state was partly due to the large number of travelers who came in and out of the state from Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory which had one of the highest numbers of cases in the whole of Nigeria. Case Fatality Rate (CFR) at the regional level was given as 1%, while Sokoto and Kebbi states were leading by 4% each. Analysis of the findings revealed that about 98% of the 17,016 laboratories’ confirmed cases in the region had been discharged, while 1% were still on admission. The study also revealed that COVID-19 vaccines were not proportionally distributed according to the number of confirmed cases in each state. Apart from Kano and Katsina states whose percentages of confirmed cases were almost equal to the percentages of vaccines distributed i.e., 23%-to-28% and 12%-to-14% respectively, other states in the region had received below or above the proportion of confirmed cases they had. For instance, Kaduna state had 53% of confirmed cases in the region only received 24% of vaccines distributed, whereas Zamfara state which had the lowest percentage of confirmed cases (1%) received 7% of vaccines distributed. Major challenges facing COVID-19 within the region were an inadequate number of vaccines to cater to the large population of the people within the region, inadequate testing centers, etc. Most of the testing and vaccination centers were found in the cities and not found in the rural areas. The study concludes with a recommendation that government should make available vaccines in both the urban and rural communities and encourage people to take the vaccines.

Page(s): 67-76                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 August 2021

 Usman Tijjani
BSc. (Hons), MSc, MPH., Consultant of Monitoring, Evaluation & Learning (MEL) of Public Health Programs, Kaduna State, Nigeria

  Maryam Sadiq.
BSc, PGDE., Certified Knowledge Manager, House No. 1 Mareri Fulani Area, Beside Federal College of Education (Technical), Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria

  Ayodele Lamidi
BSc (Hons), MSc, #13, Dorina Close, Federal Low-cost, Kwamba, Suleja, Niger State, Nigeria

  Mu’azu Muhammad
BSc MIS, Power in Her Hand Initiative, Sokoto State, Nigeria

  Dr. Ismaila Saidu Galadima
MBBS, MPH[I], MRSPH, Nigeria

  Jibrailu L. Maliyogbinda, Sr.
(BPharm, MBA, MIAD, MSc., MCIPS, PMP), # 3 MAJILO Street, Plot 563 Kubwa, Ext. 2 (Relocation), Abuja-FCT, Nigeria

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Usman Tijjani, Maryam Sadiq, Ayodele Lamidi, Mu’azu Muhammad, Dr. Ismaila Saidu Galadima, Jibrailu L. Maliyogbinda, Sr “COVID-19 Vaccine: Challenges of the distribution and vaccination in North-West Nigeria and the way forward.” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.67-76 July 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-7/67-76.pdf

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The Male and Female Students Mean Achievement Scores of Technical Schools in electricity concepts using E-learning Teaching Activity and Lecture Method
Joseph Olaiya Fatoki and Benjamin A. Taangahar – July 2021 – Page No.: 77-80

The study determines the male and female students mean achievement scores of technical schools in electricity concepts using e-learning teaching activity and lecture method. Two research questions and two hypotheses were used. The study adopted a quasi-experiment designof non-randomized group pretest-posttest design. The population of the study was 6 Technical schools and 724 part II Students in the 2013/2014 academic session. The sample size was 223 (139 male and 84 female) out of the 724 of part II students of technical school college. A multi-stage sampling technique was employ for the study. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 2 Technical Schools (TS) which were co-educational (1 for control and 1 for experiment group). Again, a purposive sampling technique was used to select only part II students’ classes in the schools for the study. Two instruments were used for data collection, which included Electricity Achievement Test (EAT) and Electricity Interest Inventory (EII). Means and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the male and female students mean achievement scores of technical schools in electricity concepts using e-learning teaching activity and lecture methodwas not statistically significant. Both male and female technical schools students in education zone B of Benue State in the 2013/2014 academic session showed more interest and achieved higher in electricity lessons.

Page(s): 77-80                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 August 2021

 Joseph Olaiya Fatoki
Department of Science and Mathematics, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

 Benjamin A. Taangahar
Department of Science and Mathematics, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

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Joseph Olaiya Fatoki and Benjamin A. Taangahar “The Male and Female Students Mean Achievement Scores of Technical Schools in electricity concepts using E-learning Teaching Activity and Lecture Method” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.77-80 July 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-7/77-80.pdf

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Developing a Framework for Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations – An Exploratory study in Lebanon
Samar Noaman, Jean Michel Chapuis – July 2021 – Page No.: 81-88

Several destinations have marked their names on the medical tourism world map while others’ potentials are still virtual despite encompassing success factors. This paper structures a framework to understand the supply side of medical tourism and the factors that determine the industry’s development. A qualitative approach in the form of semi-structured interviews with various stakeholders in the medical tourism field in Lebanon sheds light on the opportunities and challenges to develop such tourism activities in this destination. The content analysis suggests a global fitting of the suggested thematic factors to the data, in terms of costs, infrastructure and superstructure, government attitude, marketing and promotion, expertise/ human resources, language and communication, investment potential, facilities, and attractions. The findings support the role of political stability, interventions of government, and marketing activities. Managerial implications are provided in this research, focusing on enhancing the country’s image, encouraging local and foreign investment in the healthcare sector, and promoting fields of specialty, among others.

Page(s): 81-88                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 August 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8710

 Samar Noaman
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management, Canadian University Dubai, 1st Interchange Sheikh Zayed Road, P.O. Box 117781, Dubai, UAE.

 Jean Michel Chapuis
Professor, IREST – Institut de Recherche et d’Etudes Supérieures du Tourisme, University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, 21, Rue Broca – 75005, Paris, France

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Samar Noaman, Jean Michel Chapuis “Developing a Framework for Emerging Medical Tourism Destinations – An Exploratory study in Lebanon ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.81-88 July 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8710

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Exploring Civic Education as A Catalyst to Learner Transformation in Zambian Schools: A Glance on the Developed Civic Education Pedagogical Content Knowledge (CEPCK) Model
Setwin Mutau Mufalo – July 2021 – Page No.: 89-95

The main objective of this paper is to explore how Civic Education acts as a catalyst to learner transformation. The paper is structured in categories such as pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) model, and Civic Education pedagogical content knowledge (CEPCK) model among others. The author contends that in order for effective teaching and learner transformation to occur, teachers of Civic Education at both junior secondary school and senior secondary school should be knowledgeable with the learning outcomes which are specified in the school syllabi. In addition, Civic Education teachers should be equipped with relevant knowledge domains as outlined in the developed Civic Education pedagogical content knowledge model. Therefore, the developed Civic Education pedagogical content knowledge model may help different teaching/learning institutions in Zambia and beyond because it is a tool which can be used by administrators in various teaching and learning institutions to evaluate the competence levels of members of staff. In addition, the model may help teachers of Civic Education to deliver the subject effectively and impart learners with integrated knowledge, skills, values, dispositions and attitudes which may enable them not only to actively participate in community activities but also to be creative, live in harmony with others and be able to understand the contemporary society in which they live. It is therefore recommended that teachers of Civic Education in schools across the country should possess a variety of teacher knowledge as outlined in the developed Civic Education pedagogical content knowledge model (CEPCK) model in order to enhance not only effective delivery but also academic performance and learner transformation. In addition, the Ministry of General Education (MoGE), parents, teachers, administrators and other stakeholders should collaborate and come up with other strategies which can be used to enhance subject delivery and learners transformation. Also, universities, colleges of education and other various teacher training institutions in Zambia should adopt and include the developed Civic Education pedagogical content knowledge model in their curricular in order to equip Civic Education trainee teachers with knowledge domains as outlined in the developed model. Lastly, the researcher also recommends that the Ministry of General Education, the Curriculum Development Centre (CDC), Provincial Education Officers (PEOs) and District Education Board Secretaries (DEBS) and school administrators should ensure that schools adopt the use of the developed Civic Education pedagogical content knowledge model as well as encouraging them to incorporate it during their Continuous Professional Development (CPD) activities.

Page(s): 89-95                                                                                                                   Date of Publication:20 August 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8711

 Setwin Mutau Mufalo
Mishikishi Secondary School, Masaiti, Zambia

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Setwin Mutau Mufalo “Exploring Civic Education as A Catalyst to Learner Transformation in Zambian Schools: A Glance on the Developed Civic Education Pedagogical Content Knowledge (CEPCK) Model” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.89-95 July 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8711

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Bioemulsifires: An overview
Dr. Tapati Mallik – July 2021 – Page No.: 96-100

Bioemulsifiers are considered as multifunctional biomolecules of 21st century because of their functional abilities and eco-friendly properties. Currently, they are considered as “green molecules” because of their wide applications in bioremediation of soil. They can also be applied for removal of heavy metal and chlorinated solvent compounds, in drugs industry, food industry, cosmetic industry, metallurgy, agrochemicals, fertilisers and many others. Their importance has been increasing day by day in the global market as they are the natural resources with high-aggregate value.

Page(s): 96-100                                                                                                                   Date of Publication:24 August 2021

 Dr. Tapati Mallik
Department of Chemistry, Chandernagore College, Chandernagore, Hooghly, India

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Dr. Tapati Mallik “Bioemulsifires: An overview” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.96-100 July 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-7/96-100.pdf

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Primary Education Administration in Nigeria: Challenges and Strategies for Improvement

Agogbua Victor Ugochukwu, Amobi Blessing Adaobi, Anyaeji Adaora Vivian – July 2021 – Page No.: 101-105

The importance of education cannot be overemphasized following the total liberation it brought to man. Nigeria’s education system is besieged by colossal problems ranging from inadequate funding, poor educational infrastructure, polluted learning environment, and recruitment of unqualified teaching personnel. This paper x-rayed challenges in the administration of primary education in Nigeria. The goals of primary education were highlighted. The paper identified major challenges confronting primary education administration in Nigeria including the wrong appointment of the head teacher, political instability, lack of supervision, etc. Going by the deplorable situation in primary education a reform is required to improve the performance of primary school administrators. Recommendations were made which suggested that the appointment of head teachers should be based on merit, not favoritism, internal and external supervision should also be encouraged to ensure rules and regulations are carried out as expected.

Page(s): 101-105                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 24 Auugst 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8712

 Agogbua Victor Ugochukwu
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

  Amobi Blessing Adaobi
Imo State University, Owerri

 Anyaeji Adaora Vivian
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

[1] Adamu, A.U. (2007). Financing Education Delivery in Nigeria: The Rhetoric and Realities. In Elizabeth Eke & Raphael, O. Olarinoye (eds.) Politics of Nigerian Education. The Nigerian Academy of Education.
[2] Amaghionyeodiwe, L. A & Osinubi, T. S. (2006). The Nigerian Systems and Return to Education. International Journal of Applied Econometrics and Quantitative Studies, 3 (1) 32-40.
[3] Comfort R. E, Usen F. M & Ekpenyong E. E (2013) Primary Education as a Foundation for Qualitative Higher Education in Nigeria. Journal of Education and Learning, 2(2), 115-164.
[4] Dialoke, I., Ukeh, F., & Maduagwuna, I. V.(2017). Policy Formulation and Implimentation in Nigeria: The Bane of Underdevelopment. International Journal of Capacity Building in Education and Management, 6(3), 22-27.
[5] Dibal, S. & Obaje, M. (2018). Creativity and Functional Teacher Education in Nigeria Challenges and prospects in Comatose Economy. Journal of Resourcefulness and Distinction, 16(1), 67-74.
[6] Edho, O. G. (2009). The Challenges Affecting the implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UPE) in Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 20 (3): 183-187.
[7] Eke, E. & Olarinoye, R. D. (2006). Politics of Nigerian education: The Nigerian Academy of Education proceeding of 21st Annual Congress of NAC held in Bauchi, 6-10 November.
[8] Federal Republic of Nigeria (2014). National Policy on Education. Lagos: NERDC.
[9] Guardian (My 09, 2019). Shortage of teachers, congestion, major challenges facing FCT school, http://guardian.ng/news/shortage-of-teachers-congestion-major-challenges-facing-fct
[10] Glossary of Education (2012). School administration. 2006 – 2013. Education.com, Inc. www.education.com
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[12] Kariyana, I., Maphosa, c. & Mapuranga, B. (2012). The Influence of Learners’ Participation in School Co-curricular Activities on Academic performance: Assessment of Educators’ Perceptions. Journal of Social Science, 33(2), 137-149.
[13] Mapholisa, T., & Tshabalala, T. (2013). An Investigation into the Causes of Conflict in Zimbabwe Schools: a Case Student of Khani SouthCircuit. Nova Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(1), 1-6.
[14] Mbayuav, S.T (2012). The Challenges of Secondary Education in Nigeria: the way forward. Journal of pristine 4 (1): 104-112.
[15] NEEDS, (2014). Needs assessment in the Nigerian education sector. International organization for migration, Abuja, Nigeria.
[16] Nwiyi, G.U (2012). Attainment of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) through Teacher Education programme in Nigeria. The Journal of Teacher Perspective 6 (13) 496-501.
[17] Odia, L.O., & Omofonmwan, S. I. (2007). Educational system in Nigeria. Problems and prospects. Journal of Social Sciences, 14(1): 81-86.
[18] Onanwa, A. & Wisdom, A. (2020). Improving Primary Education in Nigeria through Quality Control. European Journal of Education and Curriculum Studies, 3(2), 37-43.
[19] Ozumba, M. C. (2013). Bethrand Okafor and Martins Solomon Udom, “Plato and the Leadership Question: An Evaluation of Philosophy-King within the Nigerian Political Structure.” The Nigerian Academic Forum, 20(1), 1-8.
[20] Peretomode, V.F. (2004). General Principles of School Administration. In V.F. Peretomode (ed.) Introduction to Educational Administration, Planning and Supervision. Lagos: Joja Press Limited.
[21] Raharjo, T. J (2018). Educational Foundation Semarang: PRES UNNES.
[22] Umoh, G. G. (2006). Path to Quantitative Education: A Standard Book for Students, Teachers and Educational Administrators. Uyo: Inela Ventures and Publishers.

Agogbua Victor Ugochukwu, Amobi Blessing Adaobi, Anyaeji Adaora Vivian “Primary Education Administration in Nigeria: Challenges and Strategies for Improvement” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.101-105 July 2021 URL: DOI : https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8712

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Innovative Research: Writing an Effective Abstract to Improve Your Article Quality and Readability
Prof. Kwadwo Adinkrah-Appiah, Atianashie Miracle A, Chukwuma Chinaza Adaobi and Augustine Owusu-Addo – July 2021 – Page No.: 106-109

There are plenty of good reasons why every researcher should invest time and energy in writing and abstract. It will form the basis for several key decisions: whether an editor sends out your submission for review; whether the reviewer accepts that review Invitation; and whether other researchers read your published paper. Unless your article is open access, the title and abstract are the only elements freely available to everyone. Increased readership means a higher possibility of having your work referenced in subsequent research publications! Consequently, it is critical that your abstract be accurate. Several frequently asked issues from early career researchers are addressed in this review article, including what is the optimal length for an abstract and how long an abstract should be. Which information should be provided and how much detail? Moreover, what kind of language is most effective? You will walk away with a better knowledge of the importance that the abstract can play in the success of your paper, as well as the steps you can take to guarantee that it is the best it possibly can..

Page(s): 106-109                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 August 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8713

 Prof. Kwadwo Adinkrah-Appiah
Sunyani Technical University, Bono Region, Ghana

 Atianashie Miracle A
Catholic University College of Ghana, Fiapre Sunyani, Bono Region, Ghana

 Chukwuma Chinaza Adaobi
Catholic University College of Ghana, Fiapre Sunyani, Bono Region, Ghana

 Augustine Owusu-Addo
Catholic University College of Ghana, Fiapre Sunyani, Bono Region, Ghana

[1] Chumaidah, H. N. (2021). Students’ Understanding of Article Writing Process in the Fourth Semester of English Department of University of Islam Malang. Jurnal Penelitian, Pendidikan, Dan Pembelajaran, 16(17).
[2] Fagbohungbe, o. B., & jayeoba, f. I. (n.d.). Ameliorating the challenges facing nigerianresearchers; focus on abstract writing in psychological research.
[3] FitzPatrick, E. R., & McKeown, D. (2021). Writing from multiple source texts: SRSD for fifth grade learners in inclusive settings. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice.
[4] Green, K. R., Topping, K., & Lakin, E. (2021). Evidence-based teaching of essay writing: Intervention at primary school. Educational Psychology in Practice, 1–17.
[5] Klimovich, N. (2021). Text Content Condensing: A Toolkit for Teaching Abstract Text Writing (сжатие содержания текста: инструментарий обучения написанию аннотаций). Available at ssrn 3873756.
[6] Kothari, C., Kumar, R., & Uusitalo, O. (2014). Research Methodology. In New Age International. https://doi.org/
[7] Obeng-ofori, D. (2020). Internationalization of universities. 3(December), 54–60.
[8] Sanganyado, E. (2019). How to write an honest but effective abstract for scientific papers. 6, 4–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2019.e00170
[9] Sroka, W., & Lőrinczy, M. (2015). The Perception of Ethics in Business: Analysis of Research Results. Procedia Economics and Finance, 34(15), 156–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2212-5671(15)01614-7

Prof. Kwadwo Adinkrah-Appiah, Atianashie Miracle A, Chukwuma Chinaza Adaobi and Augustine Owusu-Addo “Innovative Research: Writing an Effective Abstract to Improve Your Article Quality and Readability ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.106-109 July 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.8713

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Assessment of Student Teachers’ Experiences during Teaching Practice in Benue State: Implications on their Perception of the Teaching Profession
Gbeyongu Frederick Terkimbi, Abdullahi Adebo Odus, and Akaa Charity Wanger – July 2021 – Page No.: 110-116

Teacher Education involves the policies and procedures designed to equip teachers with the knowledge and skills they require to teach effectively. Teaching practice (TP) is an integral part in teacher education because it allows student-teachers to apply the theories into practice. Effective preparation of student teachers in practical subjects could help them teach efficiently. The study was guided by three research questions; survey design was adopted for the study with a sample of (170) student teachers. An Instrument tagged Student Teachers Experiences in Teaching Practice Questionnaire (STETPQ) was used to collect data on how student teacher perceived teaching profession during teaching practice and the challenges thereon. The data collected were analyzed using weighted mean, Frequency and percentages respectively. The result indicated that on the overall, student teachers held strong perception of teaching profession in Benue State. Respondents agreed that teaching practice have made them to decide to take to teaching as a profession. Student teachers also faced different challenge ranging from personal preparation, class participation, class room management, instructional and evaluation problems. It was recommended amongst others that a proper orientation for student teachers should be carried out using efficient means of communication like; seminars, workshops, conferences and discussion before they go for teaching practice. This will prepare their mind for the challenges ahead.

Page(s): 110-116                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 August 2021

 Gbeyongu Frederick Terkimbi
Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

 Abdullahi Adebo Odus
College of Education Akwanga, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

 Akaa Charity Wanger
Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

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Gbeyongu Frederick Terkimbi, Abdullahi Adebo Odus, and Akaa Charity Wanger “Assessment of Student Teachers’ Experiences during Teaching Practice in Benue State: Implications on their Perception of the Teaching Profession” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 7, pp.110-116 July 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-7/110-116.pdf

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