Volume VIII Issue X

Synthesis of a Bio-based and Biodegradable Poly(ethylene-co-isosorbide [2,2′-bithiophene]-5,5′-dicarboxylate) with Enhanced Thermal and Degradability Properties
Lesly Dasilva Wandji Djouonkep, Naomie Beolle Songwe Selabi- October 2021 – Page No.: 01-08

A synthetic biopolymer was prepared from bithiophene (C8H6S2) monomer, isosorbide (C6H10O4) and ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) was synthesized via melt polycondensation process. The results show that the polyester has good thermal and mechanical properties. The bithiophene monomer (2,2′-dithiophene)-5,5′-dicarboxylic acid was prepared by direct coupling of combined phosphine-free palladium ligand with polyethylene glycol palladium (Pd/PEG) as catalyst. This method can effectively polymerize bithiophene monomer with isosorbide and ethylene glycol. The series of polyesters display good heat resistance, crystallinity and high-tensile modulus. In addition, the bithiophene monomer coupled with isosorbide units increased the glass transition temperature of the polyesters. These polyester films exhibit excellent oxygen/water barrier properties, which are interestingly superior to those of polyethylene terephthalates, and has a significant degradation in soil degradation under the influence of microorganisms.

Page(s): 01-08                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 October 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.81001

 Lesly Dasilva Wandji Djouonkep
Department of Petroleum Engineering, Applied Chemistry in Oil and Gas fields, Yangtze University, Wuhan, 43010, China;
Institute of fine organic chemistry and new organic materials, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430081, China;

 Naomie Beolle Songwe Selabi
Institute of advanced materials and Nanotechnology, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430081, China;

Ouyang Q., Liu J., Li C., Zheng L., Xiao Y., Wu S., Zhang B. (2019). A facile method to synthesize bio-based and biodegradable copolymers from furandicarboxylic acid and isosorbide with high molecular weight, excellent thermal and mechanical property. Polymer Chemistry. doi:10.1039/c9py01314h
[2] Kainulainen T. P., Sirviö J. A., Sethi J., Hukka T. I., Heiskanen, J. P. (2018). UV-Blocking synthetic biopolymer from biomass-based bifuran diester and ethylene glycol. Macromolecules, 51(5), 1822–1829. doi:10.1021/acs.macromol.7b02457
[3] Gabrieli S., Cirilli R., Benincori T., Pierini M., Rizzo S., Rossi, S. (2017). BITHIENOLs: Promising C2-Symmetric biheteroaromatic diols for organic transformation. European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2017(4), 861–870. doi:10.1002/ejoc.201601353
[4] Asim A. Balakit, Ahmed A., Gamal A. El-Hiti, Smith K., Emad Y. (2015) Synthesis of new thiophene derivatives and their use as photostabilizers for Rigid Poly(vinylchloride). International journal of polymer science, 510390/1-51.390/10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/510390
[5] Mancuso R., Bartolo G. (2014) Recent advances in the synthesis of thiophene derivatives by cyclization of functionalized alkynes. Molecules, 19(10), 15687-15719; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191015687
[6] Vilela C., Sousa A. F., Fonseca A. C., Serra A. C., Coelho J. F. J., Freirea C. S. R., Silvestre A. J. D. (2014) The quest for sustainable polyesters−insights into the future. Polym. Chem. 2014, 5 (9), 3119− 3141.
[7] Saxon D. J., Luke A. M., Sajjad H., Tolman W. B., Reineke, T. M. (2019). Next-generation polymers: Isosorbide as a renewable alternative. Progress in Polymer Science, 101196.doi:10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2019.101196.
[8] Fenouillot F., Rousseau A., Colomines, G., Saint-Loup R., Pascault J-P. Polymers from renewable 1, 4: 3, 6-dianhydrohexitols (isosorbide, isomannide and isoidide): A review. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2010, 35, 578–622.
[9] Bhatia S. K., Bhatia R. K., Yang, Y-H. Biosynthesis of polyesters and polyamide building blocks using microbial fermentation and biotransformation. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 15, 639–663 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-016-9415-9
[10] Feng X., East A., Hammond W., Ophir Z., Zhang Y., Jaffe, M. (2012). Thermal analysis characterization of isosorbide-containing thermosets. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 109(3), 1267–1275. doi:10.1007/s10973-012-2581-2)
[11] Mancuso R., Gabriele B., (2014) Recent advances in the synthesis of thiophene derivatives by cyclization of functionalized alkynes. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 19(10):15687-15719. doi: 10.3390/molecules191015687.
[12] Ong B-S., Wu Y., Li Y., Liu P., Pan H. (2018) Thiophene polymer semiconductors for organic thin-film transistors. Chemistry. 14(16):4766-78. doi: 10.1002/chem.200701717.
[13] Sperry J-B., Wright D-L. (2005) Furans, thiophenes and related heterocycles in drug discovery. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 8(6):723-40. https://doi.org/10.1002/chin.200615242
[14] Cetin A., Türkan F., Taslimi P., Gulçin İ. (2019) Synthesis and characterization of novel substituted thiophene derivatives and discovery of their carbonic anhydrase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition effects. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 33(3):e22261. doi: 10.1002/jbt.22261.
[15] Atsushi N., Yutaka N., Masaki T., Yoshihiro H., Atsushi T., Yushu M. Novel synthesis and characterization of bioconjugate block copolymers having oligonucleotides. Biomacromolecules. 6(4), 2328-2333. doi: 10.1021/bm0502462
[16] Walther, G. (2014) High-performance polymers from nature: catalytic routes and processes for industry. ChemSusChem, 7 (8), 2081− 2088. https://doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201402379
[17] Okada, M. (2002) Chemical syntheses of biodegradable polymers. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2002, 27, 87–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6700(01)00039-9
[18] Gandini, A. The irruption of polymers from renewable resources on the scene of macromolecular science and technology. Green Chem. 2011, 13 (5), 1061−1083. https://doi.org/10.1039/C0GC00789G
[19] Meier, M. A. R.; Metzger, J. O.; Schubert, U. S. Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2007, 36 (11), 1788−1802
[20] Nair L. S., Laurencin C. T.: Biodegradable polymers as biomaterials. Progress in Polymer Science, 32, 762–798 (2007). DOI: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2007.05.017.
[21] Chiellini E., Solaro R.: Biodegradable polymeric materials. Advanced Materials, 4, 305–313 (1996). DOI: 10.1002/adma.19960080406.
[22] Chebbi Y., Kasmi N., Majdoub M., Cerruti P, Scarinzi G., Malinconico M., Dal Poggetto G., Papageorgiou G. Z., Bikiaris D. N. (2019) Synthesis, characterization, and biodegradability of novel fully biobased poly(decamethylene-co-isosorbide 2,5-furandicarboxylate) copolyesters with enhanced mechanical properties. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 7 (5), 5501-5514. doi: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b06796
[23] Corma, A.; Iborra, S.; Velty, A. Chemical routes for the transformation of biomass into chemicals. Chem. Rev. 2007, 107, 2411−2502.
[24] Gandini, A.; Lacerda, T. M.; Carvalho, A. J. F.; Trovatti, E. Progress of polymers from renewable resources: furans, vegetable oils, and polysaccharides. Chem. Rev. 2016, 116, 1637−1669.
[25] M. A. R. Meier, J. O. Metzger, U. S. Schubert, Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science, Chem. Soc. Rev. 36 (2007) 1788-1802, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b703294c.
[26] M. N. Belgacem, A. Gandini, Monomers, Polymers and Composites from Renewable Resources. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 552, 2008.
[27] Kricheldorf, H. R., Sun, S.-J., Gerken, A. & Chang, T.-C. Polymers of carbonic acid. 22 cholesteric polycarbonates derived from (S)-((2-methylbutyl)thio)hydroquinone or isosorbide. Macromolecules 29, 8077–8082 (1996).

Lesly Dasilva Wandji Djouonkep, Naomie Beolle Songwe Selabi, “Synthesis of a Bio-based and Biodegradable Poly(ethylene-co-isosorbide [2,2′-bithiophene]-5,5′-dicarboxylate) with Enhanced Thermal and Degradability Properties” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.01-08 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.81001

Download PDF


Teachers’ Perceptions of school heads’ Instructional leadership behaviours at two primary schools in Lower Gweru district of Zimbabwe
Shepherd Shoko – October 2021 – Page No.: 09-16

Educational leadership literature has identified generalised instructional leadership roles of school leaders particularly in the context of the Western world. Using a multiple case study design, targeting ten senior teachers at two primary schools as participants, the study aimed at exploring teachers’ perceptions of school heads’ instructional leadership behaviours that supported or hindered effective teaching and learning. The two primary schools are situated in Lower Gweru District in Zimbabwe. The ten senior teachers from each school were purposefully sampled to participate in the study. Data for the study was generated using three research instruments namely group interviews, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. The data was analysed using the thematic approach. What came out of the study was that there are certain instructional leadership behaviours which were perceived by teachers as facilitating teaching like generating an attractive and inspiring vision of academic excellence, modelling best instructional leadership behaviours, creating a school atmosphere conducive for teaching and learning, individual consideration behaviours focusing on teachers’ professional and social needs and incentivising teachers. However some Instructional leadership behaviours by school heads were labelled as retrogressive to effective teaching and learning and these include lack of personal commitment to leadership by the school head (being a visiting head), an atmosphere of insecurity and inconsistencies, being disrespectful to teachers, not knowing curriculum content and managerialism. It was recommended that school heads should spend the greatest part of their time at their work station or better reside at their work stations to afford themselves enough time to monitor instructional processes at their schools. Workshops on instructional leadership must be held often to familiarise school heads of their new leadership roles.

Page(s): 09-16                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 October 2021

 Shepherd Shoko
Midlands State University, Zimbabwe

[1] Botha, R. J. (2013). Epistemological beliefs and leadership approaches among South African school principals. Pretoria, South Africa: College of Education, University of South Africa.
[2] Brazer, S. D., & Bauer, S. C. (2013). Preparing instructional leaders: A model. Educational administration quarterly, (20)10: 1–40.
[3] Brown, C., Holewinski, A., & Jones, D. (2010). Key Elements of Instructional Leadership. Oakdale: Centre for educational leadership & accountability doctoral program St. John’s University.
[4] Bush, T. (2015). Organisation theory in education: how does it inform school leadership? Journal of Organizational Theory in Education, 1 (1). pp. 35-47.
[5] Chimwechiyi, N. (2014). The instructional leadership roles of the secondary school principal towards quality school improvement in Zimbabwean schools. Pretoria, South Africa: University of South Africa.
[6] Chitumba, P. (2019, April 1). Govt worried about 0% pass rates Retrieved from www .Theherald.ac.zw
[7] Cohen, L., Manion, L., and Morrison, K. (2018). Research Methods in Education (8th Ed). New York: Routledge
[8] Creswell, J.W. (2014). Educational research: Planning, conducting and evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative research, (4thed). Essex, England: Pearson.
[9] Gerring, J. (2004). What is a case study and what is it good for? American political science review. (98)2, 1-8.
[10] Griffee, D.T. (2012). An introduction to second language research methods: Data and design. California: TESL-EJ Publications
[11] Gurr, D. (2019). Australian Considerations in Relation to Instructional Leadership and Leadership for Learning. In Townsend, T. (2019). Instructional Leadership and Leadership for Learning in Schools: Understanding Theories of Leading. Cham: Palgrave MacMillan
[12] Gurley, D.K., Anast-May, L. O’Neal, M., & Dozier, R. (2016). Principal Instructional Leadership Behaviours: Teacher vs. Self-Perceptions. International journal of educational leadership preparation. (11)1, 2155-9635.
[13] Hallinger, P., & Murphy, J. (1985). Assessing the Instructional Management Behaviour of Principals. Elementary School Journal, 86(2), 217-247.
[14] Hallinger, P., & Murphy, J. (2012). Running On Empty? Finding the Time and Capacity to Lead Learning. NASSP Bulletin, 97(1), 5-21.
[15] Hobman, E. V., Jackson, C. J., Jimmieson, N.L., & Martin, R. (2011). The Effects of Transformational Leadership Behaviours on Follower Outcomes: An Identity-Based Analysis. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. (20)4, 553-580.
[16] Lai, A. (2011). Transformational-Transactional leadership theory. Retrieved 20 February 2019 from http://digitalcommons.olin.edu/ahs_capstone_2011/19
[17] Manaseh, A. M. (2016). Instructional Leadership: The Role of Heads of Schools in Managing the Instructional Programme. International Journal of Educational Leadership and Management, 4(1), 3047.
[18] Follett, M. P. (1925). The law of the situation. Retrieved 12 Sept. 2021 from www. panarchy.org/follett/lawsituation.html)
[19] Masuku, S. (2011). The Instructional Leadership Role of the High School Head. In Creating a Culture of Teaching and Learning in Zimbabwe (Doctoral thesis). Department of educational management, University of South Africa, South Africa.
[20] Merriam, S. B. (1988) Case Study Research in Education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
[21] Ministry of Education, Sport and Culture. (2011). Zvishavane District Office: DEO’s Circular No. 3 of 2011.
[22] Nitin, N. (1995). Mary Parker Follett’s view on power, the giving of orders, and authority: An alternative to hierarchy or a utopian ideology. Mary Parker Follett–Prophet of Management, (9)2, 154-62.
[23] Northouse, P.G. (2019). Leadership: Theory and Practice (8th ed). California: Sage Publications.
[24] Pounder, J. S. (2008). Transformational Leadership: Practicing What We Teach in the Management Classroom, Journal of Education for Business, (84)1, 2-6.
[25] Salem, N. (2016). Teachers’ Perceptions of Effective Principal in International Schools in Egypt. Theses and Dissertations. 2792: Lehigh University.
[26] Staff reporter: (2018, January 24). 29 Matabeleland Schools Record 0% Pass Rate For Grade 7 Exams. Bulawayo24.Com. Retrieved From www.Bulawayo24.com.ac.zw
[27] Townsend, T. (2019). Instructional Leadership and Leadership for Learning in Schools: Understanding Theories of Leading. Switzerland, Cham: Palgrave MacMillan.
[28] Tshili, N. (2017, February 19). Mat’land Poor Pass Rates Raising Concern. Retrieved from www.The Sunday news.ac.zw
[29] Yin, R. K. (1984) Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
[30] Yin, R.K. (2018). Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods. (6th Ed). California: Sage.

Shepherd Shoko “Teachers’ Perceptions of school heads’ Instructional leadership behaviours at two primary schools in Lower Gweru district of Zimbabwe” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.09-16 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-10/09-16.pdf

Download PDF


Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-Mycobacterial Activity of Some Selected Medicinal Plants
Aska, A. S., Abdu, M.S., Madara, M.S., Nkafamiya I. I. & Garba, S. October 2021 – Page No.: 17-21

The research was designed to screen some selected medicinal plants for in-vitro anti-mycobacterial activity. Nine (9) plants (Erythrina senegalensis, Striga hermonthica, Tamarindus indica, Ximenia Americana, Butyrospermum paradoxum, Euphorbia hirta, Pilostigma reticulatum, Waltheria indica, Cissampelos mucronata) were used in the study. Extraction was done on Leaf extract of Waltheria indica, Stem bark extract of Ximenia Americana, Leaf extract of Pilostigma reticulatum, Aerial part extract of Striga hermonthica, Leaf extract of Butyrospermum paradoxum, Root extract of Cissampelos mucronata, Whole plant extract of Euphorbia hirta, Root-bark extract of Tamarindus indica and Stem-bark extract of Erythrina senegalensis. The percentage yield of the extraction was 8.2, 9.5, 7.6, 9.4, 10.5, 10.3, 11.6, 9.2 and 8.5 respectively. Preliminary phytochemical analysis on the crude extracts have revealed the presence of the following bioactive chemical constituents; Alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, Anthraquinones, Saponins, Glycosides, Tannins and Phenols. Preliminary anti-mycobacterial screening was done on the crude plants extracts. The result revealed that only four (4) plants out of the nine (9) selected plants exhibited anti-mycobacterial activity (at conc/well of 500 -125mg/ml) when tested against Mycobaterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Table 3). The crude extract of the aerial parts of S. hermonthica inhibited growth of the tested organisms at 500mg/ml but at lower concentrations (125mg/ml) the extract was not active against M.tuberculosis. The crude extract of stem bark of E. senegalensis was also active at 500mg/ml against the tested organisms but did not demonstrated activity against M. tuberculosis at lower concentrations. The root of extract of C. mucronata was only active at 500mg/ml but was inactive at lower concentrations and the whole plant extract of E. hirta was only active at 500-250mg/ml against both M.smegmatis and M. tuberculosis. No activity was observed for the other five (5) plants extract used in the study that is W. indica, X. americana, P. reticulatum, B. paradoxa and T. indica.

Page(s): 17-21                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 29 October 2021

 Aska, A. S.
Department of Chemistry, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare Bauchi State-Nigeria

 Abdu, M.S.
Department Chemistry, Federal University Gashua, Yobe State-Nigeria

 Madara, M.S.
Department of Chemistry, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare Bauchi State-Nigeria

 Nkafamiya I. I.
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola Adamawa State-Nigeria

 Garba, S.
Department of Chemistry, Aminu Saleh College of Education, Azare Bauchi State-Nigeria

[1] Abdalfatah, A., Sajan L. S., Christina Y. I. and Saad, M. H. A. (2013). Bioassay and Phytochemical Studies on Ximenia Americana L. Bark Ethanolic Extract. J. Forest Products and Industries. 2(3), 63-68.
[2] Adegboye, M.F., Akinpelu, D.A and Okoli, A.I (2008). The bioactive and phytochemical properties of Garnicia Kola Hackel seed extract on some pathogens. Afr.J. Biotechnol. 721:3934-3938.
[3] Atawodi, S.E., Bulus, T., Ibrahim, S., Ameh, D. A., Nok, A. J., Mamman, M. (2003). In vitro-trypanocidal effect of methanolic extract of some Nigerian savannah plants. Afr. J.Biotech.2 (9): 317-321.
[4] Brennan, P. J. and Nikaido, H. (1995). The envelope of Mycobacteria. Annu. Rev. Biochem.64: 29–63.
[5] Choudhury, M. K., Phillips, A.L. and Mustapha, A. (1998). Pharmacological Studies of Striga senegalesis Benth (Schrophulariaceae) as an Abortifacient. Phytother. Res. 12: 141-143.
[6] Diallo, D., Hveem, B., Mahmoud, M.A., Berge, G., Paulsen, B.S. and Maiga, A. (1999). An ethnobotanical survey of herbal drugs of Gourma District. Mali. Pharm. Biol. 37(1):80-91.
[7] Ghambal, P.E., Balla, H. Goje, L. J. Halidu, A. and Dauda, M. D.(2014). In vitro antimicrobial activities of Vernonia amygdalina on selected clinical isolates Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci 3(4): 1103-1113.
[8] Gill, L.S. (1992). Ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Nigeria. Uniben press, Benin City, Nigeria. p. 276.
[9] Ibrahim, T. B., Esther, A. A., Yuehong, W. and Francis, O. S. (2012) Anti-TB Activity of Sterculia setigera Del., Leaves. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemist. 1(3):17-23.
[10] Koné, W.M., Atindehou, K.K., Terreaux, C., Hostettmann, K., Traoré, D. and Dosso M. (2004). Traditional medicine in north Côte-d’Ivoire: screening of 50 medicinal plants for antibacterial activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 93(1): 43-49.
[11] Kubmarawa, D., Ajoku, G. A., Enwerem, N. M. and Okorie, D. A. (2007). Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of 50 medicinal plants from Nigeria. African J. Biotechnology. 6 (14): 1690-1696.
[12] Kumar, V., Abbas, A. K, Fausto, N. and Mitchell, R. N. (2007). Robbins Basic Pathology. 8thedn.Saunders Elsevier. pp. 516–522.
[13] Offiah, V. N., Akah, P. A., Okoli, C. O., Deogranya, O. P. and Oguagha, U. M. (2003). Spasmolytic activity of Cissampelos mucronata. J. Natural Remedies 2(1): 59-65.
[14] Ogueke, C. C. Jude, N. Okoli, I. C. and Anyanwu, B. N. (2007). Antibacterial Activities and Toxicological Potentials of Crude Ethanolic Extracts of Euphorbia hirta. J.American Science. 3(3):11-16.
[15] Ogwal, E. N. K., Measen, L. J. G., Burgt, X. M. and Medenbach, J. M. (1996). The biodiversity of African Plants. Proceedings of the 14th AETFAT congress 22-27 August 1994, Wageningen, Netherlands. pp. 768-770.
[16] Ogundaini, A. O. (2005). “From greens into Medicine taking a lead from Nature” Inaugural lecture series 176 Obafemi Awolowo University Press Ltd. Ile-Ife, Nigeria pp 1-10.
[17] Okpako, L.C., Ajaiyeoba, E.O. (2004). Invitro and invivo antimalarial studies of Striga hermonthica and Tapinanthus sessilifolius extracts. Afr. J. Med. Med., Sci. 33: 73-75.
[18] Olajuyigbe, O.O., Babalola, A.E. and Afolayan, A.J. (2011). Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of crude ethanolic extract of Waltheria indica L. Afr. J. Micr. Res. 5(22):3760-3764.
[19] Saidu, K., Onah, J., Orisadipe, A., Olusola, A., Wambebe, C. and Gamaniel, K. (2000). Antiplasmodial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Erythrina senegalensis. J. Ethnopharmacol; 71(1-2): 275-280.
[20] Sandeep, B. P., Naikwade, N. S. and Magdum C. S. (2009). Review on Phytochemistry and Pharmacological aspects of Euphorbia hirta L.JPRHC 1(1): 113-133.
[21] Udem, S.C., Obidoa, O. and Asuzu, I.U.(2010). Acute and chronic toxicity studies of Erythrina senegalensis DC stem bark extract in mice. Comp. Clin. Pathol. 19(3): 275-282.
[22] Zailani, A. H., Jada, S. M. and Wurochekke, U. A. (2010). Antimicrobial Activity of Waltheria Indica . Journal of American Science. 6 (12):1591-1594.
[23] Zumla, A., Hafner, R., Lienhardt, C., Hoelscher, M. and Nunn, A. (2012). Advancing the development of tuberculosis therapy. Nature reviews. Drug discovery. 11 (3): 171–172.

Aska, A. S., Abdu, M.S., Madara, M.S., Nkafamiya I. I. & Garba, S., “Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-Mycobacterial Activity of Some Selected Medicinal Plants” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.17-21 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-10/17-21.pdf

Download PDF


Affordable Life Insurance Spending Among B40 Income Group in Malaysia: A Case Study
Noraini Manan, Nurhasniza Idham Abu Hasan, Nur Faezah Jamal October 2021 – Page No.: 22-25

Life insurance is critical in providing coverage and protection against the risk of a person’s death and total permanent disability. However, only a small number of Malaysians own life insurance and a few of them are from the B40 group. This paper examines the consumption of Life Insurance and Takaful policies for the B40 group in Malaysia. The secondary data were obtained from 15 Takaful operators in Malaysia from the year 2014-2019. There are six factors namely, (1) Ethnicity, (2) Monthly Income, (3) Gender, (4) Age, (5) Occupation, and (6) Highest level of education that use to predict the affordance amount of insurance spending among B40 group in Malaysia. By using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) indicates that ethnicity, monthly income, and education level were statistically significant to predict the affordance amount of insurance spending among B40 group in Malaysia. Based on their monthly income, the average affordable amounts spending among B40 group were RM 43.48±84.38. Therefore, in promoting financial services that are accessible to all Malaysian especially B4 group, it was suggested to provide an affordable amount of premium for B40 group.

Page(s): 22-25                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 October 2021

 Noraini Manan
Center for Actuarial Sciences Studies, Faculty of Computer & Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia

 Nurhasniza Idham Abu Hasan
Department of Statistics, Faculty of Computer & Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch, Tapah Campus, 35400 Tapah Road, Perak, Malaysia

 Nur Faezah Jamal
Department of Statistics, Faculty of Computer & Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perak Branch, Tapah Campus, 35400 Tapah Road, Perak, Malaysia

[1] Krishnan, D. B. (2020). LIAM urges Malaysians to get life insurance coverage. New Straits
[2] Times Online. https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2020/09/623238/liam-urgesmalaysians-get-life-insurance-coverage
[3] Manan, N., Hasan, N. I. A., Jamal, N. F., & Hasan, N. A. (2021). Development of VBA Program for Affordable Premium and Coverage for Lower Income Group in Malaysia. International Journalof Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 11(8), 1819–1831.
[4] Hwang, T., &Gao, S. (2003). The determinants of the demand for life insurance in an emerging economy–the case of China. Managerial Finance.29(5-6), 82–96.
[5] Lajuni, N., Lai, F. H., Sondoh Jr., S., &Mohidin, R. (2020). Consumer Knowledge on Intention to Purchase Life Insurance. Labuan E-Journal of Muamalat and Society, 14,69–79.
[6] Gustina & Nurdianawati, I. A. (2019). Analysis of Demand for Family Takaful and Life Insurance: A Comparative Study in Malaysia. Journal of Islamic Economics, Banking and Finance,8(4).
[7] Malaysian Takaful Association. (2017). 2017 Annual Report. Retrievedfrom https://www.malaysiantakaful.com.my/sites/ default/files/2020-03/AR-2017.pdf.
[8] Lim, C. C., & Tan, S. S. (2019). Demographic profiling of life insurance ownership in the northern regions of Malaysia. International Journal of Business and Society, 20(3), 1022–1035.
[9] Tan, A. K. G., Yen, S. T., Hasan, A. R., &Muhamed, K. (2014b). Demand for Life Insurance in Malaysia: An Ethnic Comparison Using Household Expenditure Survey Data. Asia-Pacific Journal of Risk and Insurance, 8(2).https://doi.org/10.1515/apjri-2013-0007.
[10] Lim, T.S., Dzulkifli, D.Z., Osman, Z., Mohidin, R., Jamal, A.A.A. (2020). Determinants of Perception Toward Life Insurance and Its Impact on Intention to Purchase. Labuan Bulletin of International Business & Finance 18(1), 2600-7894.
[11] Liu, T. C., & Chen, C. S. (2002). An analysis of private health insurance purchasing decisions with national health insurance in Taiwan. Social Science and Medicine, 55(5), 755–774.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277- 9536(01)00201-5.
[12] Bakri, S. M., Ramli, N. R. @, &Sulaiman, N. A. (2018). Insurance Coverage amongst Low Income Households (B40) in Perak. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(11), 1733–1746.
[13] Chi, L. A., Hui, T. K., & Santhanarajan, M. E. (2019). Factors influencing life insurance consumption in Malaysia. In ACM International Conference Proceeding Series (pp. 88–92). Association for Computing Machinery

Noraini Manan, Nurhasniza Idham Abu Hasan, Nur Faezah Jamal, “Affordable Life Insurance Spending Among B40 Income Group in Malaysia: A Case Study” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.22-25 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-10/22-25.pdf

Download PDF


Development of a Destination Image Recovery Model for Enhancing the Performance of the Tourism Sector in Zimbabwe Just Before Covid-19
Kanokanga Phillip Farayi (DPhil) October 2021 – Page No.: 26-39

This study sought to develop a destination image (DI) recovery model for enhancing the performance of the tourism sector in developing countries with particular reference to Zimbabwe. This study was conducted just before the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. This study allows tourism stakeholders to separate the current state of Zimbabwe’s tourism industry after it was exposed to the pandemic from the one it was in just before Covid-19. Many countries across the world are prioritizing tourism because of the role it plays as one of drivers of inclusive growth, job creation, forex generation and environmental preservation. Tourism is one of Africa’s engines of growth and development. The study was prompted by the failure of African tourism destinations to develop destination image recovery models for enhancing tourism performance and yet a number of them require destination image recovery. The study adopted a mixed method approach rooted in the pragmatist paradigm. It used the convergent parallel mixed methodology research approach and a cross sectional survey. Probability and non-probability sampling methods were employed in order to derive the sample from the population. The triangulation of sampling methods was meant to add rigor and enable a full exploration of the research problem. Data were collected in person from a sample of three hundred and nineteen respondents comprising international tourists, service providers and key informants. A structured, semi-structured questionnaire and semi-structured interview guide were used respectively. Quantitative data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and AMOS version 25 while qualitative data was analysed using NVivo version 12. Tests were conducted using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyze the multiple independent variables which included accessibility, amenities ancillary services and prices as well as dependent variables which were affective image and performance. Quantitative data were presented using tables and figures while themes were used to present qualitative data. The major findings of the study were that price, ancillary services and amenities significantly influenced affective image. Ancillary services significantly influenced destination performance. The study recommended that the Ministry of Environment, Tourism and Hospitality organizes workshops to train tourism stakeholders on the management of these destination attributes and include the generality of the host community in image recovery. The study concluded that there was need to adopt the stakeholder approach in order to achieve sustainable destination image recovery.

Page(s): 26-39                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 31 October 2021

 Kanokanga Phillip Farayi (DPhil)
Department of Hospitality and Tourism, P. Bag 1119, Mt Pleasant, Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU)

[1] Ahn, J., & Back, K.-J. (2018). The structural effects of affective and cognitive elaboration information of customer–brand relationship. The Service Industries Journal. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642069.2018.1460358
[2] Artuger, S., & Cetinsoz, B. C. (2017). The Impact of Destination Image and the Intention to Revisit: A Study Regarding Arab Tourists. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 13(5), 82. https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2017.v13n5p82
[3] Avraham, E., & Ketter, E. (2017). Destination marketing during and following crises: combating negative images in Asia. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2016.1237926
[4] Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. W. (1999). A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00030-4
[5] Bevan, D., & Werhane, P. (2011). Stakeholder theory. In Business Ethics and Continental Philosophy. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139013338.004
[6] Chon, K.-S. (2015). Traveler Destination Image Modification Process and Its Marketing Implications. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-13254-9_96
[7] Clouse, C., & Dixit, A. (2018). Defining place image. In Digital Marketing and Consumer
[8] Engagement: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-5187-4.ch003
[9] Creswell J. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches: Fourth edition (4th ed.). SAGE Publications Inc, United Kingdom.
[10] Crompton, J. L. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(79)90004-5
[11] Fond, B., Abram, C., & Beyrau, F. (2015). On the characterisation of tracer particles for thermographic particle image velocimetry. Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-014-5997-5
[12] Field, A. P. (2016). Discovering statistics using SPSS: (and sex and drugs and rock “n” roll). SAGE Publications
[13] Garay, L., & Morales Pérez, S. (2017). Understanding the creation of destination images through a festival’s Twitter conversation. International Journal of Event and Festival Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEFM-04-2016-0030
[14] Gopalakrishnan, B.N., Peters, R. ad Vanzetti, D. (2020). Covi-19 and tourism: Assessing the economic consequences. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
[15] Harrison, H., Birks, M., Franklin, R., & Mills, J. (2017). Case study research: Foundations and methodological orientations. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung
[16] Hosany, S., Ekinci, Y., & Uysal, M. (2006). Destination image and destination personality: An application of branding theories to tourism places. Journal of Business Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.01.001
[17] Ismail, N., Masron, T., & Ahmad, A. (2014). Cultural Heritage Tourism in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges. SHS Web of Conferences. https://doi.org/10.1051/shsconf/20141201059
[18] Kani, Y., Aziz, Y. A., Sambasivan, M., & Bojei, J. (2017). Antecedents and outcomes of destination image of Malaysia. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2017.05.001
[19] Kim, D., & Perdue, R. R. (2011). The influence of image on destination attractiveness. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2011.562850
[20] Le, A. V. (2017). Trump’s presidency: the future of American tourism industry. Journal of Tourism Futures. https://doi.org/10.1108/JTF-11-2016-0050
[21] Lopez-Guzman, T., & Gonzalez Santa-Cruz, F. (2016). International tourism and the UNESCO category of intangible cultural heritage. International Journal of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-03-2015-0025
[22] Mapingure, C., du Plessis, E., & Saayman, M. (2019). Travel motivations of domestic tourists: The case of Zimbabwe. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure.
[23] Marso, & Gunawan. (2018). Destination image and its consequences in the perspective of four-stage loyalty model (an empirical evidence from visitors of Tarakan City, Indonesia). Problems and Perspectives in Management. https://doi.org/10.21511/ppm.16(2).2018.25
[24] Mpotaringa, M. C., & Hattingh, J. L. (2019). Demographics and consumer behaviour of visitors to the Wegry/Drive Out Bull Run motorsport event. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure.
[25] Njerekai, C., & Mabika, P. (2016). A Review of the Global Trophy Hunting Procedures and Processes with Illustrations from Zimbabwe. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 5(1), 1–15. Retrieved from http//:www.ajhtl.com
[26] Nyaruwata, S., & Runyowa, D. (2017). Visitor perceptions on Zimbabwe as a tourist destination and implications for policy directions. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure.
[27] POPESCU, D., POPA, I., & DOBRIN, O. C. (2015). Strategies of Luxury Brands and the Potential of Emerging Markets. Managerial Challenges of the Contemporary Society.
[28] Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2016). Formulating the research design. Research Methods for Business Students. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60327-198-1
[29] Sekaran, U. (2011). Research methods: A skill building approach. John Wiley & Sons. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.
[30] Smirnov, A., Kashevnik, A., Mikhailov, S., Mironov, M., & Petrov, M. (2016). Ontologybased collaboration in multi-robot system: Approach and case study. 2016 11th Systems of Systems Engineering Conference, SoSE 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/SYSOSE.2016.7542945
[31] Sonnleitner, K. (2016). From Sage on the Stage to Guide on the Side. Zeitschrift Für Didaktik Der Rechtswissenschaft. https://doi.org/10.5771/2196-7261-2016-4-288
[32] Soonsan, N., Humanities, P. M.-, & Studies, A. and S. S. (2017). Marketing Mix Approaches in Behavioural Intention to Souvenir-purchase: A Comparative Study between Thai and Chinese Tourists. Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts.
[33] Stylidis, D., & Cherifi, B. (2016). Characteristics of destination image: visitors and non-visitors’ images of London. Tourism Review. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-05-2017-0090
[34] Stylidis, D., Shani, A., & Belhassen, Y. (2017). Testing an integrated destination image model across residents and tourists. Tourism Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.10.014
[35] Stylos, N., Vassiliadis, C. A., Bellou, V., & Andronikidis, A. (2016). Destination images, holistic images and personal normative beliefs: Predictors of intention to revisit a destination. Tourism Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.09.006
[36] Subedi, D. (2016). Explanatory Sequential Mixed Method Design. American Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 4, 2016, Pages 570-577. https://doi.org/10.12691/EDUCATION-4-7-10
[37] Tang, Y. (2014). Travel Motivation, Destination Image and Visitor Satisfaction of International Tourists After the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake: A Structural Modelling
[38] Approach. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2013.844181
[39] UNWTO. (2018). UNWTO World Tourism Barometer and Statistical Annex, October
[40] 2018. In UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (English version). https://doi.org/10.18111/wtobarometereng.2018.16.4.1
[41] UNWTO. (2018). UNWTO World Tourism Barometer and Statistical Annex, October
[42] 2018. In UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (English version). https://doi.org/10.18111/wtobarometereng.2018.16.4.1
[43] Walters, G., Mair, J., & Lim, J. (2016). Sensationalist media reporting of disastrous events: Implications for tourism. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2016.04.008
[44] Wijaya, S., Wahyudi, W., Kusuma, C. B., & Sugianto, E. (2018). Travel motivation of Indonesian seniors in choosing destination overseas. International Journal of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-09-2017-0095
[45] World Bank. (2017). World Bank: Country and Lending Groups.
[46] World Economic Forum. (2017). The Global Risks Report 2017 12th Edition. In Insight Report. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
[47] World Travel & Tourism Council. (2016). Economic Impact 2016 – Annual Update Summary. World Travel & Tourism Council.
[48] Woyo, E., Slabbert, E., & Saayman, M. (2019). Do socio-demographic characteristics influence destination attractiveness perceptions after political turmoil: The case of Zimbabwe? African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure.
[49] Xu, H., & Ye, T. (2018). Dynamic destination image formation and change under the effect of various agents: The case of Lijiang, ‘The Capital of Yanyu.’ Journal of Destination Marketing and Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2016.06.009
[50] Yacout, O. M., & Hefny, L. I. (2015). Use of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, demographics, and information sources as antecedents to cognitive and affective destination image for Egypt. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 21(1), 37–52. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766714538444
[51] Zhang, H., Fu, X., Cai, L. A., & Lu, L. (2014). Destination image and tourist loyalty: A metaanalysis. Tourism Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2013.06.006
[52] Zheng, P., Zheng, Z., Luo, X., Chen, X., & Liu, X. (2018). A detailed and real-time performance monitoring framework for blockchain systems. Proceedings – International Conference on Software Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1145/3183519.3183546
[53] Zimbabwe Tourism Authority. (2015). Tourism Trends and Statistics Report. Journal of Chemical Informationand Modeling, 53(9), 1689–1699. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
[54] Zimbabwe Tourism Authority. (2016). Overview of Tourism Performance in 2016. 0–12.
[55] ZIMSTAT. (2016). Compendium of Statistics. 1–190. Retrievedfrom http://www.eso.ky/UserFiles/right_page_docums/files/uploads/the_cayman_islands_co mpendium_of_statist-1.pdf

Kanokanga Phillip Farayi (DPhil), “Development of a Destination Image Recovery Model for Enhancing the Performance of the Tourism Sector in Zimbabwe Just Before Covid-19” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.26-39 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-10/26-39.pdf

Download PDF


Experimental Investigation for the Solar Pond Performance at changing its depth in Kerbela city of Iraq
Mohammed Hassan Abbood, Mohammed Alhwayzee, and Muhammad Abdul Hussein Sultan October 2021 – Page No.: 40-42

A solar pond is an application that is used to store large amounts of thermal energy. Solar pond with a salinity gradient was constructed in this research salt containing sodium chloride was used with a concentration of 26%. Initial experiments were conducted with 0.3m thickness of the pond lower zone, then the thickness was changed to 0.4m. It was conducted in Iraq at Karbala (32.55°N, 43.97°E). Useful energy and thermal efficiency are key factors used to measure the performance of a solar pond. The results showed that solar radiation could be got at about 1 pm. The results also showed that the maximum lower zone’s temperature of the pond with a thickness 0.3m and 0.4m is about 46.2 °C and 49.2 °C respectively. It was also concluded that changing the thickness of the lower zone improves the thermal energy, useful energy and thermal efficiency of solar pond by 6.5%, 21.7% and 14.5% respectively.

Page(s): 40-42                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 November 2021

 Mohammed Hassan Abbood
M.Sc. Student, Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Kerbala City, Iraq

 Mohammed Alhwayzee
Petroleum Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Kerbala City, Iraq

 Muhammad Abdul Hussein Sultan
M.Sc. Student, Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Kerbala City, Iraq

[1] Al Alawin, A.(2014). Performance of Solar pond Greenhouse Heating System in Jordan.‏ Iosr journal of mechanical and civil engineering volume 11, issue 5 ver.Ii, pp 30-35.
[2] Saifullah, A. Z. A., Iqubal, A. S., Saha, A., Mesda, Y. Isik, B., Okoro, A. U., & Ndubueze, V. O. (2012). Solar pond and its application to desalination. Asian Transactions on Science & Technology, 2(3), 1-25.‏
[3] Husan, J. M., Khalaf, H. A., & Hashem, A. L. (2007). Study the Performance of the Solar Ponds for Iraq Marshes. Univesity of Thi-Qar Journal, 3(3).
[4] Alenezi, I. (2012). Salinity gradient solar ponds: Theoretical modelling and integration with desalination. University of Surrey (United Kingdom).‏
[5] Kanan, S., Dewsbury, J., & Lane-Serff, G. (2014,January). A simple heat and mass transfer model for salt gradient solar ponds. In International Conference on Energy and Environmental Sciences (pp. 27-33). World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology.‏
[6] Kanan, S. M. J. A. (2017). Modelling of a solar pond as a combined heat source and store to drive an absorption cooling system for a building in Iraq. The University of Manchester (United Kingdom).‏
[7] Sayer, A. H. (2017). An experimental and theoretical investigation of novel configurations of solar ponds for use in Iraq. University of Surrey (United Kingdom).‏
[8] Rohan V V 2015, Design of a Solar Pond as an Energy Storage System for the Pasteurization process in Dairy, Sweden, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)ISSN 2319-7064.
[9] John A. Duffie , William A. Beckman. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. Fourth Edition. Chapter 1. P(37).

Mohammed Hassan Abbood, Mohammed Alhwayzee, and Muhammad Abdul Hussein Sultan, “Experimental Investigation for the Solar Pond Performance at changing its depth in Kerbela city of Iraq” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.40-42 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-10/40-42.pdf

Download PDF


An evaluation of the teaching of reading and writing skills to Grade 2 pupils: A case of Lushishi Basic and Kaleo Community schools in Nchelenge district of Luapula Province
Lufeyo Chitondo October 2021 – Page No.: 43-54

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the teaching of reading and writing skills of Grade 2 pupils in two schools in Nchelenge district of Luapula Province, Zambia and the study sought to investigate the reading and writing teaching and learning materials and the methods used by teachers in teaching reading and writing in the two schools. The study employed a mixed paradigm and descriptive survey design that sampled two schools, Head teachers, in-service coordinators, senior teachers, teachers and learners. Data was obtained from respondents by means of interviews, questionnaires and classroom observation schedules. The sample consisted of fifty respondents. Frequency, percentages, tables, graphs and pie-charts were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data obtained. Data was then analyzed manually in some cases and also, a combination of software MS Access and MS Excel. The study found learners in Basic school performed better than those in Community school due to lack of orientation of teachers on the use of books and methodologies in teaching reading and writing Grade 2, lack of adherence to the stipulated Grade 2 literacy lesson procedure and the teaching of reading and writing with hardly any teaching and learning aids, teachers not teaching the Grade 2 class using the four pace groups and teachers’ poor organization of the teaching corner and lack of books in class libraries. The findings revealed that Grade 2 learners’ performance and achievement in reading and writing in the basic school was higher than those that were in the community school and the study recommended that the Ministry of Education should improve school infrastructure and supply books and desks while school administrators should ensure that teachers’ orientations and monitoring are done and teachers should adhere to the stipulated lesson procedure, teach using aids, use pace groups when teaching, organize teaching corner well and adhere to homework and remedial work policies.

Page(s): 43-54                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 08 November 2021

 Lufeyo Chitondo
Zambian Open University, Lusaka, Zambia

[1] Abbot, J. and Wingard, P. (1981). The teaching of English as an internationallanguage, London: Colleen.
[2] Afolayan, A. Hillon, P. and Mac Anley, J. (1980). Teaching Primary English. Essex: Longman Group Ltd.
[3] Ainscon, M. Tweddle, D. (1984). Early learning skills analysis. New York: John Wiley and sons.
[4] Allen H.B. and Campbell, R.N. (eds). (1974). The Edinburgh course in appliedlinguistics 3, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[5] Awoniyi, T.A. (1982). The teaching of African languages. London: Hoddes Stronhton.
[6] Bailey, R. and Broadbent, L. (2001). Helping young children to listen. Birmongham: Lawrence Educational.
[7] Boon, D.R. (1963). Infant speech and language development, Washington D.C: Volta Bureau.
[8] Brumfit, C. (1984). Communicative methodology in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[9] Brumfit, C.J. and Johnson, K. (Eds), (1979). The communicative approach to language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[10] Byrne, D. (1991). Teaching oral skills.Horlaw Carter: Longman Ltd.
[11] Byrne, D. (1994). Teaching writing skills, London: Longman.
[12] Chiappe, P. Sugel, L. and Wade-Woolley, L. (2002).”Linguistic diversity and the development of reading skills: A Longitudinal Study.” Scientific Studies ofReading, 6(4): 369-400.
[13] Child, D. (1986). Application of Psychology for the teacher. London: Cassel Education Limited.
[14] Cobb, D (1984). It’s Fun to write, London: Longman
[15] Coombs, B. (1995). Successful teaching, a practical handbook, Suffolk: Heinemann.
[16] Clark, S. (2001). Unlocking Formative Assessment. Hodder and Toughton.
[17] Clay, M. (1993). An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement. London: Heinemann.
[18] Cremin, T. Bearne, E. Goodwin, P. and Mottram, M. (2008). “Primary Teachers as Readers.” English in Education 42(1):1-16.
[19] DES (1993). Curriculum Organisation and Classroom Practice in Primary Schools- A discussion paper, HMSO.
[20] Farrant, J. (1980). Education Practice and Theories. London: Longman Publishers Ltd.
[21] Fuchs, L.S., Hosp, M.K. and Jenkins, B.R. (2001).” Oral Reading Fluency as an Indicator of Reading Competency: A theoretical and
[22] EmpiricalhistoricaL analysis.” Scientific studies of Reading, 5(6), 239-256.
[23] Fromkin, V., Rodman, R. and Hyams, N (2007). An Introduction to Language. New York: Michael Rosenburg.
[24] Gunner, E. (1991). A handbook for teaching African literature, London: Heinemann.
[25] Harlen, W. (2007). Assessment of Learning. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
[26] Harmer, J. (1991). The Practice of English Language Teaching. Essex: Longman.
[27] Hill, L.A. (1976). Writing for a purpose, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[28] Hick, S.C, Hapler, S and Hickman. (1993). Children’s Literature in the Elementary school, London: Brown and Benchmark.
[29] Jackson, S. (1979). A Teachers’ Guide to tests and testing, London: Longman Group Limited.
[30] Ker, W.P. (1996). Form and style in poetry, London: Macmillan.
[31] Maynard, N.J. (1970). Child study. London: Oxford University Press.
[32] Medwell, J. Moore, G. Wray, D. and Griffths, V. (2012). Primary English-Knowledge and Understanding. London: SAGE Publications.
[33] Mills, H.R. (1977). Teaching and Training, London: Mac Millan Educational Limited.
[34] Ministry of Education. (1976). Education for Development-Draft Statement on Educational Reforms. Lusaka: Government Printers. Lusaka: Government Printers.
[35] Ministry of Education. (1977).Educational Reforms. Lusaka: Government Printers.
[36] Ministry of Education. (1990). Zambia basic education course Grade 1 Englishteacher’s Guide Part A: The resource book, Lusaka: CDC.
[37] Ministry of Education. (1992). Focus on Learning. Lusaka: Government Printers.
[38] Minstry of Education. (1994). Teacher training college reading file volume 4, Lusaka: MOE.
[39] Ministry of Education. (1996). Educating Our Future: Policy on Education, Lusaka: Government Printers.
[40] Ministry of Education. (2002). Primary teacher’s diploma by distance learning module 2: Literacy and language. Lusaka: Nistcol.
[41] Ministry of Education. (2007). SPRINT: A Teachers’ Guide for School-Base Continuing Professional Development. Lusaka: New Horizon Printing.
[42] Ministry of Education. (2009). School-Based Continuing Professional Development (SBCPD) Through Lesson Study. Lusaka: JICA.
[43] Moore, B. (1989). Reading for whole language learning, Ontario: Pembroke Publishers Limited.
[44] Ohannessian, S. (1978). Language in Zambia, London: International African Institute.
[45] Quist, D. (2000). Primary Teaching Methods. London: Macmillan.
[46] Raimes, A. (1983). Techniques for teaching writing, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[47] Richards, J.C. and Rodgers, T.S. (1986). Approaches and methods in language teaching, New York: Cambridge University Press.
[48] Thomson, H. (2001). Teaching Primary English. Oxford: Macmillan.
[49] Willis, J. (1981). Teaching English through English, London: Longman.
[50] Wing Jan, L. (1991). Write ways-modelling writing forms, Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
[51] Yule, G. (1993). The Study of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[52] ZATEC, Literacy and Languages, Module 1, Longman, 1998.

Lufeyo Chitondo, “An evaluation of the teaching of reading and writing skills to Grade 2 pupils: A case of Lushishi Basic and Kaleo Community schools in Nchelenge district of Luapula Province” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.43-54 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-10/43-54.pdf

Download PDF


The Impact of use of manipulates on the math scores of grade 2 students
Abdallah Soma October 2021 – Page No.: 55-57

This research report “The Impact of Use of manipulates on the math scores of grade 2 students” Liggett (2017) published in the Brock Education Journal is a quantitative research report. According to Leavy (2017), “quantitative research is characterised by deductive approaches to the research process aimed at proving, disproving, or lending credence to existing theories. This type of research involves measuring variables and testing relationships between variables to reveal patterns, correlations, or causal relationships. Researchers may employ linear methods of data collection and analysis that result in statistical data” p.9. Thus, the author of this journal under study (Liggett, 2017) adopted an experimental research design (which is deductive) to prove the hypothetical idea that “the use of manipulates can improve upon Grade 2 students’ mathematics scores”. (p.6). This study represented a true experimental design because of three factors namely manipulation, control, and randomization (Creswell, 2009). As such, the researcher used random selection to establish the treatment group and control school who are all Grade 2 students in a school in Northern Saskatchewan. He subjected the two groups to series of tests before and after his intervention (experiment) which saw the treatment group using mathematical manipulatives (plastic unifix cubes) for a specific period and the control group being denied the use of those manipulatives in Mathematics lessons.

Page(s): 55-57                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 11 November 2021

 Abdallah Soma
Department of Basic Education Studies, Faculty of Education, University for Development Studies, Ghana

[1] Bak, N. (2015). Research proposal guide. Cape Town: retrieve on 11th April, 2021 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275040624.
[2] Bryman, A. (2007).The research question in social research: What is its role? International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 10, 5-20.
[3] Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2018). Research Methods (8th Ed.). New York: Routledge.
[4] Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage.
[5] Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
[6] Gravetter, F., & Wallnau, L. (2013). Statistics for the Behavioural Sciences ( 9th Ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth.
[7] Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methods, art-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. New York: Guilford Press
[8] Liggett, R. S. (2017). The impact of use of manipulates on the math scores of grade 2 students. Brock Education Journal, 26(2), 87-93.

Abdallah Soma, “The Impact of use of manipulates on the math scores of grade 2 students” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.55-57 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-10/55-57.pdf

Download PDF


Determinants of Viability of Islamic Banking Products: A Case Study of Jaiz Bank Plc
Malanta S. Abdullahi, Adamu Kuku Usman and Nuraddeen M. Lawal October 2021 – Page No.: 58-67

This paper investigates the long-term prospects of Islamic banking products in Nigeria amidst the rising popularity/acceptability of non-interest banking, especially the Islamic banking system. The rationale is to examine how the products of Islamic Banks contribute to the banks’ level of profitability and to also find out what factors affect the viability of Islamic banking products. Jaiz Bank Plc being the first official Islamic bank to be introduced into the Nigerian banking sphere is considered as a case study. The range of products/services offered by the bank are investigated in detail as well as their viability, keeping in mind the socio-economic and demographic factors prevailing in the environment. Data were sourced primarily with the help of a structured questionnaire. Discrete choice models were used as the econometrics tools of data analysis and the impact of seven variables was assessed on the viability of Islamic banking products. Also, Heteroskedasticity, Multicollinearity and F. tests were all conducted to ascertain the validity of the analysis. Six independent variables were found to be statistically significant at 1% levels and conform to a priori expectations. While the remaining variable even though it conformed to a priori expectations; was not found to be statistically significant. The research discovered that Islamic banking products are viable enough to add to the bottom line/profitability of Islamic financial institutions.

Page(s): 58-67                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 November 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.81002

 Malanta S. Abdullahi
Economics Department, Yobe State University Damaturu, Nigeria

 Adamu Kuku Usman
Economics Department, Yobe State University Damaturu, Nigeria

 Nuraddeen M. Lawal
Economics Department, Yobe State University Damaturu, Nigeria

[1] Abdul Majid, A. R. (2003). Development of Liquidity Management Instruments: Challenges and Opportunities. International Conference on Islamic Banking: Risk Management, Regulation, and Supervision. Jakarta, Indonesia.
[2] Ahmad, N., & Haron, S. (2002). Perceptions of Malaysian corporate customers towards Islamic banking products and services. International Journal of Islamic Financial Services, 3(4), 13-29.
[3] Ahmed, H. (2014). Islamic banking and Shari’ah compliance: a product development perspective. Journal
of Islamic finance., 3(2), 15-29.
[4] Ahsan, A. S. M. (1988). Islamic Banking in Perspective, in Molla, R. I. Et al., (eds) Frontiers and Mechanics of Islamic Economics. Sokoto, University of Sokoto Press
[5] Alam, M. N. (2003). Micro Credit through ‘Bai-Muajjal’ Mode of Islamic Banking Financing System. Conference of SANABEL (Canada).
[6] Al-Harran, S. A. S. (1993). Musharakah Financing: Concept, Principles, and Financing. Institute for Policy Research, Malaysia.
[7] Al-Harran, S. A. S. (1993). Islamic Finance: Partnership Financing. Pelanduk Publications, Malaysia.
[8] Asquith, P., Gertner, R. & Scharfstein, D. (1994). Anatomy of Financial Distress: An Examination of Junk-Bond Issuers. Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 109 No.3
[9] Balogun, O. L. & Yusuf, S. A. (2011). Determinants of Demand for Microcredit among the Rural Households in South-Western States. Nigeria Journal of Agriculture & Social Science
[10] Balogun, O. L., & Yusuf, S. A. (2011). Effect of Social Capital on Welfare of Rural Households in South-Western States. Nigeria Journal of American Sciences (ISSN: 1545-1003). Available on-line at http://www.americanscience.org
[11] Choong, B. S. & Liu, M. (2006). Islamic Banking: Interest-Free or Interest-Based? Available on-line at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=868567
[12] Danbatta, L., B. (2011). An Empirical Study on the Viability of Islamic Banking System in Nigeria, IIUM Institute of Banking and Finance International Islamic University Malaysia
[13] Dar, H. & Presley, J. (1999). Islamic Finance, a Western Prospective. International Journal of Islamic Financial Services
[14] Dar, H. & Presley, J. (2000). Lack of Profit Loss Sharing in Islamic Banking: Management and Control Imbalances. See on-line: www.researchgate.net/publication/2440824_Lack_of_Profit_Loss_Sharing_in_Islamic_Banking_management_and_Control_Imbalances/links/0e5fa778f0c41c4932e1a446.pdf
[15] Dogarawa, A. B. (2011). An Exploratory Study of the Economic Viability of and Opportunities for Islamic Banking in Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Management, Economics and Commerce, Volume2 Issue 1 ISSN: 2250-057X. Available on-line: indusedu.org/IJRMEC/jan(vol1%20 issue3)/1.pdf
[16] Galbraith, J. K. (1972). The New Industrial State. (New York: New American Library).
[17] Hanif, M. (2016). Profit and Loss Sharing in Islamic Banking and Finance. Islamic Finance Review, Vol 5
[18] Iqbal, M. & Molyneux, P. (2005). Thirty Years of Islamic Banking: History, Performance and Prospects. See on-line: kantakji.com/media/1878/9008.pdf
[19] Jalaluddin, A. (1999). Attitudes Towards and the Probability of Applying the Profit/Loss Sharing Method of Finance by Western Small Business Firms’ in Islamic Banking and Finance: Current Developments in Theory and Practice. Anthony Rowe Ltd, Britain.
[20] Jama, S. H. (2009). Islamic Finance Industry: A Safe Heaven. Al-manar: Internal Information Bulletin of Islamic Development Bank.
[21] Khan, M. & Mirakhor, A. (1989). The Financial System and Monetary Policy in an Islamic Economy, JKAU: Islamic Economics, Jeddah Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 39-57.
[22] Khan, T. (1997). An Analysis of Risk Sharing in Islamic Finance with Special Reference to Pakistan. PhD Dissertation (unpublished), Loughborough University, Loughborough.
[23] Khan, M. F. (1997). Social Dimensions of Islamic Banks in Theory and Practice. Islamic Research and Training Institute, Islamic Development Bank, Manuscript.
[24] Khan, T. (2004). Risk Management in Islamic Banking: A Conceptual Framework. Distance Learning Lecture.
[25] Obaidullah, M. (2005): “Islamic Financial Services”. Scientific Publishing Center, King Abdulaziz University.
[26] Oyedele, K. F., Ayolabi, E. A., Adeoti, L. & Adegbola, R. B. (2009). Geophysical and Hydrogeological Evaluation of Rising Groundwater Level in the Coastal Areas of Lagos, Nigeria, Bull Eng Geol Environ.
[27] Oyeniran, B. F. (2012). Can Islamic Banking Work in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa (Volume 14, No. 2, 2012) ISSN: 1520-5509, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, Pennsylvania.
[28] Presley, J. H. (1988). Directory of Islamic Financial Institutions, London. Croom Helm, Beckenham, London. “Product Differentiation. Available on-line at www.marketing91.com/product-differentiation/ accessed on 23/03/2021.
[29] Rahji, M. A. Y., Fakayode, S. B. (2009). A Multinomial Logit Analysis of Agricultural Credit Rationing by Commercial Banks in Nigeria. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics 24(8):90-100. Published by Eurojournals Academic Publishers Inc England. Available on-line at http://www.eurojournals.com/irjfe_24_08.pdf.
[30] Rahji, M. A. Y. & Adeoti, A. I. (2010). Determinants of Agricultural Credit Rationing by Commercial Banks in South-West Nigeria. International Journal of Finance and Economics, Vol. 37. Available on-line at http://www.eurojournals.com/irjfe_37_01.pdf.
[31] Rahmi, M., Azma, N., Obad, F. M., Zaim, M., & Rahman, M. (2020). Perception of Islamic banking products: Evidence from Malaysia. Journal of Business and Enviromental Studies 10-3 (2020) 35-42.
[32] Rustam, S., Bibi, S., Zaman, K., Rustam, A., & Haq, Z. U. (2011). Perceptions of corporate customers
towards Islamic banking products and services in Pakistan. The Romanian Economic Journal, 41(4),
[33] Saini, Y. Bick, G, & Abdulla, L. 2011. Consumer awareness and usage of Islamic banking Products in South Africa, South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 14(3): 298-313.
[34] Siddiqui, S. H. (2001). Islamic banking: true modes of financing. New Horizon, 109(2), 15-20.
[35] Singh, T. (2013). The Outlook of Islamic Banking Model: Global & India Perspective. Public Policy and Administration Research ISSN 2224-5731 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0972 (Online) Vol.3, No.7, 2003. See on-line: http://www.google.com.ng/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCoQFjADahUKEwj77aT0h63HAhWBvRQKHdbND9U&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.iiste.org%2FJournals%2Findex.php%2FPPAR%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F6962%2F7053&ei=UDnQVfuFEYH7Utabv6gN&usg=AFQjCNEenYpZi3znULYI0R-DXwV_cwS9qA&bvm=bv.99804247,d.d24 accessed on 16/03/2021
[36] The Economist (print edition) (2008): Faith-Based Finance. September 4. 14. The New Straits Times Supplement 30 August 2008, P.7).
[37] Usmani, Muhammad Taqi (2002). An Introduction to Islamic Finance. Kluwer Law International
[38] Usmani, M. I. A. (2002). Meezan Banks Guide to Islamic Banking. Darul Ishaat, Pakistan.
[39] Vahed, G. & Vawda, S. (2008). The Viability of Islamic Banking and Finance in a Capitalist Economy: A South African Case Study. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 28(3): 453-472.
[40] Woodley, S. (2009). Growing Interest in Islamic Finance. W ashington, DC: The Diplomatic Courier: A Global Affairs Magazine.
[41] Zaher, T. S. & Hassan, M. K. (2002). A Comparative Literature Survey of Islamic Finance and Banking. Financial Markets, Institutions and Instruments.
[42] Zaidi, I. & Mirakhor, A. (1991). Stabilization and Growth in an Open Islamic Economy. Review of Islamic Economics.

Malanta S. Abdullahi, Adamu Kuku Usman and Nuraddeen M. Lawal, “Determinants of Viability of Islamic Banking Products: A Case Study of Jaiz Bank Plc” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.58-67 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.81002

Download PDF


Analysis of Influence of Strategic Planning Practices on Organization Performance: A Case of Baringo County Government, Kenya
Valerie Kemboi, Sedina Misango October 2021 – Page No.: 68-76

Ever since the advent of globalization, the interest in strategic management studies has attracted the attention of academic scholars as well as business practitioners. Organizations have continued to realize the vital role played by strategic planning towards the realization of its goals and objectives. This study set out to answer the question: what is the effect of strategic planning practices on organization performance in Kenya. Data was analyzed and presented using methods of dispersion statistics such as means, frequencies, percentages and standard deviations and regression analysis was also used to determine the relationship of the variables. The findings of the study revealed that fundraising was the main form of resource mobilization in Baringo County Government and further that financial resources were the highly allocated resources and that there was a significant positive relationship between resource mobilization strategies, resource allocation strategies and organization performance at the county government. Leadership strategies on organization performance were applied using a policy formulation. Risk management on organization performance; used risk control strategy in the County Government of Baringo. The study, therefore, concluded that resource mobilization on organization performance through fundraising is an important way of resource mobilization. Further, that resource allocation on organization performance through financial resources is important and as well as resource allocation through policy formulations. This study recommends that Baringo County Government should continue to practice and strengthen strategic planning practices for enhanced effectiveness as well as improved organizational performance and the practices would be adopted in all other counties of Kenya where they are not practiced.

Page(s): 68-76                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 17 November 2021

 Valerie Kemboi
P.O. Box 25666, 00100, Nairobi, Kenya

 Sedina Misango
South Eastern Kenya University, P.O Box 170, 90200, Kitui, Kenya

[1] Aiyabei K.K. (2020) Strategic Management and Performance of Hotels in Kabarnet town, Baringo County of Kenya. Unpublished MBA Thesis, University of Nairobi.
[2] Aldehayyat, J, Al Khattab, A.A, &Anchor, J.R (2011). “The use of strategic planning tools and techniques by hotels in Jordan,” Management Research Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 34(4)
[3] Baringo County Budget Review and Outlook Paper (2015), Baringo County Government; www.baringo.go.ke.
[4] Baringo County Budget Review and Outlook Paper (2017), Baringo County Government; www.baringo.go.ke.
[5] Haitham. A., (2018). Re: How to statistically compare the coeffiecient of determination (R2) among multiple simple linear models? ttps://www.researchgate.net/post/How-to-statistically-compare-the-coefficient-of-determination-R2-among-multiple-simple-linear-models/5a66bd48ed99e185b46f975c/citation/download.
[6] International Development Research Center. (2010). Advancement for Development Strategic Framework, Canadian Journal of Development Studies.
[7] Kasera, G, K (2014). Vital Administration and Hierarchical Execution: Discovery of the Welfare Foundation in Nairobi Regency. MBA proposal that is not published, Nairobi.
[8] Lemarleni J., Ochieng I., GabokoT,.& Mwaura P. (2017). Impacts of the Task of Assets on the Technology Execution in Kenya Police Service, International Journal of Human Resources and Business Administration Vol 2, Number 4
[9] Mathore. G. (2016). Impact of system execution on association execution An instance of Diamond Trust Bank, Unpublished Journal, University of Nairobi.
[10] Mohamud, M. (2015). The connection between the vital administration and the execution authorized in Mogadishu-Somalia, European Research and Reflection Magazine in Administration Science, 3 (2)
[11] Monday, J., Akinola G., Ologbenla P. & Araraji O. (2015). Key performance and firm performance; An investigation of it chosen the producing companies in Nigeria. European Diary of Business and Management vol.7, No.2
[12] Murithi, J. (2009). Difficulties facing the implementation of commercial strategies in the public sector in Kenya. MBA Thesis not published, University of Nairobi.
[13] Mutuku, C. (2016). The Effect of Risk Management on the Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya, Unpublished MBA Thesis.
[14] Nimfa, D. & Buruche, E. (2014). Impact of Strategic Planning and Organization Productivity in Nigeria.
[15] Nthini, E. (2013). Impacts of vital initiative on the exhibition of business and monetary condition of partnerships in Kenya, Unpublished MBA Thesis, University of Nairobi
[16] Omalaja, M.A. & Eruola, O.A. (2011). Strategic Management Theory: Concepts, Analysis and Critiques in Relation to Corporate Competitive Advantage from the Resource based Philosophy’, Economic Analysis, PP. 59-77
[17] Ridwan, M.S., & Marti, J. (2012). The Study on Strategic Planning and Organization Performance in the Regional Government Owned Banks in Indonesia. International Journal of Humanities and Applied Sciences (IJHAS),1(3),98-102.
[18] Sharabati, A. and Fuqaha, S. (2013). Effect of Strategic Management on the Organization for Manufacturing of Jordanian Pharmaceutical Product Products, International Review of Management and Commercial Research, 3 (2)
[19] Shafiq, A. and Nasr, M. (2010). Hazard management practices followed by commercial banks in Pakistan. Global review of commercial research documents, vol. 6, pp. 308-324.
[20] Yang S., Ishtaq M., and Anwar M., (2018). Enterprise Risk Management Practices and Firm Performance, the Mediating Role of Competitive Advantage and the Moderating Role of Financial Literacy. Journal of Risk and Financial Management,2018, vol. 11, issue 3, 1-17

Valerie Kemboi, Sedina Misango, “Analysis of Influence of Strategic Planning Practices on Organization Performance: A Case of Baringo County Government, Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.68-76 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-10/68-76.pdf

Download PDF


The Impact of Incentives on Ante Natal Care and Delivery in Bauchi State. A Case Study of Conditional Cash Transfer
Mohammed U. Hussaini, Chinoko. I. S, Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim, and Gregory Ehimen Igiba October 2021 – Page No.: 77-83

As part of the project embedded in the subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Program (SURE-P), the Maternal and Child Health component initiated an incentive programme to bring would be mothers for ante and post natal care to the facilities especially child delivery by skilled birth attendant. This cash transfer was set up to ensure effective management of financial resources acquired from the removal of subsidy from 2012, thereby reducing maternal and child mortality rate in line with Millennium Development Goals number four and five. Four Primary Health Care Facilities were chosen for the pilot programme in Bauchi. This paper conducted a research in all the four facilities so as to be able to identify whether the incentive yielded the desired result. Therefore the overall objective of the research is to undertake a study to see the impact the incentives has on ante natal care and delivery in all the four facilities in Bauchi State. The research made use of both primary and secondary data. The data collected were analyzed by the use of descriptive statistics, with the aid of tables and graphs to show the significance of the incentives. The study found that a significant number of women were motivated by the incentives to avail themselves with the ante natal care and delivery by skilled Health worker available at the health facility, we however found delivery at the facility did not increase at the same rate with the ante natal care visits because of the presences of Traditional Birth Attendants in those villages, none Challant attitude of the Health workers towards pregnant women and administrative bottle neck that resulted in late payment and lack of essential items needed for safe delivery. The research concluded by recommending that an effective payment mechanism be put in place, possibly increase the incentive amount, the Traditional Birth Attendants should be incorporated to be part of the skilled birth delivery attendant and prompt supply of all tools needed for safe delivery at the facility.

Page(s): 77-83                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 November 2021

 Mohammed U. Hussaini
School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria

 Chinoko. I. S
School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria

 Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim
School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria

 Gregory Ehimen Igiba
School of Business Studies, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria

[1] Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – 2002 Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 2002.
[2] Surep-MCH www.surepmch.org
[3] Technical Briefs for Policy-Makers 2008. World Health Organisation WHO/HSS/HSF/PB/08.01 Number 1 2008
[4] Janvry DE. and Sadoulet E. 2004. Conditional Cash Transfer programs: Are they really magic bullets? Agricultural Resources Economics Update 69-11 2004.
[5] Fiszbein A. Norbert R. Shady 2009. Conditional Cash Transfer. Reducing present and future poverty. World Bank Policy Research Report Berlin Germany.
[6] Marshall C. and Hill S. P. 2004. Ten best resources on conditional cash transfer. Published by Oxford University Press in association with London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Advance access June 2014.
[7] World Bank Report (2011). “Managing Risk, Promoting Growth: Developing systems for Special Protection in Africa-The World Bank’s Africa Social Protection Strategy 2012-2021” http://openknowledge.worldbank.org
[8] Department for International Department. DFID Cash Transfers Evidence paper, London UK Departmental for International Development 2011
[9] Garcia, M. M. and Charity, M. T. 2012 The Cash Dividend: The Rise of Cash Transfer Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank Group http://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/2246 2012.
[10] Lagarde M. 2007. Conditional cash transfer for improving uptake of health interventions in low and middle income countries: a systemic review. National Library of Medicine, National center for Biotechnology information. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
[11] Baird, S. Francisco, H. G. Fereira, Ozler, B. and Michael W. 2013
Relative Effectiveness of Conditional and Unconditional Cash Transfers for Schooling Outcomes in Developing Countries: Wiley Online Library Campbell systemic review September 2013.
[12] Baird, S. Mcintosh, C. and Olzer B. 2011 Cash or Conditions? Evidence from a Cash Transfer Experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 126 Issue 4, November 2011 pages 1709-1753.
[13] www.unicef.org Social Protection Budget Brief “The Lesotho Child Grants Programme”. UNICEF Lesotho 2020/21.

Mohammed U. Hussaini, Chinoko. I. S, Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim, and Gregory Ehimen Igiba, “The Impact of Incentives on Ante Natal Care and Delivery in Bauchi State. A Case Study of Conditional Cash Transfer” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.77-83 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-10/77-83.pdf

Download PDF


Debt Financing and Manufacturing Firms’ Decision to Export: Evidence from Ghana
Benedict Afful Jr, PhD, Emmanuel Quarshie, Joseph Kwasi Asafo October 2021 – Page No.: 84-88

Adequate financial health indeed accelerates the entry of firms into the export market. Many firms, already in the market, have also fizzled out of export market completely due to lack of finance. It is quiet obverse that debt financing influences not only firm’s performance but also firm’s decision export. Hence, evaluating the relationship between debt financing and manufacturing firms’ decision to export from Ghana have relevant policy implication in the context of developing country. To effectively address the objectives, the study employed the probit model on 377 manufacturing firms obtained from the World Bank Enterprise Survey data (Ghana). The study found that debt financing positively influences the decision to export. In other words, an increase in debt financing increases the firm’s probability of exporting in Ghana. Whiles female top managers are less likely to export than their male counterparts, firms with large workforce are more likely to export. Firms with experienced top managers are also likely to export their products. In terms of location, firms in Tema exports more than firms in Accra and Takoradi. The study recommends that the financial market of Ghana be developed to enable manufacturing firms’ source more external funds in the form of debt finance to enable them export.

Page(s): 84-88                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 19 November 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.81003

 Benedict Afful Jr, PhD.
Department of Economic Studies, School of Economics, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

 Emmanuel Quarshie
Cromwell Property Developers Ltd, East Legon, Accra, Ghana

 Joseph Kwasi Asafo
Network for Socioeconomic Research and Advancement (NESRA), Accra, Ghana

[1] Alvarez, R. & López, R. A. (2014). Exporting and Performance: Evidence from
Chilean Plants. Canadian Journal of Economics, 38(4), 1384‐1400.
[2] Andersson, S., Gabrielsson, J. & Wictor, I. (2004). International Activities in Small Firms: Examining Factors Influencing the Internationalization and Export Growth of Small Firms. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 21(1) 22–34.
[3] Becker, B., Chen, D. & Greenberg, J. (2013). Financial development, fixed costs and international trade. Review of corporate finance studies 2: 1-28.
[4] Bellone, F., Musso, P., Nesta, L. & Schiavo, S. (2010). Financial Constraints and Firm Export Behaviour. The World Economy, 33, 347‐373.
[5] Calabrese, T. D. (2011). Testing Competing Capital Structure Theories of Nonprofit Organizations. Public Budgeting & Finance, 31 (3): 119-143.
[6] Calice, P., Chando, V. M., & Sekioua, S. (2012). Bank financing to small and medium enterprises in east Africa: findings of a survey in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.
[7] Chaney, T. (2005). Liquidity Constrained Exporter. University of Chicago paper.
[8] Das, S., Roberts, M. J., & Tybout, J. R. (2007). Market entry costs, producer heterogeneity, and export dynamics. Econometrica, 75(3), 837-873.
[9] Factbook, C. I. A. (2012). Central Intelligence Agency. Benin, URL: https://www. cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bn. html.
[10] Fernandes, A. M, Ferro, E. & Wilson, J. S. (2014). Product Standards: Do they affect Firms’ Export Decisions? The world Bank. Accessed on 1 September 2017 from http://www.etsg.org/ETSG2014/Papers/447.pdf
[11] Ghana Export Promotion Authority, (2014). Non Traditional Export Sector Performance by Sub-Sectors, GEPA: Accra.
[12] Greene, H. W. (2008). Econometric analysis. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
[13] Gujarati, N. D. (2004). Basic econometrics. The McGraw− Hill.
[14] Jebuni, C. D., Oduro, A. D., Asante, Y. O., & Tsikata, G. K. (1992). Diversifying exports: the supply response of non-traditional exports to Ghana’s economic recovery programme. Overseas Development Institute.
[15] Johnston, J., & DiNardo, J. (1997). Econometric Methods.
[16] Kawas, R. B. (1997). Export Financing. Economic Development Review, 15 (2), 61.
[17] Manova, K. (2008). Credit constraints, equity market liberalization and international trade. Journal of International Economics 76: 33-47.
[18] Mineti, R. & Ch. Zhu., S. (2011). Credit Constraints and Firm Export: Microeconomic: Evidence from Italy. Journal of International Economics, 83, 109‐125.
[19] Nyamita, M. (2014). Factors influencing debt financing and its effects on financial performance of state corporations in Kenya. A Doctoral Thesis, Durban University of Technology.
[20] Olney, W. W. (2016). Impact of corruption on firm-level export decisions. Economic Inquiry, 54(2), 1105–1127.
[21] Tannous, G. F. (1997). Financing export activities of small Canadian business: Exploring the constraints and possible solutions. International Business Review, 6(4), 411-431.
[22] Trading Economics (2020). Ghana Exports by Country in U.S. Dollars, According to the
United Nations COMTRADE Database on International Trade.
[23] Varian, H. (1992). Microeconomic theory. W. W. Norton & Company, New York.
[24] World Bank (2013). World Bank Enterprise Survey.

Benedict Afful Jr, PhD, Emmanuel Quarshie, Joseph Kwasi Asafo, “Debt Financing and Manufacturing Firms’ Decision to Export: Evidence from Ghana” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.84-88 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.81003

Download PDF


Lived Experiences of Learners with Disabilities at Lunsemfwa Primary School, Kapiri-Mposhi District, Zambia
Janet Ndesaula, Fabian Kakana, Peggy Nsama & Francis Simui October 2021 – Page No.: 89-95

The attainment of the Sustainable Development Goal number 4 on education is dependent on how effective inclusive education is implemented in various countries. Even though the implementation of inclusive education is well articulated at primary level, little is being done to monitor its effectiveness. Therefore, in this article, we explore the lived experiences Lived Experiences of Learners with Disabilities at Lunsemfwa Primary School, Kapiri-Mposhi district, Zambia. The article rides on phenomenological approach to explore the lived experiences of learners with various disabilities. Key among the study objectives includes exploration of the lived experiences of learners with disabilities. The findings revealed that learners with disabilities faced the challenges of stigma from peers, lack of support from parents and guardians, lack of socialisation and negative attitudes by teachers and peers. These challenges are as a result of lack of sensitisation by the stakeholders on disability and also lack of skills on how to handle learners with disabilities by some teachers. Therefore, this calls for the government to provide in-service training to teachers in order to improve on their teaching and learning skills. Guidance and counselling in primary schools should be strengthed in order to get away with stigma among peers.

Page(s): 89-95                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 November 2021

 Janet Ndesaula
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia, Zambia

 Fabian Kakana
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia, Zambia

 Peggy Nsama
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia, Zambia

 Francis Simui
Institute of Distance Education, University of Zambia, Zambia

[1] Ackah-Jnr F, R & Danso (2018). Examining the physical environment of Ghanaian Inclusive Schools: how accessible, suitable and appropriate is such environment for Inclusive Education? International Journal of Inclusive Education.
[2] Ainscow A. (2003, 2005). Developing inclusive Education system: what are the levers of change? Journal of Educational change.
[3] Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human development: Experiments by design and Nature. Cambridge: MA, Harvard University Press.
[4] Chitiyo, M & Chitiyo, G. (2007). Special education in Southern Africa: current challenges and future threats. Journal of the international Association of special Education, 8(1), 61-68
[5] Chitiyo, M., & Muwana, F.C (2018). Positive Development in special education in Zambia and Zimbabwe. International journal of whole schooling, 14 (1) 93-115
[6] Christensen, J (2016). A critical reflection of Bronfenbrenner’ Development Ecology Model. Malmo University, Sweden.
[7] Creswell, J.W. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Limited.
[8] Dart, G., Nkanotsang, T., Chizwe, O. and Kowa, L. (2010). Albinism in Botswana Junior secondary schools—A double case study. British Journal of Special Education, 37, 77 –86. doi:10.1111/ j.1467-8578.2010.00465. x.
[9] Kasongole, G.& Muzata, K. K. (2020). “Inclusive Education for Learners with Learning Disabilities in Two Selected Primary Schools of Kabwe-Zambia: A Myth or Reality”. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), vol. 7, no.1, 2020, pp. 01-16. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.20431/2349-0381.0701001.
[10] Langdridge, D. (2007). Phenomenological psychology: Theory, research and Methods. London: Pearson.
[11] Lourens, H. (2015). The lived experiences of higher education for students with a visual impairment: A phenomenological study at two universities in the Western Cape, South Africa. Unpublished PhD Thesis.
[12] Maguvhe, M., (2015). Teaching science and mathematics to students with visual impairments: Reflections of a visually impaired technician. African Journal of Disability 4(1), Art. #194, 6 pages. http://dx.doi. org/10.4102/ajod. v4i1.194.
[13] Manchishi, P.C., Simui, F., Ndhlovu, D., & Thompson, C.L. (2020). Tracing the Experiences of an Inaugural Postgraduate Distance Education Alumni cohort of the University of Zambia. Multidisciplinary Journal of Language and Social Sciences Education. 3 (1), 131-157.
[14] Ministry of Education (1992). Focus on learning: policy paper on Zambian education, LusakaZambia: Author.
[15] Ministry of Education (1996). Educating our future: National policy on education, Lusaka: MOE.
[16] Ministry of Education (1997). Education reform document Lusaka, Zambia.
[17] Ministry of General Education. (2016). Inclusive Education and Special Education in Zambia:Implementation Guidelines. Lusaka: MoGE.
[18] Mtonga, T. (2019). Perceptions of Students with Visual Impairments towards Curriculum Designing, and Students’ Comprehension of Secondary School Development: Reaching out to all Learners; a Resource
[19] Muzata, K.K. (2018). Teaching Skills of Special Education Students during Teaching Practice: The Case of the University of Zambia Pre-service Special Education Students. Multidisciplinary Journal of Language and Social Science Education, 1 (1) 103-137.
[20] Muzata, K.K., Simalalo, M., Kasonde-Ng’andu, S., Mahlo,D., Banja, M.K and Mtonga, T. (2019). Perceptions of Students with Visual Impairments towards their Inclusion in the Faculty of Education at the University of Zambia: A Phenomenological study: Multidisciplinary Journal of Language and Social Sciences Education, 2 (2), 170 – 210.
[21] Simui, F., Kasonde Ngandu, S., Cheyeka, A. & Kakana, F. (2018). Unearthing dilemmas in thesis titles: Lived experience of a novice researcher in Sub Saharan Africa. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 5(4), 99 105. https://bit.ly/34qdnzy
[22] Simui, F., Kasonde-Ngandu, S. Cheyeka, A.M., Simwinga, J., and Ndhlovu, D. (2018). Enablers and disablers to academic success of students with visual impairment: A 10-year literature disclosure, 2007–201. British Journal of Visual Impairment, 36 (2), 163-174. https://doi.org/10.1177/0264619617739932.
[23] Simui, F., Kasonde‑Ngandu, S., Cheyeka, A.M. and Makoe, M. (2019). Lived Disablers to Academic Success of the Visually Impaired at the University of Zambia, Sub‑Saharan Africa. Journal of Student Affairs in Africa. 7(2), 25‑40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24085/jsaa.v7i2.3824.
[24] Simui, F, Muzata, K, K, Sakakombe, L, & Mtonga, T. (2019). Disablers to Academic Success of learners with Special Education in Selected Higher Education Institutions in Zambia. Zambian Journal of Educational Management, Administration and Leadership (ZJEMAL) Vol.1, No 1
[25] Simui, F. (2018). Lived Experiences of Students with Visual Impairments at Sim University in Zambia: A Hermeneutic Phenomelogical Approach Lusaka: University of Zambia. Unpublished PhD Thesis. http://dspace.unza.zm:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/5884.
[26] Simui, F., Waliuya, W, Namitwe, C. & Munsanje, J. (2009). Implementing inclusive education on the Copperbelt in Zambia: (Mufulira & Ndola) Zambia: Sight Savers international in partnership with the Ministry of Education.
[27] Thomas, G. (2013). A review of thinking and research about inclusive education policy, with suggestions for a new kind of inclusive thinking. British Educational Research Journal, 39 (3), 473–490.
[28] Thurston, M. (2014). “They Think They Know What’s Best for Me”: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Experience of Inclusion and Support in High School for Vision-impaired Students with Albinism. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education. 61 (2), 108– 118, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1034912X.2014.905054.
[29] UNESCO (2015). Education for All 2000-2015: Achievements and Challenge, Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
[30] UNESCO (2017). Barriers to Inclusive Education. Bangkok: UNESCO. http://www.unescobkk.org/education/inclusive-education/what-is-inclusiveeducation/ barriers-to-inclusive-education.
[31] UNESCO. (1994). The Salamanca statement and framework for Action on special Needs Education. Salamanca Spain: UN.
[32] WHO (2011). World Health Report on Disability. Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/accessible_en.pdf.

Janet Ndesaula, Fabian Kakana, Peggy Nsama & Francis Simui, “Lived Experiences of Learners with Disabilities at Lunsemfwa Primary School, Kapiri-Mposhi District, Zambia” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.89-95 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-10/89-95.pdf

Download PDF


‘Book Shelf’: A tool to access Books and minimize search time
Aryan Verma, Bhavsar Suraj, Aniket Kumar Singh, Anmol Patel Yadav October 2021 – Page No.: 96-105

Before invent to computer, book mainly referred to hard bound product with details printed on pages. Hence, it was cumbersome for readers to get relevant matter under single point of access. With technological development Books also evolved from contemporary hard print form to Online matter.‘ Globalization is paving way for new dimension from Science to Arts to Medical to Engineering to Computer to Artificial intelligence to Space to Management to Economic, etc. These have in turn given rise various sector/field specific publications leading to increasingly available in electronic format. Its here the role do bookshelves have in the future library.
Summary: For decade’s people have been fond of reading books, major spaces in library had been occupied by open shelves, catering to the information requirements of students, scientists and scholars. But readers interest is impacted by the time expended in searching Books based on Topics, Authors, geners, etc. Hence not many of them are regular in reading new books due to lack of knowledge about the content provided by the author and often feel unwilling to buy them because of their new arrival in the market. New talented authors go unrecognised but this problem can be solved using which clusters the reviews of many people at one place
Of late University and public libraries are slowly transforming into study environments, in which open shelves are being replaced by a variety of other library services. So, the access to the books, journals, magazine, information, etc is increasingly transformed in digital format.
BOOK-SHELF is Mobile application based tool which could be effectively used in University and public libraries, Vendors, stocktist, etc to minimize time and physical efforts in searching hard bound matter.

Page(s): 96-105                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 November 2021

 Aryan Verma
Students –LNCT (under RGPV University), Bhopal (MP), India

 Bhavsar Suraj
LNCT (under RGPV University), Bhopal (MP), India

 Aniket Kumar Singh
LNCT (under RGPV University), Bhopal (MP), India

 Anmol Patel Yadav
LNCT (under RGPV University), Bhopal (MP), India

[1] Livemint, “India smartphone market to reach record 173 mn units in 2021: Report.” https://www.livemint.com/technology/gadgets/india-smartphone-market-to-reach-record-173-mn-units-in-2021-report-11629464307978.html (accessed Nov. 01, 2021).
[2] C. Wilders, “Predicting the Role of Library Bookshelves in 2025,” J. Acad. Librariansh., vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 384–391, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.acalib.2017.06.019.
[3] Y. Hendriana, “Development of Mobile Library Application Based on Android in Universitas Ahmad Dahlan,” Int. J. Innov. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol. (An ISO, vol. 3297, 2007, doi: 10.15680/IJIRSET.2015.0403055.
[4] C. Software, “What is Flutter? Here is everything you should know | by Concise Software | Medium.” https://medium.com/@concisesoftware/what-is-flutter-here-is-everything-you-should-know-faed3836253f (accessed Nov. 02, 2021).
[5] Y. Hendriana, “Development of Mobile Library Application Based on Android in Universitas Ahmad Dahlan,” Int. J. Innov. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1064–1071, 2015, doi: 10.15680/IJIRSET.2015.0403055.
[6] Firebase, “Firebase.” https://firebase.google.com/ (accessed Nov. 02, 2021).
[7] D. Plateform, “Community and support | Dart.” https://dart.dev/community (accessed Nov. 02, 2021).
[8] G. B. APIs, “Google Books APIs | Google Developers.” https://developers.google.com/books (accessed Nov. 02, 2021).

Aryan Verma, Bhavsar Suraj, Aniket Kumar Singh, Anmol Patel Yadav, “‘Book Shelf’: A tool to access Books and minimize search time” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.96-105 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-10/96-105.pdf

Download PDF


Secularism: Meaning, Kinds and Characteristics
Tijani Ahmad Ashimi October 2021 – Page No.: 106-110

Secularism is an ideology that advocates complete division and separation of this world and the world to come. It is defined as an elimination of man from religion and then from metaphysical control over his reason and his language. It invites people to separate between religion and politics, it also calls people to separate faith from routine activities or complete elimination of metaphysical realities from daily affairs, on the ground that metaphysical world or religious affairs can create obstacles and barriers to human development and progress. As such, the physical world and its fascination should be the first priority and main target of rational being. Based on this fact, this paper by applying analytical and comparative methods aims to explore the true etymology of secularism and investigates its various definitions.
Next, the paper will further explore the kinds and characteristics of secularism as an ideology that attempts to separate religion from daily activities. Lastly, the article will also compare this ideology to Islamic worldview, i.e we will investigate whether secularism is compatible with the right teaching of Islam and that will be followed by comprehensive concluding remarks.

Page(s): 106-110                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 22 November 2021

 Tijani Ahmad Ashimi
International Islamic University Malaysia

[1] Abdullah Yusuf Ali (1998)., The Qur’an: Text, Translation & Commentary, Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an; Reissue edition
[2] Cliteur, Paul (2010). The Secular Outlook: In Defense of Moral and Political Secularism. London Press
[3] Harvey Cox (1973). The Seduction of the Spirit: The Use and Misuse of People’s Religion. New York: Touchstone
[4] Harvey Cox(1985) Religion in the Secular City: Toward a Postmodern Theology Simon & Schuster Press.
[5] Luke W. Galen.(2016) , Understanding Secular People and Societies. Oxford University Press, p. 22-23
[6] Nader Hashemi (2009). “Secularism”. In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[7] Nweke, C. C. (2015). Secularism, Secular State and Religious Freedom. Journal of Religion and Social Science, Rajshahi College, 1(1). July 2017.
[8] Stephen Bullivant; Lois Lee, eds. (2016). “Secularism”. A Dictionary of Atheism. Oxford University Press.
[9] Syed Muhammad Naquib Al- Attas, Islam and Secularism (1978) (Kuala Lumpur: Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia (ABIM); reprint, Kuala Lumpur: International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilisation (IS TAC).
[10] Syed Muhammad Naquib Al- Attas,(1996) Islam and the Challenge of Modernity: Historical and Contemporary Context. Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC
[11] Taylor, Charles (2007). A Secular Age. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
[12] William Stanley Jevons. The Principles of Science (London: Macmillan, 1874), vol. 2, 61

Tijani Ahmad Ashimi, “Secularism: Meaning, Kinds and Characteristics” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.106-110 October 2021 URL: https://www.rsisinternational.org/journals/ijrsi/digital-library/volume-8-issue-10/106-110.pdf

Download PDF


Case Study and Randomized Control Trial RCT Research Designs for Educational Leadership and Management Studies
Frederick Ebot Ashu October 2021 – Page No.: 111-118

It is becoming increasingly important for researchers to critically reflect on a set of research questions relevant to their own area of research that can have a positive impact on complex social phenomena, such as school leadership and management development outcomes of school leaders. This paper discusses about randomized control trial and case study enables the researcher to answer research questions within the effectiveness of leadership development of Cameroonian school leaders, in the real world, presents new challenges for collecting data and verifying inferences from these data.
Many educational leadership researchers seem to have high hopes that such approaches using quasi-experimental, randomized control trails can give positive research outcomes when it comes to educational leadership development of school leaders. It is noted that case study research is more than simply to data collection, analysis, and report writing differing from the traditional, randomized control trial in terms of issues such as rigour, practicality, ethics, sampling, and validity are of great importance and perhaps of special relevance to researchers in Cameroon, and to the African context in which we work. This paper provides a further distinction between randomized control trial and case study research designs. This paper also presents a summary of the different research designs to conduct research in quantitative and qualitative and mixed methods studies.

Page(s): 111-118                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 23 November 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.81004

 Frederick Ebot Ashu
Department of Educational Foundations and Administration, Faculty of Education, University of Buea, Cameroon

[1] Baxter, P. and Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13 (4), 544-559.
[2] BERA, British Educational Research Association (2004). Revised Ethical Guidelines for Educational Research. Macclesfield: BERA.
[3] Bolden, R., Gosling, J., Marturano, A., Dennison, P. (2003). A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks. Edited Version of a Report for Chase Consulting and the Management Standards Centre. Exeter: University of Exeter, Centre for Leadership Studies.
[4] Boruch, R. (2002). The Virtues of Randomness. Education Next. 2(3), 36–42
[5] Boruch, R., McSweeny., and Soderstrom, E. (1978). Randomized Field Experiments for Program Planning, Development, and Evaluation. Evaluation Quarterly, 2 (4), 655-695
[6] Bush, T. (2008). From Management to Leadership. Semantic or Meaningful Change?. Educational Management, Administration & Leadership. London: Sage.
[7] Bush, T. and Jackson, D. (2002). A Preparation for School Leadership: International Perspectives. Education Management and Administration, 30 (4), 417-429.
[8] Connolly, P.; Keenan, C.; & Urbanska, K. (2018). The trials of evidence-based practice in education: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials in education research 1980–2016, Educational Research, 60(3), 276-291, DOI: 10.1080/00131881.2018.1493353
[9] Cook, T. D. (2002). Randomized experiments in educational policy research: a critical examination of the reasons the educational evaluation community has offered for not doing them. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(3), 175–199.
[10] [Commonwealth Secretariat. (1996). Better Schools: Resource Materials for Heads: Introductory Module. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.
[11] Creswell, J. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
[12] Earley, P., Evans, J., Collarbone, P., Gold, A. and Halpin, D. (2002). Establishing the Current State of School Leadership In England. London, UK: Institute of Education University of London.
[13] Ebot Ashu, F. (2020). Decolonizing Educational Leadership and Administration Curriculum at Cameroonian Universities. African Journal of Education and Practice (AJEP). 6 (5), 13 – 39.
[14] Ebot Ashu, F. (2014). Effectiveness of School Leadership and Management Development in Cameroon: A Guide for Educational Systems, Schools and School Leaders. Newcatle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Effectiveness-Leadership-Management-Development-Cameroon/d p/1443855820.
[15] Ebot Ashu, F. (2018). Leadership, Management and Administrative Roles of School Leaders in Cameroon, International Studies in Educational Administration, 46(2), 110-128.
[16] Eisenhart, M., & Towne, L. (2003). Contestation and change in national policy on “scientifically based” education research. Educational Researcher, 32(7), 31–38.
[17] Hammersley, M., and Atkinson, P. (1989). Ethnography: Principles in practice. London: Routledge.
[18] Klemp, G. O. (1980). The Assessment of Occupational Competence. Washington, DC: Report to the National Institute of Education
[19] Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded source book (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[20] Muijs, D., Chapman, C., Colins, A., Armstrong, P. (2010). Maximum Impact Evaluation. The Impact of Tech First Teachers in Schools. AN Evaluation funded by the Maximum Impact Programme for Tech First Report. Manchester: The University of Manchester.
[21] Neuendorf, K. (2001). The Content Analysis Handbook. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
[22] Republic of Cameroon. (2011). Growth and Employment Strategy Paper (GESP). Yaounde: Presidency of the Republic.
[23] Republic of Cameroon. (1998). Law No. 98/004 of 14 April to lay Down Guidelines for Education in Cameroon. Yaounde: Presidency of the Republic.
[24] Republic of Cameroon. (2001). Law No. 005 of 16 April 2001 to Guide Higher Education in Cameroon. Yaoundé: Imprimerie Nationale.
[25] Rhodes, C., Brundrett, M., Nevill, A. (2009). Just the Ticket? The National Professional Qualification and the Transition to Headship in the East Midlands of England. Educational Review, 61 (4), 449-468.
[26] Spillane, J., Pareja, A., Dorner, L.., Barnes, C., May, H., Huff, J., Camburn, E. (2010). Mixing Methods in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs): Validation, Contextualization, Triangulation, and Control. Educational Assessment Evaluation and Accountability, 22(1), 5-28.
[27] Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[28] Yin, R. K. (2009). Case Study Research Design Methods, Fourth Edition. Applied Social Research Methods Series. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Yin, R. K. (2014). Case Study Research Design and Methods (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[29] Yin, R. K., (1994). Case Study Research Design and Methods: Applied Social Research and Methods Series. Second edn. Touand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
[30] Yu, G. (2007). Research Evidence of School Effectiveness in Sub-Saharan Africa. EdQual Working Paper No. 7. Bristol, UK: University of Bristol, UK.

Frederick Ebot Ashu, “Case Study and Randomized Control Trial RCT Research Designs for Educational Leadership and Management Studies” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.111-118 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.81004

Download PDF


The Effect of Website Design Quality, E-Service Quality, and Brand Image on E-Satisfaction and E-Loyalty of E-Commerce Customers
Tesa Daniati, Rr. Ratna Roostika October 2021 – Page No.: 119-126

This study aims to analyze the variables that affect the satisfaction and loyalty of e-commerce customers. This study uses a structural equation model (SEM) analysis. The data used in this study is secondary data collected using a questionnaire from e-commerce customers in western Indonesia as many as 300 respondents. The results found that Website Design Quality and E-service Quality positively and significantly affect E-satisfaction. Brand Image positively and significantly affects E-Loyalty. Then E-satisfaction positively and significantly affects E-Loyalty.

Page(s): 119-126                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 November 2021

DOI : 10.51244/IJRSI.2021.81005

 Tesa Daniati
Department of Business and Economics, Universitas Islam Indonesia

 Rr. Ratna Roostika
Department of Business and Economics, Universitas Islam Indonesia

[1]. Abou-Shouk, M. A. (2017). The Influence Of Website Quality Dimensions On E-Purchasing Behaviour And E-Loyalty: A Comparative Study Of Egyptian Travel Agents And Hotels. Journal Of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 34(5), 608-623.
[2]. Anderson, R. D. (2003). E-Satisfaction and E-Loyalty: A Contingency Framework. Psychology And Marketing, 20, Hal. 123-138.
[3]. Bernarto, I., Wilson, N., & Suryawan, I. N. (2019). Pengaruh Website Design Quality, Service Quality, Trust dan Satisfaction terhadap Repurchase Intention (Studi Kasus: Tokopedia.Com). Jurnal Manajemen Indonesia, 19.
[4]. Fahmi, M. (2018). Peran Kepercayaan Pelanggan dalam Memediasi Pengaruh Kualitas Website terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Online Shop. Jurnal Riset Sains Manajemen, 2.
[5]. Flavian, C. G. (2009). Web Design: A Key Factor for The Website Success. Journal Of Systems And Information Technology, 11(2), 168–184.
[6]. Indriyani, F. (2018). Analisis Pengaruh Kualitas Website , Kepercayaan, Promosi dan Harga terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan Tokopedia. Jurnal Riset Manajemen, 5.
[7]. Kotler, P. (2002). Manajemen Pemasaran Jilid V Edisi Milenium. Jakarta: Pt. Prebalindo.
[8]. Kotler, P. A. (2008). Prinsip-Prinsip Pemasaran Jilid I. Jakarta: Erlangga.
[9]. Kotler, P., & Keller. (2007). Manajemen Pemasaran Jilid I Edisi ke dua belas. Jakarta: PT. Indeks.
[10]. Kurniawan, M., & Hildayanti, S. K. (2019). Analisis Merek, Harga, Pelayanan dan Promosi terhadap Kepuasan Konsumen Kota Palembang (Studi Kasus Konsumen Grab). Jurnal Ecoment Global, 4.
[11]. Laurent, F. (2016). Pengaruh E-Service Quality terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Go-Jek melalui Kepuasan Pelanggan. Agora, 4.
[12]. Laurent, F. (2016). Pengaruh E-Service Quality terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Go-Jek Melalui Kepuasan Pelanggan. Agora, 4.
[13]. Lin, C. (. (2010). In Search Of E-Service Value: Technology-Exploitation Vs Certainty-Seeking Online Behaviours. The Service Industries Journal, 30.
[14]. Lin, G. T., & Sun, C.-C. (2009). Other Article Factors Influencing Satisfaction and Loyalty in Online Shopping: An Integrated Model. Emerald, 33.
[15]. Malik, M. E. (2012). Impact Of Brand Image, Service Quality and Price on Customer Satisfaction in Pakistan Telecommunication Sector. Nternational Journal Of Business And Social Science, 3 (23), 123 – 129.
[16]. Mulyono, H. (2016). Brand Awareness and Brand Image Of Decision Making on University. Brand Awareness and Brand Image of Decision Making on University, 18(2), 163-173. 18(2), 163-173.
[17]. Oliver, R. (1980). A Cognitive Model Of The Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions. Journal Of Marketing Research, , 17(4), 460–469.
[18]. Oliver, R. (1997). Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on The Consumer. New York, : Ny: Mcgraw.
[19]. Pahlopi, G. S., & Arifin, R. (2017). Pengaruh Reputasi Perusahaan, Trust dan Website Quality terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Online Shop Olx.Com Studi Kasus pada Mahasiswa Fakultas Ekonomi Angkatan Tahun 2015 Universitas Islam Malang. E-Jurnal Riset Manajemen.
[20]. Parasuraman, A. &. (2000). The Impact of Technology on The Qualityvalue-Value-Loyalty Chain: A Research Agenda. Journal of Academy Of Marketing Science, 28(1),, 168–174.
[21]. Parasuraman, A. Z. (2005). “E-S-Qual: A Multiple-Item Scale for Assessing Electronic Service Quality. Journal Of Series Research, 7, Vol. 7 No. 3, Pp. 213-233.
[22]. Permana, H., & Djatmiko, T. (2018). Analisis Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan Elektronik (E-Service Quality) terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan Shopee di Bandung. Sosiohumanitas,, Xx.
[23]. Perwira, B. T., Yulianto, E., & Kumadji, S. (2016). Pengaruh E-Service Quality dan Perceived Value terhadap Kepuasaan Pelanggan dan Loyalitas Pelanggan (Survei Pada Mahasiswa S1 Universitas Brawijaya yang Melakukan Transaksi Pembelian Online dengan Mobile Application Tokopedia). Jurnal Administrasi Bisnis (Jab), 38.
[24]. Pramudyo, A. (2012). Pengaruh Citra Merek terhadap Loyalitas melalui Kepuasan Sebagai Intervening (Studi Pada Mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi Swasta Di Yogyakarta). Jbma, 1.
[25]. Prasetyo, H. D., & Purbawati, D. L. (2017). Pengaruh E-Service Quality dan E-Security Seals terhadap E-Satisfaction melalui Keputusan Pembelian Konsumen E-Commerce (Studi Kasus pada Konsumen Lazada Indonesia). Jurnal Ilmu Administrasi Bisnis.
[26]. Romadhan, R., Indriastuty, N., & Prihandoyo, C. (2019). E-Service Quality Kepuasan Konsumen melalui E-Commerce terhadap Loyalitas Konsumen. Jurnal Geoekonomi, 10.
[27]. Romadhan, R., Indriastuty, N., & Prihandoyo, C. (2019). E-Service Quality Kepuasan Konsumen Melalui E-Commerce terhadap Loyalitas Konsumen. Jurnal Geoekonomi, 10.
[28]. Santika, I. W., & Pramudana, K. A. (2018). Peran Mediasi E-Satisfaction pada Pengaruh E-Service Quality terhadap E-Loyalty Situs Online Travel Di Bali. Jurnal Inovasi Bisnis Dan Manajemen Indonesia, I.
[29]. Setiadi, N. J. (2003). Perilaku Konsumen: Konsep Dan Implikasi Untuk Strategi Dan Penelitian Pemasaran. Jakarta: Prenada Media.
[30]. Shankar, V. S. (2003). Customer Satisfaction And Loyalty In Online And Offline Enviroment. International Journal Of Research In Marketing, 20.
[31]. Sutabri, T. (2012). Analisis Sistem Informasi. Yogyakarta: Andi Offset.
[32]. Tobagus, A. (2018). Pengaruh E-Service Quality Terhadap E-Satisfaction Pada Pengguna Di Situs Tokopedia. Agora, 6.
[33]. Wong, J. (2010). Internet Marketing For Beginners. Jakarta: Pt Elex Media Komputindo.
[34]. Yeridha, R. A., Kuleh, Y., & Sampeliling, A. (2019). Pengaruh Persepsi Nilai Pelanggan Dan Brand Image Terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Jasa Ojek Online Go-Jek Di Samarinda. Jurna Manajemen, 11, 96-101.
[35]. Wijayanto, I. (2013). Pengaruh Citra Merek Terhadap Loyalitas Konsumen. Jurnal Ilmu Manajemen, 1.
[36]. Puspitasari, A. N., Kumadji, S., & Sunarti. (2013). Pengaruh Kualitas Website Terhadap Nilai Yang Di Persepsikan Dan Loyalitas Pelanggan Online Shop (Studi Pada Tokoh Sepatu Wanita Www.Iwerup.Com). 5.
[37]. Yuhefizar. (2013). Cara Mudah & Murah Membangun & Mengelola Website. Yogyakarta: Graha ilmu.

Tesa Daniati, Rr. Ratna Roostika, “The Effect of Website Design Quality, E-Service Quality, and Brand Image on E-Satisfaction and E-Loyalty of E-Commerce Customers” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.8 issue 10, pp.119-126 October 2021 DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2021.81005

Download PDF