Volume X Issue IV

Indonesian EFL Students and Teachers Perceptions of Multimodal Teaching Approach in Writing Skills
Zulfa Azizaturrohmi, Nurshafawati Ahmad Sani April 2023 – Page No.: 01-09

Low motivation, poor writing techniques, and lack of vocabulary are a few things that effect how proficient a writer is. Multimodal approach in teaching writing allows for better communication and expression of personal identities through various modes of representation. This study adopts a mixed-method research design utilizing survey and interview as data collection method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25 for quantitative data Atlas.Ti for qualitative data. The research was conducted at Hamzanwadi University, the population of the research is all second year of English Language Study students consist of 92 students and 5 teachers. The study discovered positive effects of multimodal teaching approach on writing skills and perceptions of Hamzanwadi’s students and teachers. Then, from the finding suggested that the students who performed multimodal tasks significantly improved their critical writing skills. Furthermore, it can serve as a resource for Indonesian EFL teachers’ continuing professional development.

Page(s): 01-09                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2023


 Zulfa Azizaturrohmi
English Language Studies, Sultan Zainal Abidin University, Malaysia

 Nurshafawati Ahmad Sani

Sultan Zainal Abidin University, Malaysia

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Zulfa Azizaturrohmi, Nurshafawati Ahmad Sani, “Indonesian EFL Students and Teachers Perceptions of Multimodal Teaching Approach in Writing Skills” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.01-09 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10401

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Assessment of Health Literacy Levels Amongst Cancer Surviors in Nairobi Support Groups
Muthoni C. Laura, Dr. Owino George, Dr. Muia Daniel April 2023 – Page No.: 10-18

Non-communicable diseases account for 71% of deaths globally giving rise to Health literacy as a strategy in management. While this is a worthwhile, there is need to measure and assess the health literacy levels of target beneficiaries as one way of evaluating effectiveness of health education programs. This study was undertaken with the objective of measuring the health literacy levels of cancer survivors in support groups within Nairobi (Kenya). A sample of 152 members of support group were subjected to a short health literacy test covering basic health topics discussed during support group meetings. Results indicated that majority of support group members had good knowledge of health topics and requirements for healthy behaviour. It was evident that health literacy sessions had successfully increased knowledge levels amongst support group members. Key recommendations included creating robust referral links to health literacy education for all cancer survivors.

Page(s): 10-18                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 28 April 2023


 Muthoni C. Laura
Kenyatta University, Department of Sociology, Gender & Development Studies P.O. Box 43844 00100, Nairobi Kenya.

 Dr. Owino George
Kenyatta University, Department of Sociology, Gender & Development Studies P.O. Box 43844 00100, Nairobi Kenya.

 Dr. Muia Daniel
Kenyatta University, Department of Sociology, Gender & Development Studies P.O. Box 43844 00100, Nairobi Kenya.

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2. Poureslami I, Nimmon L, Rootman I, Fitzgerald M.J. (2017). Health Literacy and Chronic Disease Management: drawing from expert knowledge to set an agenda. Health Promotion International. 32 (4), 743-754
3. Heide, I., Heijmans M., Schuit A. Uiters E. Rademakers, J. (2015). Functional, interactive and critical health literacy: Varying relationships with control over care and number of GP visits. Patient education and counseling. 98(8), 998-1004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2015.04.006
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6. Magnani .J, Mahasin S. Mujahid, Aronow .H, Crystal W. Cené, Victoria Vaughan Dickson (2018). Limited Health Literacy is a major barrier to heart disease prevention and treatment. American Heart Association (AHA). Circulation, 138(2), e48–e74. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000579
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9. Warde, F., Papadakos, J., Papadakos, T., Rodin, D., Salhia, M., & Giuliani, M. (2018). Plain language communication as a priority competency for medical professionals in a globalized world. Canadian medical education journal, 9(2), e52–e59.
10. Cross Ian. (2018). How support Groups are Giving Patients power. MSF Kenya
11. Marcus C. (2014). Strategies for improving the quality of verbal patient and family education: a review of the literature and creation of the EDUCATE model. Health psychology and behavioral medicine. 2(1), 482–495. https://doi.org/10.1080/21642850.2014.900450
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14. Muscat D., Shepherd H., Nutbeam D., Morony S., Smith S., Dhillon H., Trevenal L., Hayen A., Luxford K., McCaffery K. (2017). Developing Verbal Health Literacy with Adult Learners through Training in Shared Decision-Making. HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 1(4) e257-e268.https//doi: 10.3928/24748307-20171208-02
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Muthoni C. Laura, Dr. Owino George, Dr. Muia Daniel, “Assessment of Health Literacy Levels Amongst Cancer Surviors in Nairobi Support Groups” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.10-18 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10401

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Critical Rationalism and Bayesianism
Kent Olson Ph.D. April 2023 – Page No.: 19-22

Most accounts of the scientific method, e.g.s the Deductive-Nomological (D-N), Inductive Statistical (I-S), and so on, attempt to avoid Hume’s problem. Popper’s philosophy of critical rationalism and subjectivist Bayesianism come into conflict here on a number of points. The most noteworthy is on the problem of induction. That is, if science rests on induction (as Sir Francis Bacon would have it), and induction cannot be justified according to the strict demands of classical deductive validity without invoking a circularity, how can we say that science is rational? And how should scientists proceed? Bayesians utilizes a consistent multivalued logic that adheres to the Kolmogorov axioms. And on the other side, Sir Karl Popper maintains that the real logic of science is deductive. It is a myth that induction is even used. I will evaluate both claims through a third-party lens. That is, Micheal Ruse’ s epigenetic account of inferential reasoning. This is a modified version of Hume’s propensity theory. Ultimately, deductivism cannot explain how proto-humans behaved in the wild. How they grew smarter, became tool-using beings, and became the dominant species on the planet.

Page(s): 19-22                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 30 April 2023


 Kent Olson Ph.D.

1. Bacon, Francis. Novum Organum. New York, 1902.
2. Earman, John. Bayes or Bust? Massachusetts, MIT Press, 1992.
3. Howson, Colin. “Bayesianism and Support by Novel Facts,” The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science Vol. 35, No3. (1984): 245-251
4. Howson and Urbach. Scientific Reasoning: the Bayesian Approach. Chicago: Open Court, 2006.
5. Gillies, Donald. “The Problem of Induction and Artificial Intelligence,” Karl Popper: Revision of his Legacy. Spain: Union Editorial, 2013.
6. McCarthy, Connor, “Karl Popper and His Proposed Solution to the Problem of Induction,” Acadmeia.edu. Retrieved2022https://www.academia.edu/28570445/Karl_Popper_and_His_Proposed_Solution_to_The_Problem_of_Induction.
7. Musgrave, Alan. “How Popper Might Have Solved the Problem of Induction,” Philosophy, Vol. 79, No. 307 (2004): 19-31.
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9. Popper, Karl. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. London & New York: Routledge Classics, 2007.
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11. Thornton, Steve. Karl Popper, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2022 https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/popper/.
12. Ruse, Micheal. Taking Darwin Seriously. New York: Prometheus Books,1998.
13. Titlebaum, Micheal. Fundamentals of Bayesian Epistmology 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
14. Titlebaum, Micheal. Fundamentals of Bayesian Epistemology 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kent Olson Ph.D., “Critical Rationalism and Bayesianism” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.19-22 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10403

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The Relevance of Textual Criticism in Biblical Interpretation
Victor Umaru April 2023 – Page No.: 23-29

Textual criticism refers to the techniques used by biblical scholars in interpreting a given text of the Bible to ascertain its original wording, the nature of its composition, sources, date, and authorship. Textual criticism is an essential aspect of biblical interpretation, which some interpreters technically dodged from it thinking that the word “criticism” is negative. Far be it from this assertion, biblical criticism is relevant, and it remains relevant. Textual criticism is significant; it helps us understand that Scripture cannot be overestimated. It is vital to the understanding of Scripture as the Word of God. It seeks to investigate and understand the situation of the original recipients of the word to discover precisely what the original writers of the scriptures meant by their words. From this Spirit, the writer would shed light on the importance and relevance of biblical criticism, especially to the interpretation of the Bible. To achieve the aim of the writing, the writer uses the narrative-critical analysis method to present the paper’s idea.

Page(s): 23-29                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 May 2023


 Victor Umaru
Department of Biblical Studies and Theology, Baptist College of Theology, Obinze, Owerri, Nigeria.

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6. Housman, E.A. “The Application of Thought to Textual Criticism.” http://rosetta.reltech.org/TC/extras/Housman-Thought.html.
7. Hulley, K. K. “Principles of Textual Criticism Known to St. Jerome,” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. 55, 1994, 87-109.
8. Levenson, Jon D. The Hebrew Bible, the Old Testament, and historical criticism: Jews and Christians in biblical studies, 1st ed. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1993.
9. Mather, G. A. & L. A. Nichols, (eds.) Dictionary of Cults, Sects, Religions and the Occult. Zondervan. N.p., 1993.
10. Mitchel, A. C. “The Need for Biblical Criticism.” http://www.americancatholic.org/Newsletters/SFS/an0800.asp
11. Moule, C.F.D. The Birth of the New Testament 3rd Ed. London: Adam & Charles Black, 1981.
12. Robertson, A.T. Studies in the Text of the New Testament. USA: Sunday School Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, 1926.
13. Schodde, G. H. “Old Testament Textual Criticism” The Old Testament Student, Vol. 7, No. 2, 44-48.
14. Soulen, R. N. & R K. Soulen, Handbook of Biblical criticism. Louisville, London: Westminster, John Knox Press, 1993.
15. Stern, D. “Recent Trends in Biblical Source Criticism,” Jewish Bible Quarterly Vol. 36, No. 3, 2008.
16. Tanselle, G. T. “Textual Criticism and Literary Sociology.” Studies in Bibliography, Vol. 44, 1991, 83-143.
17. Taylor, Vincent. The Text of the New Testament: A Short Introduction. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1961.
18. Tigay, J. Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism. Philidelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985.
19. Ulrich, Eugene. “The Old Testament Text and Its Transmission.” In The New Cambridge History of the Bible: From the Beginnings to 600, edited by James Carleton Paget and Joachim Schaper. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
20. Vaganay, Leon and Christian-Bernard Amphoux, An Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
21. Wegner, P. D. A Student’s Guide to Textual Criticism of the Bible: Its History, Methods, and Results. Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Academic, 2006.
22. Wenham, D. “Source Criticism,” in I. Howard Marshall, ed., New Testament Interpretation: Essays on Principles and Methods. Carlisle: The Paternoster Press, 1977.
23. Wood, DR et al. (eds)., New Bible Dictionary, 3rd ed. Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1996.
24. Würthwein, Ernst. The Text of the Old Testament, trans. Erroll F. Rhodes, 3rd ed. rev. and exp. Alexander A.Fischer. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2014.

Victor Umaru, “Critical Rationalism and Bayesianism” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.23-29 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10404

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The Effects of Transformational Leadership on Commitment, Motivation, Compensation and Employee Performance of Local Water Supply Companies in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency Indonesia
Frengky Dupe, Yohanis S. Sarong, Indri Astuti, Ricky E. Foeh, Erna E. Giri, Elly Lay April 2023 – Page No.: 30-40

This research is motivated by the contradictions contained in organizational theory and empirical findings of previous research on the effect of transformational leadership on organizational commitment, employee motivation, compensation, employee performance. The purpose of this research is to examine and explain the effect of transformational leadership on organizational commitment, employee motivation, employee compensation and performance. The method in this research is a quantitative approach with explanatory research. The analysis technique uses Smart PLS 3. Sample data were obtained from 40 respondents as employees at the Regional Drinking Water Company in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency.
The findings of this study are that transformational leadership has a positive and significant effect on organizational commitment, employee motivation, compensation and employee performance. Organizational commitment has a positive and significant effect on motivation. Employee motivation has a positive and significant effect on compensation. Compensation has a positive effect and is significant to employee performance. This study concludes that the variables of transformational leadership, organizational commitment, employee motivation, reasonable compensation have an important role in improving employee performance which excels in achieving organizational goals as a common goal. Therefore, it is necessary to get attention from policy makers to consider these variables.

Page(s): 30-40                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 May 2023


 Frengky Dupe
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Science, University of Nusa Cendana, Kupang, Indonesia.

 Yohanis S. Sarong
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Science, University of Nusa Cendana, Kupang, Indonesia.

 Indri Astuti
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Science, University of Nusa Cendana, Kupang, Indonesia.

 Ricky E. Foeh
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Science, University of Nusa Cendana, Kupang, Indonesia.

 Erna E. Giri
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Science, University of Nusa Cendana, Kupang, Indonesia.

 Elly Lay
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Science, University of Nusa Cendana, Kupang, Indonesia.

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Frengky Dupe, Yohanis S. Sarong, Indri Astuti, Ricky E. Foeh, Erna E. Giri, Elly Lay, “Critical Rationalism and Bayesianism” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.30-40 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10405

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Regulatory Agencies in Brazil vs. the United States: A Comparative Study
Dr. Murillo Dias, Carlos Araujo, Thiago Schmitz, Leonardo Pereira April 2023 – Page No.: 41-46

This article describes Brazil’s regulatory agencies compared to the United States, emphasizing their similarities and differences and discussing the Brazilian regulatory agencies in detail. After careful content analysis, key findings pointed out a significant disparity within both countries: while in Brazil, the first regulatory agency was created in 1996 – National Telecommunications Agency (ANATEL), in the United States, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) was founded 114 years before, in 1887, evidencing a long tradition and expertise regarding the regulatory environment from the North American agencies. There are currently eleven regulatory agencies in Brazil, while in the United States, there are 47. Different types and functions give North American regulatory agencies a higher level of sophistication than the Brazilian regulatory system, meaning that the Brazilian regulatory framework finds an excellent deal for improvement. One of the implications that compile the current work is the discussion about the existence of a political influence in regulating agencies needing to catch up compared to their American counterparts’ pace of innovation.

Page(s): 41-46                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 03 May 2023


 Dr. Murillo Dias
Fundação Getulio Vargas, Brazil

 Carlos Araujo
Rennes School of Business, France

 Thiago Schmitz
Rennes School of Business, France

 Leonardo Pereira
Université de Bordeaux, France

1. Araújo, C.; Dias, M. (2022). The Influence of Stock Exchange Companies on the Quality of Brazilian Higher Education. British Journal of Education, 10(9), 16-50 https://doi.org/ 10.37745/bje.2013/vo10.n9pp1650
2. Araújo, C. R; Dias, M. (2021) Políticas de Avaliação e Padrões de Qualidade da Educação Superior no Brasil. International Journal of Development Research, 11(11), 52284-93 https://doi.org/ 10.37118/ijdr.23453.11.2021
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5. Brasil (1997). Lei nº 9.472, de 16 de julho de 1997. Dispõe sobre a organização dos serviços de telecomunicações, a criação e funcionamento de um órgão regulador e outros aspectos institucionais, nos termos da Emenda Constitucional nº 8, de 1995. Retrieved on 29 March 2023 from https://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l9472.htm
6. Brasil (2019) Lei nº 13.848, de 25 de junho de 2019.Dispõe sobre a gestão, a organização, o processo decisório e o controle social das agências reguladoras. Retrieved on 29 March 2023 from https://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2019-2022/2019/lei/l13848.htm
7. Breger, Marshall J.; Edles, Gary J. (2015). Independent Agencies in the United States: Law, Structure, and Politics. Oxford University Press.
8. Craveiro, Mariana F. & Dias, M. (2019). Case on Brazilian Public Health Information System. Global Scientific Journals, 7(10), 1-11. https://doi.org/ 10.11216/gsj.2019.10.27963
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11. Dias, M.; Duzert, Y., Teles, A. (2018). Boeing, Brazilian Federal Government, And Embraer: Golden Share Veto and The Anatomy of a Joint Venture. International Journal of Business and Management Studies, 7(2), 71–80. https://doi.org/ 10.13140/RG.2.2.14972.18563
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Dr. Murillo Dias, Carlos Araujo, Thiago Schmitz, Leonardo Pereira, “Regulatory Agencies in Brazil vs. the United States: A Comparative Study” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.41-46 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10406

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Understanding The ISMS of Nigerian Post-Colonial Art Movements: An Ideological Path for Emerging Contemporary Art
Otonye Bille Ayodele Ph.D April 2023 – Page No.: 47-57

Scholars of African art have advocated various methodologies for the study of African contemporary arts. These methodologies serve their purposes, however there is no particular most embracing and consensus approach so far. Since the millennium, the outcomes of African contemporary art actually defy any static approach. This paper proposes the ideologies and aesthetics of some post-colonial art movements in Nigeria and their impact on Nigerian contemporary art, as a methodological path to understanding the emerging contemporary arts of Nigeria. The art movements considered in this paper are Zarianism, Osogbo Art, Ulism, Onaism and Araism which are the most outstanding of Nigerian post-colonial art movements since independence in 1960. These art movements, through their ideologies, have largely shaped what is today considered as Nigerian Contemporary Art. This paper is a contribution to the ongoing dialogues on the identity of post-colonial Africa and the processes of de-colonization of African culture. Contemporary Nigerian art in this paper is the art from the 1990s till date. The paper is based on qualitative research and bibliographic surveys. The findings show that many contemporary Nigerian arts and artists are affiliated or linked with early post-colonial art movements. In conclusion, a successful inquiry and understanding of the formation and practice of the art movements hopefully will create a pathway in the prediction, identity, and understanding of recent works of art in Nigeria and Africa.

Page(s): 47-57                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 07 May 2023


 Otonye Bille Ayodele Ph.D
Department of Creative Arts, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

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Otonye Bille Ayodele Ph.D, “Understanding The ISMS of Nigerian Post-Colonial Art Movements: An Ideological Path for Emerging Contemporary Art” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.47-57 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10407

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A Comparison of the Mean CTDIvol and DLP Values for Adult Abdominal CT Examination for MTRH, Eldoret Hospital, St. Luke’s Hospital and Mediheal Hospital: A Retrospective Study
Edward Ouma, Rose Kittony, Elias Onditi April 2023 – Page No.: 58-69

Background: Advances in Computed Tomography (CT) have facilitated widespread use of medical imaging while increasing patient lifetime exposure to ionizing radiation. In Kenya we use the international DRLs as our point of reference and so far, no regional protocols for abdominal CT scan have been adopted. This study endeavors to form a basis for dose reference levels protocols for abdominal CT scan in Uasin Gishu County.
Objective: To compare the mean CTDIvol and DLP values for adult abdominal CT examination for MTRH, Eldoret Hospital, St. Luke’s Hospital and Mediheal Hospital.
Methods: This was a retrospective review of CT scans of 700 adult patients conducted in Uasin Gishu healthcare system at MTRH, Eldoret Hospital, Mediheal Hospital and St. Luke’s Hospital in a period of 1 year in the year 2021 using systematic and consecutive sampling. The Volumetric CT-dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) length from CT abdominal scans for the adults were collected from the various CT scans dose tracking software’s.
Results: The mean age of patients who underwent CT abdominal scans was 52 years with majority being females at 53 %. The mean CTDIvol was 81. (SD=22.2) and the mean DLP values was 1699.1 (SD=1053.1). Comparison by scan model demonstrated the median for the Total DLP and for the CTDIvol significantly differed by the model with the median for the Neusoft model being highest at 2538 mGy.cm and 10.3mGy respectively while those for the Siemens were the lowest for the two markers at 1318.5 mGy.cm for the DLP and 5.39mGy respectively. These findings were statistically significant with a p value of < 0.001. Comparison by the type of facility showed that the median DLP and CTDIvol values were significantly higher in the public facilities at 1668.8mGy.cm and 6.3mGy respectively when compared to private facilities at 1282.4mGy.cm and 5.9mGy with a p value of <0.001. The Local Dose reference level (LDRL) was set as the median value for CTDIVOL and DLP at 6.1mGy and 1465 mGy.cm respectively.
Conclusions: The LDRLs for the patients undergoing abdominal CT examination in Uasin Gishu healthcare system were markedly lower than the regional and the international values for the same abdominal CT examination.

Page(s): 58-69                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 May 2023


 Edward Ouma
Department of Radiology and Imaging. Moi University School of Medicine, Kenya.

 Rose Kittony
Department of Radiology and Imaging. Moi University School of Medicine, Kenya.

 Elias Onditi
Department of Radiology and Imaging. Moi University School of Medicine, Kenya.

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Edward Ouma, Rose Kittony, Elias Onditi, “A Comparison of the Mean CTDIvol and DLP Values for Adult Abdominal CT Examination for MTRH, Eldoret Hospital, St. Luke’s Hospital and Mediheal Hospital: A Retrospective Study” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.58-69 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10408

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Ola Oloidi in the Development of Modern Art History in Nigeria, 1980 – 2020
Odoja Asogwa, George C. Odoh, Nneka S. Odoh April 2023 – Page No.: 70-77

Employing historiography, this article traces the roles of the art historian, Ola Oloidi, in the origin and development of modern Nigerian art history. The study of art history in Nigeria before Oloidi’s intervention was akin to anthropology. In the mid-1980s, he presumably changed this trend. He originated what is today known as the history of modern Nigerian art and initiated strategies to reposition art historical studies in their correct perspective. He defended the cause of modern Nigerian art and art history through incisive and insightful texts buttressed with objective, constructive, and critical arguments. Thus, he left indelible footprints in the field of art historical studies in Nigeria. Ola Oloidi’s innovative and ground-breaking ideas about art and its reportage in Nigeria provide an inestimable fount of knowledge that other Nigerian art historians have drawn from to further advance historical discourses that deepen understanding of modern Nigerian art. He bequeathed the Art Historical Association of Nigeria (AHAN) to art historians to fight against anthropological dominance and the scientification of the art historical space.

Page(s): 70-77                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 10 May 2023


 Odoja Asogwa
Department of Fine and Applied Arts, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 George C. Odoh
Department of Fine and Applied Arts, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 Nneka S. Odoh
Department of Fine and Applied Arts, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

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2. Asogwa, O. (2021a). Ola Oloidi: Giant of modern Nigerian art history. In S. O. Ikpakronyi, & O. C. Onuzulike (Eds.). Tributes to an icon, eminent Art Historian and Critic (pp. 38–39). Abuja: National Gallery of Art.
3. Asogwa, O. (2021b). Personality and identity in African art: Textile arts and artists in art historical studies. Nigerian Journal of Clothing and Textiles, 3(1), pp. 125 – 132.
4. Asogwa, O. (2022). Early development history of the Nsukka Art Department, 1961 – 1980. The Artfield, Journal of Art & Visual Culture, (5): pp. 11 – 27.
5. D’Alleva, A (2010). How to write art history (2nd ed.). London: Laurence King Publishing Ltd.
6. Dike, P. C. & Oyelola, P. (2006). Master of masters: Yusuf Grillo, his life and works. Abuja: National Gallery of Art Nigeria.
7. Diogu, G. O. (2011). A citation on Professor Ola Oloidi. 58th Inaugural Lecturer, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
8. Duniya, G. G. (2021). History of modern art in Nigeria and the scholar, Ola Oloidi. In S. O. Ikpakronyi, & O. C. Onuzulike (Eds.). Tributes to an icon, eminent art historian and critic (pp. 42 – 43). Abuja: National Gallery of Art.
9. Edel, L. (1953). Henry James: The untried years, 1843 – 1870. New York: AVON Books.
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11. Guillou, J. (1994). The World’s great paintings. New York: SMITHMARK Publishers, Inc.
12. Ikpakronyi S. O. & Onuzulike, O. C. (Eds.). (2021). Tributes to an icon, eminent art historian and critic. Abuja: National Gallery of Art.
13. Ikpakronyi, S. O. (2021). ”The Emergence of art historical association of Nigeria.” In S. O. Ikpakronyi, & O. C. Onuzulike (Eds.). Tributes to an icon, eminent Art Historian and Critic (pp. 28– 30). Abuja: National Gallery of Art.
14. Jegede, D. (2020, November 20). Good night, Ola Oloidi, patriarch, pioneer of art criticism. The Guardian. Available at: https://guardian.ng/art/goodnight-ola-oloidi-patriarch-pioneer-of-art-criticism/ (accessed 08 January 2023).
15. Jegede, D. (2021). Ola Oloidi: Combined erudition with distinction as an academic. In S. O. Ikpakronyi, & O. C. Onuzulike (Eds.). Tributes to an icon, eminent art historian and critic (pp. 5– 6). Abuja: National Gallery of Art.
16. Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A new history. New York: Harper Collins publishers Inc.
17. Obiechina, E., Ike, C., & Umeh, J. A. (Eds.). 1986. “Appendix 5: Higher degree/diploma awards.” University of Nigeria, 1960-1985: An Experiment in higher education (pp. 386-402). Nsukka: University of Nigeria Press Ltd.
18. Odiboh, F. O. “Celebration of the life of emeritus Professor Ola Oloidi”. In S. O. Ikpakronyi, & O. C. Onuzulike (Eds.). Tributes to an icon, eminent art historian and critic (pp. 2– 5). Abuja: National Gallery of Art.
19. Okpara. C. V. (2021). An intellectual phenomenon: Contributions of Ola Oloidi to the Nsukka school. The Artfield, Journal of Art & Visual Culture, (4): pp. 24 – 28.
20. Oloidi, O. (1976). A letter to the head of department, Fine and Applied Arts, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
21. Oloidi, O. (Ed.). (2004). Modern Nigerian art in historical perspectives. Abuja: Art Historical Association of Nigeria.
22. Oloidi, O. (2011). The rejected stone: Visual arts in an artistically uninformed Nigerian society. An Inaugural Lecture of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Nsukka: University of Nigeria Press ltd.
23. Oloidi, O. (2013). Knowledge scientification in Nigeria’s tertiary institutions: Implications for art and technology. 6th annual lecture delivered at the School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Thursday 27th June, 2013.
24. Oloidi, O. (2017). Nsukka school: My journey to an art commune with a visibly outstanding difference. In Nkoli Ka: Nsukka School, After 50 Years (Jubilee celebration/exhibition of the Department of Fine and Applied Arts, University of Nigeria, Nsukka) (pp. 16–22). Nsukka: Department of Fine and Applied Arts.
25. Oloidi, P. O. (2021). My unique and exemplary daddy, brother and friend.” In S. O. Ikpakronyi & O. C Onuzulike (Eds.). Tributes to an icon, eminent art historian and critic (pp. 74– 76). Abuja: National Gallery of Art.
26. Omoighe, M. O. A. (2021). “A tribute to odinowena: Professor emeritus Ola Oloidi In S. O. Ikpakronyi & O. C. Onuzulike. (Eds.). Tributes to an icon, eminent art historian and critic (pp. 31– 32). Abuja: National Gallery of Art.
27. Onifade, M. (2021). Like Prof., like ifa priest. In S. O. Ikpakronyi & O. C. Onuzulike (Eds.). Tributes to an icon, eminent art historian and critic (pp. 56– 57). Abuja: National Gallery of Art.
28. Onuzulike, O. (2023, April 24). Art is the basis of education, says Prof Ola Oloidi. Vanguard, 24 April 2011. Available at: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2011/04/art-is-the-basis-of-education-says-prof-ola-oloidi/ (accessed: 08 January 2023).
29. Saliu, A. R. (2021). “Appreciative memory of meritus /sic/ Emeritus Professor Ola Oloidi”. In S. O. Ikpakronyi & O. C. Onuzulike (Eds.). Tributes to an icon, eminent art historian and critic (pp. 41– 42). Abuja: National Gallery of Art.
30. Smagula, H. (1983). Currents:Contemporary directions in the visual arts. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs.
31. Toimoloju, B. (2021). Ola Oloidi: The watchdog of watchdogs. In S. O. Ikpakronyi, & O. C Onuzulike (Eds.). Tributes to an icon, eminent art historian and critic (pp. 90–92). Abuja: National Gallery of Art.
32. University of Nigeria. (2017). Guidelines for Appointment and Promotions of Academic Staff: The Yellow Book, 5th Edition. Nsukka: University of Nigeria Press Ltd.

Odoja Asogwa, George C. Odoh, Nneka S. Odoh, “Critical Rationalism and Bayesianism” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.70-77 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10409

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Thaha Jabir al-Alwani &Yusuf al-Qardlawi Founders of Minority Fiqh (FIQH AL AQALLIYAT)
N. Gafoordeen, M.M.M.Sabir April 2023 – Page No.: 78-83

Muslims today are faced with the challenge that the rules (laws) that have developed and been expressed in the Islamic religion on occasion would not fit with the present era. Indeed, there isn’t always a unifying theme in the sources of Islamic law. Nonetheless, there are instances when the laws are “inconsistent” with what they ought to be, and this makes them a source of law that we require in the present era. Extremism can occasionally arise as a result of the extreme disparity that exists. The long-winded legislation, according to one side, cannot be changed. We will occasionally live far away from Islam. These Muslims are, therefore, the ones who are impacted by this scenario. As a result, if the fact that they are a minority because of this circumstance, they urgently require a jurisprudence in order to live in harmony with the majority in their surroundings. So, while it does not contravene Islamic law, it also does not conflict with existing non-Muslim traditions or laws that are followed by the majority of people.

Page(s): 78-83                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 13 May 2023


 N. Gafoordeen
Arabic and Islamic Civilization Unit, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

Arabic and Islamic Civilization Unit, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

1. Ashraf Abdul ‘Aati Al-Mimi, (2008), Fiqh Al-Aqalliyyât Al Muslima Bayn Al Nathariyya Wal Tatbiq, Dar Al-Kalima.
2. Hisham A. Hellyer, (2007), Minorities, Muslims and Sharî‘a: Some Reflections on Islamic Law and Muslims without Political Power.
3. Salah Sultan, Methodological Regulations for the Fiqh of Muslim Minorities, available at: http://islamicstudies.islammessage.com/Article.aspx?aid=308 (Last visited Feb. 10, 2012).
4. Shammai Fishman, (200), Fiqh al-Aqalliyyat: A Legal Theory for Muslim Minorities –Center on Islam, Democracy and the future of the Muslim world, Seiers No. 1, Paper No. 2.
5. Taha Jabir Alawani, (2010), Towards a Fiqh from Minorities Some Basic reflections, London: IIT.
6. Taha Jabir Alawani, (1989), Outlines of the Cultural Strategy, UK: IIT
7. Yusuf Al Qaradâwî, (2010), Al Watan Wal Muwatana Fi Dawu’ Al Osoul Al Aqadiyya Wal Maqâsid Al Shar’iyya 63-67, Cairo, Dar Al-Shorouq (2010) [translated in the country and citizenship in lights of Islamic fundamentals and Sharî‘a purposes].

N. Gafoordeen, M.M.M.Sabir, “Thaha Jabir al-Alwani &Yusuf al-Qardlawi Founders of Minority Fiqh (FIQH AL AQALLIYAT)” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.78-83 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10410

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Changes in the Behavior and Population Growth of Rats Providing Favorable Conditions in Limited Space: A Review
Dr. Geetanjli Sahni, Navdeep April 2023 – Page No.: 84-87

During the present study, a review was carried out on changes in the behavior and population growth of rats providing favorable conditions in limited space. Overpopulation suppresses the carrying capacity of a particular geographical area. Overpopulation has become one of the most threatening global issues that impact the world adversely. Every year it grows by 1.2%. Scientists are fascinated about the fate of the human population and the behavioral influence among the population due to limited living space. Many Biologists and Ethologists perform various experiments taking rat population as model and consider it relevant to human population. Rats are social animals and have very similar societies like humans. Scientists can relate many behavioral and social similarities between human and rats. All the favorable conditions like bedding for nest, food and water in unlimited amount was provided to an inbuilt closed enclosure of rats but the only restriction was limited space. Population of rats increased exploitationly due to these conditions and got more catastrophic results throughout the study of over-population in the past years. Results are in the form of their behavioral breakdown which can be seen in the form of parental care and social fabrics. These results can predict the fate of the growing human population. High populated conditions concern Health-related issues and depressingly predict pro-reproductive attitude to have offspring in addition to optimistically predicted anti-reproductive attitudes above the influence of age, gender, and spiritual status.

Page(s): 84-87                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 May 2023


 Dr. Geetanjli Sahni
Associate Professor and Head, Department of Zoology, Arya Post Graduate College, Panipat, Haryana, 132103, India

Assistant Professor, Department of Zoology, Arya Post Graduate College, Panipat, Haryana, 132103, India

1. Andreassen, H.P., Sundell, J., Ecke, F. et al. (2021) Population cycles and outbreaks of small rodents: ten essential questions we still need to solve. Oecologia 195, 601–622. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04810-w
2. Calhoun, J. B. (1962) a. A behavioural sink. In E.L. Bliss (Ed.), Roots of behaviour. New York: Harper.
3. Calhoun, J. B. (1962) b. Population density and social pathology. Scientific American, 206 (2), 139-148.
4. Calhoun, J. B. (1962) c. The ecology and sociology of the Norway rat. Public Health Service Publication No. 1008, Washington, D.C.
5. Calhoun J.B. (1973) Death Squared: The Explosive Growth and Demise of a Mouse Population. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 1973; 66(1P2):80-88. doi:10.1177/00359157730661P202.
6. Denomme-Brown, S.T., Cottenie, K., Falls, J.B. et al. (2020) Variation in space and time: a long-term examination of density-dependent dispersal in a woodland rodent. Oecologia 193, 903–912. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-020-04728-3
7. Kaplan H. (1997). The evolution of the human life course. In Between Zeus and Salmon: The Biodemography of Longevity, ed. K Wachter, C Finch, pp. 175.211. Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Sci.
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9. Kaplan H. Lancaster JB. (1999). Skills-based competitive labour markets, the demographic transition, and the interaction of fertility and parental human capital in the determination of child outcomes. In Human Behaviour and Adaptation: An Anthropological Perspective, ed. L Cronk,WIrons, N Chagnon. de Gruyter.
10. Kopnina, H., & Washington, H. (2016). Discussing why population growth is still ignored or denied. Chinese Journal of Population Resources and Environment, 14, 133–143.
11. Loseva E, Loginova N, Mezentseva M, Klodt P, Kudrin V, (2013). Immunological Parameters of the Blood and Monoamine Content in the Brain of Rats during Long-Term Overcrowding, Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol. 155, No. 4, August, 2013 IMMUNOLOGY
12. Peacock, S. H. (2018). Effect of ecosystem literacy on understanding the impact of human population growth on the environment—a multiple case study. Ecopsychology, 10, doi:10.1089/eco.2018.0006.

Dr. Geetanjli Sahni, Navdeep, “Changes in the Behavior and Population Growth of Rats Providing Favorable Conditions in Limited Space: A Review” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.84-87 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10411

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Analyzing the Impact of Artificial Intelligence in Personalized Learning and Adaptive Assessment in Higher Education
Bundit Anuyahong, Chalong Rattanapong, Inteera Patcha April 2023 – Page No.: 88-93

This This research aims to examine the impact of AI on personalized learning and adaptive assessment in higher education and investigate the ethical and social implications of using AI in these contexts. A mixed-methods approach was used, involving surveys, interviews, focus groups, institutional records, and system logs to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. The population included higher education institutions that use AI in personalized learning and adaptive assessment systems, as well as students and educators who use these systems.
The results of the study showed that AI-based systems had a positive impact on student engagement and motivation, as well as providing personalized learning experiences. However, the analysis also revealed some limitations and potential concerns, such as technical issues and the potential for bias in the AI algorithms used in these systems. Ethical and social implications were analyzed using ethical frameworks such as the Belmont Report and principles of distributive justice. To ensure ethical and socially responsible use of AI in personalized learning and adaptive assessment, clear guidelines and standards for the development and implementation of these systems need to be established. This includes promoting transparency and accountability in the use of student data, ensuring that algorithms are developed and validated in a fair and unbiased manner, and involving diverse stakeholders in the design and implementation of these systems to promote equity and fairness. Informed consent should also be obtained from students and other stakeholders, and measures should be taken to ensure that student data is kept confidential and secure. Ongoing monitoring and evaluation should be conducted to assess the impact of AI-based systems on student outcomes and to identify and address any unintended consequences or biases.

Page(s): 88-93                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 15 May 2023


 Bundit Anuyahong
Assistant Professor Dr., Southport, QLD, Australia

 Chalong Rattanapong
Business English Department, Faculty of Business Administration, Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin, Wang Klai Kangwon Campus, Thailand

 Inteera Patcha
English Education Program, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University

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Bundit Anuyahong, Chalong Rattanapong, Inteera Patcha, “Critical Rationalism and Bayesianism” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.88-93 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10412

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Subcontracting and Performance of Oil and Gas Industries in Nigeria (Study of Addax Petroleum Development Nigeria Limited)
Ononokpono, Nyong Joe, Osademe, Gloria Chinagozi, & Prof. Akewushola Raheem Olasupo April 2023 – Page No.: 94-105

The oil and gas industry is no doubt the nucleus of our mono-product Nigeria economy. The economy and operators, the industry are vulnerable to the characteristic turbulence of the product market in terms of volatile prices, marginal oil fields, extreme locations, new global business trends among others. Hence, subcontracting is one of the pragmatic management techniques that is gaining currency in literature and its being adopted by firms in the industry. Organisations attempt to concentrate more on their core competence production facts and engage other allied firms to argument the rest via subcontracting. The study adopted a survey research design. The study population is made up of (107) one hundred and seven professionals, contractors, consultants, project managers engaged by Addax Petroleum Development Nigeria Limited. The study considered and enumerated the total population as the sample for the study. Content validated structured questionnaire was used as the research instrument. The coefficient alpha of the scale items was 0.17. A combination of both descriptive and regression analysis were employed to analyse the data collected. The research findings depict that subcontracting positively affect the optimum performance of the firm and minimizes overhead running cost. However, for product quality assurance, contracting firms should not concede to the lowest price bidder. Also, it’s imperative that the payment terms should be agreed upon and be favourable to both parties before the engagement activities commence.

Page(s): 94-105                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 18 May 2023


 Ononokpono, Nyong Joe
Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria

 Osademe, Gloria Chinagozi
Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria

 Prof. Akewushola Raheem Olasupo
Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, Nigeria

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3. Arditi, D. &Chotibhongs, R. (2019). Issues in subcontracting practice. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, (ASCE) 131(8), 866-887.
4. Barthelemy, J.&Quelim, B.V. (2022). Journal of Management Studies. Complexity of Outsourcing Contracts and Ex post Transaction Cost. 16(6), 292 – 302.
5. Barthélemy, M. and Donada, K. (2022). Supply-chain management issues in the oil and gas industry. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 5(6), 27–36.
6. Central Bank of Nigeria (2018). Quarterly Economic Report. Retrieved February 10, 2022, from https://www.cbn.gov.ng/out/2018/rsd/cbn%20economic%20report%20third%20quarter%20%20%202018%20published.pdf
7. Cheng, J., Lee, C. & Chen, H. (2020). Assessing inter-organisational performance in the supply chain: Corporate social responsibility as a mediator.Asia PacificManagement Review, 19(1), 61–79
8. Chima, C. M., & Hills, D. (2021). Supply-chain management issues in the oil and gas industry. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 5(6), 27–36.
9. Construction Industry Development Board, South Africa (2020). Subcontracting in the South African construction industry; Opportunities for Development, CIBD, South Africa. International Journal of Production Economics. Elsevier, 47(4), 31–43.
10. Dossick, C. S., &Schunk, T. K. (2021) Subcontractor schedule-control method.Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 133(3), 262-265.
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13. Guers R. (2020). Issues in subcontracting practice. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, (ASCE) 131(8), 866-887.
14. Hart, M. (2022). BP Oil Spill: Outsourcing versus Subcontracting. Computer world UK from IDG, International Journal of Production Economics. Elsevier, 7(3), 51–53.
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18. Lucato, W. C., Calarge, F. A., Junior, M. L., &Calado, R. D. (2020). Performance evaluation of lean manufacturing implementation in Brazil.International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 63(5), 529–549.
19. Mbachu, J. (2021). A conceptual framework for the assessment of subcontractors’ eligibility and performance in the construction industry.Construction Management & Economics, 26(1), 471-484.
20. Mcneill, C and Chapman, O. (2019). The effect of relationship management on project performance in construction. International Journal of Project Management, 30(2019), 188-198.
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29. Quélin, T. and Duhamel, S. (2020). Subcontractor schedule-control method. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 133(3), 262-265.
30. Rui, Z., Li, C., Ling, K., Chen, G., Zhou, X., & Chang, H. (2020). Development of industry performance metrics for the offshore oil and gas project.Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering. Elsevier B.V, 26(2), 44–53.
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Ononokpono, Nyong Joe, Osademe, Gloria Chinagozi, & Prof. Akewushola Raheem Olasupo, “Subcontracting and Performance of Oil and Gas Industries in Nigeria (Study of Addax Petroleum Development Nigeria Limited)” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.94-105 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10413

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The Translation of Metaphors of Emotions of Anger from EkeGusii to English Using the Extended Conceptual Metaphor Theory
Gillphine Chebunga Onkware, Jared Bravin Menecha, Margaret Kerubo Ogeto April 2023 – Page No.: 106-112

The aim of this paper was to discuss common words used in reference to anger in Ekegusii, a Bantu speaking community in Kisii and Nyamira counties in Kenya. Using the Extended Conceptual Metaphor Theory (Kövecses 2020), linguistic expressions of anger that were recorded in a pilot study have been analyzed for metaphorical content, thereafter a translation was made from Ekegusii to English to check for the translation challenges. The findings reveal that Ekegusii displays differences in the conceptualization of anger as compared to English. One notable difference is realized about where anger comes from in Ekegusii. Anger as an emotion is conceptualized as coming from an external source and therefore it ‘catches’ persons. In the same regard, a person ‘hears’ anger thereby showing that anger is an external emotion that is personified

Page(s): 106-112                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 May 2023


 Gillphine Chebunga Onkware
Africa International University

 Jared Bravin Menecha
Daystar University

 Margaret Kerubo Ogeto
Quantic School of Business and Technology, Washington DC

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Gillphine Chebunga Onkware, Jared Bravin Menecha, Margaret Kerubo Ogeto, ” The Translation of Metaphors of Emotions of Anger from EkeGusii to English Using the Extended Conceptual Metaphor Theory ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.106-112 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10414

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Why is it Necessary to Protect Migrants’ Status within Member Countries of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS)? Assessing the Stakes and Relevance of Ensuring a Protective Environment for Migrants
Lidwina Dope Nyadjroh Gabsa April 2023 – Page No.: 113-121

The protection of migrant right is a principle of international humanitarian law, ratified by most states, including the states of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), where, the movement of persons is thought to be free and has increased significantly. Although the legal aspect of migrant status and protection has been emphasized, the benefit such protection brings to the host state has been underestimated. The purpose of this article is to fill this gap by identifying and explaining not only the legal environment in which migrants live and operate within ECCAS but also, the benefits achieved by states when they embrace migrants and engage in their protection. The movement of persons within members of the ECCAS is not only a manifestation of the legal will of states of the region to protect migrant status, but also, such movements come with developmental benefits for member states. This article partly seeks to explore the advantages that Cameroon, Chad and Gabon acquire as member states of the ECCAS region when protecting foreigners in accordance with their local legislation and dispositions. Apart from the global symbolic benefits that these countries acquire as members of the international community, they are also thought to achieve real time benefits of national and regional significance when they embrace migrants from neighboring states and ensure their status is protected.

Page(s): 113-121                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 May 2023


 Lidwina Dope Nyadjroh Gabsa
Senior Lecturer, University of Yaounde II, Soa

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Lidwina Dope Nyadjroh Gabsa, “Why is it Necessary to Protect Migrants’ Status within Member Countries of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS)? Assessing the Stakes and Relevance of Ensuring a Protective Environment for Migrants” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.113-121 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10415

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The Contributions of Language to The Cultural Heritage of The Hausa Society
Orji Dereck-M. Akachukwu (PhD) & Muomalu, Ukamaka Cynthia April 2023 – Page No.: 122-129

Language is the most important information and communication characteristic of all human beings. Only human beings have spoken and written language and language is the key note of culture because without it, culture does not exist. Language is power as well as great instrument for cultural preservation and transmission. This paper discusses the influence of language on the Hausa culture. How language affects the Hausa speaking community in Nigeria. This paper points out how language affects the thinking, career, norms, traditions etc. of the speech community of study. It is the medium of language that conveys the socio-political, economic, and religious thoughts from individual to individual and from generation to generation. Language and culture are so intertwined that one cannot survive without the other.

Page(s): 122-129                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 May 2023


 Orji Dereck-M. Akachukwu (PhD)
Department of Linguistics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

 Muomalu, Ukamaka Cynthia
Department of Linguistics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

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Orji Dereck-M. Akachukwu (PhD) & Muomalu, Ukamaka Cynthia, “The Contributions of Language to The Cultural Heritage of The Hausa Society” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.122-129 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10416

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Measures of Day and Night Times Ozone (O3) Concentration in Parts of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Onengiyeofori A. Davies, Sudum Esaenwi, Nicholas N. Tasie April 2023 – Page No.: 130-136

This work was aimed at taking measures of ozone concentration during day and night times in Port Harcourt. To this end, we employed a smart unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that we had previously designed and constructed to take measures of atmospheric zone concentration in mg/m3. We collected data, in 5-minutes intervals, at noon for 245 minutes within 1pm-3:45pm and at night for 180minutes within 8pm-10pm on the 18/11/2022 on our pilot launch. The data collected was determined by how long our device battery could last on the pilot launch. Our results from the day time measures of ozone concentration showed that the concentration of ozone was quite stable, remaining between 0.1 and 0.2 mg/m3 the whole period while the night time observation shows a natural rise in ozone levels throughout this time period, with concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 0.06 mg/m3. This shows that the ozone concentration was higher during the night time, which could be attributed to Port Harcourt being an urban area and the weather condition in Port Harcourt during the period of this study.

Page(s): 130-136                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 May 2023


 Onengiyeofori A. Davies
Physics Department, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria

 Sudum Esaenwi
Physics Department, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria

 Nicholas N. Tasie
Physics Department, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria

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Onengiyeofori A. Davies, Sudum Esaenwi, Nicholas N. Tasie, ” Measures of Day and Night Times Ozone (O3) Concentration in Parts of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.130-136 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10417

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Evaluation of Participatory Communication in the Governance of Busia County – Kenya
Michael Otieno Oloo, Prof. W. Okumu Bigambo, Dr. Masibo Lumala April 2023 – Page No.: 137-153

Public Participation (PP) was inscribed in the Kenya’s 2010 constitution to facilitate collaborative dialogue in governance. Inclusive governance was meant to facilitate and sustain citizen’s empowerment and developmental wellbeing. Busia County has been on record for high poverty rate. The study explored the communicative challenges that inhibit the performances of Participatory Communication (PC) in governance of the County. The questions comprised: How does Busia County use Public Participation as a tool of communication with the stakeholders? What are the communication benefits of Public Participation in Busia County? What are the communication challenges of using Public Participation in governance at Busia County? Newcomb’s communication model was applied to illustrate the role of PP as the communicative tool in governance. The study was carried out through qualitative approach via case study method. Barnlund’s Transactional Model, provided the study with functional communication cues inherent in collaborative engagements. Conflict Theory was applied to illustrate the factors that create systematic disorders in organizations. Purposive sampling was used to raise 35 participants from seven sub counties of the county. The participants comprised teachers, traders, farmers, MCAs and County Government staff. The qualitative data was analyzed through thematic technique. The study established apathy and lack of committed goodwill by the leadership as the major setback to PP performance in governance. The knowledge about functions of PC in the performance of PP in governance is significant information to academia. To policy makers, the findings are useful for formulating and sustaining legal and enforceable communication framework to improve inclusive governance. To practice, the proposed ideals would empower PRE’s to be the responsible advocates and enforce goodwill for mutual gains of all county stakeholders. The findings would further good governance in CG to facilitate the general publics to have a say in prioritization and implementation of their development wishes. These ideals would liberate citizens from challenges associated with underdevelopment, thus culminating to sustainable livelihood.

Page(s): 137-153                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 May 2023


 Michael Otieno Oloo
Department of Publishing, Journalism and Communication Studies, School of Information Sciences, Moi University, P.O Box 3900-30100, Eldoret Kenya

 Prof. W. Okumu Bigambo
Department of Publishing, Journalism and Communication Studies, School of Information Sciences, Moi University, P.O Box 3900-30100, Eldoret Kenya

 Dr. Masibo Lumala
Department of Publishing, Journalism and Communication Studies, School of Information Sciences, Moi University, P.O Box 3900-30100, Eldoret Kenya

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Michael Otieno Oloo, Prof. W. Okumu Bigambo, Dr. Masibo Lumala, “Evaluation of Participatory Communication in the Governance of Busia County – Kenya” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.137-153 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10418

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The Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies for The Removal of Crystal Violet Dye (Methyl Violet 6b) from Aqueous Solution Using Avocado Pear Seed Activated Carbon
Anwana Abel UKPONG*, Etim Okon ASUQUO, and Godwin Ime EDEKHE April 2023 – Page No.: 154-164

In this study, adsorption equilibrium and kinetic studies for the removal of crystal violet (CV) from an aqueous solution were investigated using a batch adsorption process. The activated carbon was prepared by carbonizing the avocado pear seed at a carbonization temperature of 500OC for 1hr and was impregnated with a 30% concentration of aqueous HCl solution which was further activated in a muffle furnace at a temperature of 500OC for 1hr. The avocado pear seed activated Carbon obtained was characterized using proximate analysis, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FT-IR) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The effect of various adsorption parameters such as contact time (15-150 min), initial dye concentration (25-150 mg/L), adsorbent dosage (1-9 g), particle size and pH of dye solution were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted into different isotherm models and the Langmuir model exhibited the best fit which implied that the adsorption of CV dyes onto avocado pear seed activated carbon was monolayer and the adsorbent surface was homogeneous and also; adsorption energy was uniform for all sites and there was no transmigration of adsorbate in the plane of the surface. The kinetic studies revealed that the adsorption data fitted well to the pseudo-second-order model with a high correlation coefficient of 0.977 when compared to other models, thus; signifying that the adsorption’s mechanism was chemisorption. APSAC shows a much better adsorption capacity for CV dye removal having a maximum adsorption capacity of 3.3254 mg/g and percentage removal of 99.995 %. Hence, APSAC can be used as an effective and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of CV dye from an aqueous solution.

Page(s): 154-164                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 25 May 2023


 Anwana Abel UKPONG
Department of Chemical/ Petrochemical Engineering, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Mkpat Enin L.G.A, P.M.B 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

 Etim Okon ASUQUO
Department of Chemical/ Petrochemical Engineering, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Mkpat Enin L.G.A, P.M.B 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

 Godwin Ime EDEKHE
Department of Chemical/ Petrochemical Engineering, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden, Mkpat Enin L.G.A, P.M.B 1167, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

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Anwana Abel UKPONG*, Etim Okon ASUQUO, and Godwin Ime EDEKHE, “The Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies for The Removal of Crystal Violet Dye (Methyl Violet 6b) from Aqueous Solution Using Avocado Pear Seed Activated Carbon” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.154-164 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10419

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Teaching Comprehensive Sexuality Education at Secondary School: Towards Promoting Healthy Sexual Decisions among Pupils, Luapula Province, Zambia
Francis S. Sikanyika, Rose Chikopela, Christine Mushibwe, Cynthia N. Kalizinje, Moono Muvombo, Sitali Mayamba & Colious Gondwe April 2023 – Page No.: 165-174

The study is an investigation into positive impacts of teaching Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) on pupils’ healthy sexual decisions. This study was purely a qualitative one employing a case study design. A total of 5 schools in Luapula Province were sampled, comprising 10 teachers and 40 pupils who were purposively and randomly selected. Data was collected using questionnaires and semi-structured interview guides while analysis of data was done using SPSS and themes. The study revealed that CSE has many positive impacts on pupils’ healthy sexual decisions, choices and behavior change in general; and also established misconceptions about CSE. The study recommends that CSE must be a compulsory, age-appropriate, co-curricular subject to all pupils in secondary schools and that teachers must endeavor to explain its importance and/or positive impact to pupils. This study concludes that pupils are able to make healthy sexual decisions if exposed to CSE more often.

Page(s): 165-174                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2023


 Francis S. Sikanyika
Chisokone Secondary School, Department of Guidance and Counselling, Samfya, Zambia.

 Rose Chikopela
Chalimbana University, Department of Special Education, Lusaka, Zambia.

 Christine Mushibwe
Unicaf University Zambia, Vice Chancellor, Lusaka, Zambia.

 Cynthia N. Kalizinje
ASHCA Institute, Lusaka, Zambia.

 Moono Muvombo
Nkhrumah University, School of Education, Kabwe, Zambia.

 Sitali Mayamba
Nkhrumah University, School of Education, Kabwe, Zambia.

 Colious Gondwe
Nkhrumah University, School of Education, Kabwe, Zambia.

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Francis S. Sikanyika, Rose Chikopela, Christine Mushibwe, Cynthia N. Kalizinje, Moono Muvombo, Sitali Mayamba & Colious Gondwe, ” Teaching Comprehensive Sexuality Education at Secondary School: Towards Promoting Healthy Sexual Decisions among Pupils, Luapula Province, Zambia ” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.165-174 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10420

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Comparative Analysis of the Profitability of Cassava Value Added products in Ondo State, Nigeria
Mafimisebi O. E., Akinbobola T. P. and Awoyomi T. E. April 2023 – Page No.: 175-181

Value addition in agriculture remains an icing on the cake, and a sustainable pathway to economic growth and investment. However, in the quest to add value to agricultural produce, profitability is a great criterion to the choice and preference of various value additions. This study compared the profitability of value-added cassava products in Ondo state, Southwest Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used to select 110 respondents. Primary data were collected and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistic (Profitability/Budgetary analysis and ANOVA). The results revealed that cassava roasted granules, Fufu and cassava flour were the common cassava value addition. Results of the profitability analysis revealed that processing cassava to pupuru (GM = ₦11,520) and cassava flour (GM = ₦10,860) were the most profitable cassava value addition. Lack of adequate technologies (x̅ = 0.96) and poor extension services (x̅ =0.93) were the major constraint to cassava value addition. Also, there was no significant differences (F = 3.107, ρ≥0.05) in the profits from the value-added products across the communities. The study therefore concluded that value addition is profitable in cassava, hence concerted efforts should be made by stakeholders in encouraging and enhancing value addition policies for agricultural produce especially cassava.

Page(s): 175-181                                                                                                                   Date of Publication: 27 May 2023


 Mafimisebi O. E.
Department of Agricultural Extension & Management, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

 Akinbobola T. P.
Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

 Awoyomi T. E.
Department of Agricultural Extension & Management, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria

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Mafimisebi O. E., Akinbobola T. P. and Awoyomi T. E., “Comparative Analysis of the Profitability of Cassava Value Added products in Ondo State, Nigeria” International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation (IJRSI) vol.10 issue 4, pp.175-181 April 2023 https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2023.10421

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