Attitudes, Habits and Pedagogic Usage of Code-Switching among Bachelor of Secondary Education-Major in English Students

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Attitudes, Habits and Pedagogic Usage of Code-Switching among Bachelor of Secondary Education-Major in English Students

  • Lord Mark Jayson Ilarde
  • Lemuel O. Ponce
  • Carol F. Duran
  • Charisse Angelica P. Solis
  • Jhun Carlo M. Villegas
  • 209-220
  • May 31, 2024
  • Education

Attitudes, Habits and Pedagogic Usage of Code-Switching among Bachelor of Secondary Education-Major in English Students

Lord Mark Jayson Ilarde, Lemuel O. Ponce, Carol F. Duran, Charisse Angelica P. Solis, Jhun Carlo M. Villegas

Cagayan State University- Aparri, Cagayan, Philippines

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2024.1105014

Received: 22 April 2024; Accepted: 02 May 2024; Published: 31 May 2024

ABSTRACT

Code-switching is a phenomenon that frequently occurs inside an ESL classroom. The general inquiry of this study was to determine the attitudes and habits of the respondents in terms of code-switching, and underscore its various pedagogical applications. A combined total of 55 Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSED) Major in English students from Cagayan State University (CSU) Aparri and Lasam served as the participants of the study. The researchers utilized a mixed-method design, specifically a descriptive-correlational in determining the relationship between their profile variables, attitudes and habits towards language shift. Quantitative research design was the means to collect their profile, attitudes and habits while qualitative design was used for the enumeration of the pedagogical applications of code-switching as perceived by the respondents.

They were chosen using simple random sampling technique. The main instrument used was a six-part survey questionnaire. (1) Demographic profile, (2) attitudes of student-participants towards code-switching, (3) the frequency of the use of code-switching (4) attitudes toward code switchers, (5) habits of students on code-switching (6) enumeration of the different pedagogical uses of code-switching in the classroom.

Frequency, percentage counts, percentage distribution, means and standard deviations were utilized for profile variables and Five-point rating scale and weighted means were used to describe the attitudes and habits of the students towards code switching.

Findings revealed that a positive attitude is associated among male respondents and those whose gender orientation is different from their sex. More so, it was found that Native Language is the only variable that significantly influences their habits on code-switching. It could also be noted that the respondents don’t always code-switch as they are English major students. Ultimately, code-switching is most commonly used as a pedagogical tool in recitation, as it reaped the highest frequency having been mentioned 44 times among the 55 respondents.

Ultimately, code-switching is most commonly used as a pedagogical tool in recitation. This study contributes hugely to the positive impressions of students towards code-switching in terms of their social, academic and professional development. The researchers’ work will help better understand when and how to use code switching in their own classes to increase learning and teaching effectively. It is therefore recommended that students must not hesitate to code-switch if it’s needed. Teachers must also incorporate code-switching into their classroom routines to establish better understanding of material. Future researchers are encouraged to continue to study the nuances of language in bilingual contexts, as this knowledge can inform and improve language pedagogy in multilingual societies.

Keywords: Attitudes, Code-Switching, Habits, Pedagogic Usage

INTRODUCTION

Philippine English (PE) originated during American colonization of the Philippines, according to research into its history. English has been accepted and used by Filipinos since then, making the country one of the world’s leading English-speaking nations (Esquivel, 2019). The intrinsic Filipino identity endures in language expressions even with the extensive use of English in many areas of daily life. The behavior under observation is particularly noticeable in English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms, where students often switch between English and their mother tongue, or native language, during class discussions. Code-switching is the term used to describe this linguistic shift.

Code-switching is basically the practice of switching from one language variety to another, orally or in writing, to accommodate a new circumstance. It naturally occurs in communication with our effort to obtain understandable conversation (Novianto et al., 2021). Code-switching contributes largely in the quest of second language learning. Teachers use more than one language in an ESL classroom; important theories are presented using English, then the teacher gradually shifts to the native language that every student is aware of as these concepts are being explained to secure comprehensible input (Hasibuan et al., 2018). Taking in consideration that the Philippines is a culturally and linguistically diverse country, the acquisition of a second language is deemed to be challenging (Castillejo et. al, 2018), hence there are instances when the need for code-switching calls. Although the use of English language in both written and oral communication language is perceived by Filipinos as something formal and dignified, the mixing of international and vernacular language still becomes a habitual practice (Valerio, 2015) and a common linguistic phenomenon among learners inside the classroom (Castillejo et. al, 2018). Moreover, it was affirmed that the phenomenon of language transfers or bilingual language is not an alien thing that frequently occurs, and so is code switching (Novianto et al., 2021).

Much research has been embarked parallel to code-switching which has given rise to its positive implications and pedagogic uses prior to English Language Learning. In the study of Gulzar (2014), it was found that code-switching is a convenient source of checking the understanding of students, as well as an aid in obtaining enhanced language learning. Teachers frequently use language transfer to help students understand the material they are learning, particularly when it comes to precise terms that require a lot of explanation on the part of the teacher (Hasibuan et al., 2018). Additionally, Abad (2005), as cited in Castillejo et al. (2018), supports this by pointing out that it sets a comfortable mode for students to comprehend English lessons. Students are deemed to be at ease, and they take part in discussions when teachers allow them to code-switch. Meanwhile, there have been negative notions about the use of code switching. Although teachers believe that code-switching is a helpful tool for students’ better understanding, it shouldn’t be practiced all the time as it may spoil students to always use their mother tongue and it can possibly affect their overall language performance (Memory, 2018).

While code-switching has already earned increasing attention as a center of study in the field of research internationally, only few are still being conducted in the Philippines. This veracity ushered the researchers to conduct the same subject in the context of Cagayan State University particularly in Aparri and Lasam campuses. Findings of this research article would contribute to a new body of knowledge in the university as a whole. Additionally, a certain study about code switching among Cebuanos has been conducted where he found that those from Southern group code-switch more than those from the Northern group (Abatillas, 2015). Much is the desire of the researchers to infuse it in the context of CSUans, they ought to explore the disparities in terms of attitudes, habits, and frequency on the use of code-switching among students considering that Cagayan is constituted with people having different native languages and/or belonging to ethnic groups. Furthermore, given that the respondents of this study are English major students who are dubbed as “must” always proficient and fluent in use of the language, code-switching still plays a huge space in the classroom. Hence; anchored with the study conducted by Teklesellassie et al. (2018) where they correlated demographic profiles of the students to their attitudes towards code- switching, and Sakaria et al. (2018) which delved on exploring empirical evidence contemplated on the fundamental use of code-switching as an instructional strategy in support to the development of students’ second or foreign language, the present paper seeks to ascertain the attitude, and habits of students towards the use of code-switching, and underscore its pedagogic uses inside their classroom. Results from this paper would benchmark future researchers to further investigate the functions of code-switching in an ESL classroom.

Research Questions

This study endeavored to actuate the participants’ attitudes toward code-switchers and code-switching, habits on code-switching, and underscore its different pedagogical applications. Specifically, it sought answers to the following queries.

  1. What is the profile of the BSEd-English students in terms of the following variables?
  2. Age
  3. Gender
  4. Gender Orientation
  5. Native Language
  6. Ethnicity
  7. Religious Affiliation
  8. What are the attitudes and habits of the BSEd-English students towards code-switching?
  9. What are the pedagogic usages of code-switching as considered by the BSEd-English students?
  10. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the BSEd-English students and the following variables?
  11. Attitude towards code-switching
  12. Habits on code-switching
  13. Is there a significant relationship between the attitudes and habits of the BSEd-English students towards code-switching?

METHODOLOGY

The researchers utilized a mixed method of research. Quantitative research design using the Descriptive Correlational technique was used in determining the relationship of the profile variables, attitudes and habits of the students towards code-switching of the respondents. When conducting correlational research, a researcher examines two variables, comprehends and evaluates the statistical relationships between them with any influence of other factors. Qualitative research design, on the other hand, was employed in underscoring the pedagogical applications of code-switching as considered by the 3rd BSED English students of CSU Aparri and Lasam.

The main instrument used for gathering the data was a six-part survey questionnaire. Part 1 of the instrument dealt with collecting demographic characteristics of the respondents as to their age, gender, gender orientation, native language, ethnicity and religious affiliation. Part 2 consisted of 9-item statements which determined the attitudes of student-participants towards code-switching; 5-point rating scale was utilized to determine their attitude (strongly agree-5; agree-4; undecided 3; disagree-2; strongly disagree-1). Part 3 of the survey was the frequency of the use of code switching and a scale-rating was utilized according to how frequent they code-switch, namely: always; frequently; neutral; sometimes or never. Part 4 dealt with their attitudes toward code switchers and a 5-point rating scale was utilized to determine their attitude (strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, strongly disagree). Part 5 focused on the habits of students on code-switching where a 5-point rating scale was utilized (always, frequently, sometimes, seldom, never). Part 6 of the instrument contemplated on the enumeration of the different pedagogical uses of code switching in the classroom. The study was carried out at CSU Aparri and CSU Lasam, having a total population of 55 participants, who are all Bachelor of Secondary Education students Major in English enrolled for the Academic year 2022-2023. They were chosen using simple random sampling technique.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Age

Table 1 reveals that 29 or 52.7 percent of them are aged 20 and below, while 17 or 34.6 percent of them are aged 21. Meanwhile, 7 or 12.7 percent of them belong to the age range of 22 above. The finding indicates that most of the students belong to the 20 and below age range who are third year students. Few researchers have examined the demographics of students. Studies have found that fully online students tend to be older (Johnson, 2019) and more often female than male.This finding implies that the majority of the students’ current year level fits their current tertiary year level. It could be noted however that there were those in the early adulthood stage who may have stopped or returned schooling.

Table 1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents of their Age.

Age Frequency (n=55) Percentage
22 – above 7 12.7
21 19 34.6
20-below 29 52.7

Sex

Table 2 displays the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents in terms of their sex. The table reveals that out of the 55 respondents, 35 of them are female or 63.6 percent while 20 or 36.4 percent of them are males. The finding clearly displays that teaching is a female dominated course. This finding is consistent with the findings of Talosa et al. (2020) that in the Teacher Education Department, men outweigh women.

Table 2. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents of their Sex.

Gender Frequency (n=55) Percentage
Female 35 63.6
Male 20 36.4

Native Language

Table 3 indicates the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents in terms of their native language. The table reveals that out of the 55 respondents, 44 or 80 percent have Iloco as their native language, 6 or 10.9 percent have Ybanag as their native language, and 5 or 9.1 percent have Tagalog as their native language. This means that the respondents of the study were dominated by Ilocanos. This result is in line with the result of the census conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority in 2020 that Ilocano was the most prominent ethnic group in Cagayan. Of the total household population, 68.57 percent classified themselves as Ilocanos. The next three prominent ethnic groups were the Itawit (8.63 percent), Ibanag (8.51 percent) and Itawis (7.81 percent). The remaining 6.30 percent were either Tagalog, Malaueg, or belonged to other ethnic groups.

Table 3. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents of their Native Language.

Native Language Frequency (n=55) Percentage
Iloco 44 80
Ybanag 6 10.9
Tagalog 5 9.1

Gender Orientation

Table 4 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents in terms of their gender identity. The table disputes that out of the 55 respondents 31 or 56.4 percent had their gender identity as straight woman; 11 or 20 percent identified themselves as straight man and 13 or 23.7 identified themselves as part of the LGBT+ community.

This is in contrast with the record of the Philippine Statistics Authority in 2020 about the population of Aparri, Cagayan where male population is 1.74 percent higher than the female population.

Table 4. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents of their Gender Orientation.

Gender Orientation Frequency (n=55) Percentage
Straight woman 31 56.4
Straight man 11 20
Bisexual 6 10.9
No gender Orientation 4 7.3
Gay 2 3.7
Lesbian 1 1.8

Ethnicity

Table 5 exposes the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents in terms of their ethnicity. The table reveals that out of the 55 respondents 47 or 85.5 percent are Iloco, 6 or 10.9 percent are Ybanag, and 2 or 3.7 percent are Tagalog. This is in line with the discussion in table 1 where the majority of the respondents have Ilocano as their native language and so they are classified as Ilokano. This result is confirmed in the result of the 2020 Philippine Statistics Authority Census.

Table 5. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents of their Ethnicity.

Ethnicity Frequency (n=55) Percentage
Iloko 47 85.5
Ybanag 6 10.9
Tagalog 2 3.7

Religious Affiliation

Table 6 unveils the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents in terms of their religious affiliation. The table reveals that out of the 55 respondents 43 or 78.2 percent are Roman Catholic and 12 or 21.8 percent are non-Catholic. This finding also posits the outcome of the PSA 2020 census which states that 76.15 percent of the population in the Cagayan Valley are Roman Catholic.

Table 6. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents of their Religious Affiliation.

Religious Affiliation Frequency (n=55) Percentage
Roman Catholic 43 78.2
Non-catholics 12 21.8

Attitudes of Student-Participants towards Code-switching

The table 7 exposes the attitudes of student-participants as regards code-switching. It is explicit from the calculated means that they perceived the use of Tagalog and English: in casual conversations with friends (4.2), as a means of expressing oneself easier and more accurate (4.3), and to learn English lessons easier and faster (4.2) in a very positive way. Meanwhile, they displayed positive attitudes towards the ideas that code-switching can be a routine if it is allowed by professors (3.8), it can be a good practice (3.7), it can be allowed during group activities (3.8), it is a linguistic trend that everyone practices (3.6), and it can be everyone’s preferred practice in sending messages when using technological gadgets in school (4.1). These findings indicate that the students displayed a positive attitude towards code-switching as reckoned in the overall category mean of 3.9 interpreted as ‘positive’. It is supported by Castillejo et al. (2018) that there has been a positive attitude of students towards code-switching wherein they also practice code switching during casual conversations because they believe it’s a normal occurrence in the context of everyday life, and they find it beneficial for them in understanding their lessons better. The same conclusions are consistent with Nordin et al. (2013) as majority of students have perceived the use of code-switching as an essential component in their ESL course, likewise, reported that it helps them learn English better and faster.

Table 7. Attitudes of Student-Participants towards Codes-switching.

Statements Mean Descriptive Value
1. I converse with my friends using Tagalog and English during our casual conversation. 4.2 Very Positive
2. In my English subject, I speak my dialect and switch to English from time to time. 3.3 Sometimes Positive
3. As a routine, I mix English and my vernacular language in my English subject because my professor allows me. 3.8 Positive
4. During classroom discussions, mixing vernacular language and English Language is a good practice among students. 3.7 Positive
5. Mixing Tagalog and English can be a means of expressing oneself easier and more accurate. 4.3 Very Positive
6. Using both Tagalog and English during class discussions makes learning English lessons easier and faster. 4.2 Very Positive
7. During group activities, I use the combination of my dialect and English because it is allowed by my teacher. 3.8 Positive
8. Combining my dialect and the English Language is natural because it is a linguistic trend everyone practices. 3.6 Positive
9. In using technological gadgets in school, I prefer using English and Tagalog in sending messages. 4.1 Positive
 Category Mean 3.9 Positive

Frequency of the Use of Code-Switching

Table 8 discloses the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents in terms of their frequency of the Use of Code Switching. It is evident in the data that the respondents frequently use code switching during their English class. This means that not all the time, English major students use the English language all throughout the discussion, however, they might only use code switching when necessary.

Table 8. Frequency of the Use of Code-Switching.

Statement Mean Descriptive Value
1. How often do you code-switch during an English class? 3.7 Frequently

Attitudes toward Code Switchers

Table 9 presents the attitudes of the respondents towards code-switchers. It is evidently clear that the respondents posed a very positive attitude in the ideas: students who combine Tagalog and English during recitation are just being honest and expressive (4.3), and code switchers are also achievers (4.3). Meanwhile, the statements: a student who explains purely in English is more intelligent than those who mix Tagalog and English during brainstorming (2.6), and a student who mixes his dialects and English during brainstorming has poor communication skills (1.9), have solicited negative notions from the respondents. It goes analogous with the point that being able to speak in English fluently isn’t a measurement of one’s intelligence. This result contradicts the findings of Gao (2019) that the respondents posed a negative attitude towards code switching because it implicates a negative impact on academic performance and language acquisition of students.

Table 9. Attitudes toward Code Switchers.

Statements Mean Descriptive Value
1. A student who explains purely In English is more intelligent than those who mix Tagalog and English during brainstorming. 2.6 Negative
2. If I talk to someone who frequently combines his dialect & English, I look at his manner of speaking as a “better speaker” compared to those who purely use his dialect to communicate. 3.3 Sometimes Positive
3. A student who combines Tagalog and English during recitation in his English subject is just being “honest and expressive” to what he really feels. 4.3 Very Positive
4. A student who mixes his dialects and English during brainstorming has poor communication skills. 1.9 Negative
5. Code-switchers are also achievers. 4.3 Very Positive
6. Code-switchers should be given additional speaking lessons/drills than those who speak English better. 3.3 Sometimes Positive
7. As a region with several Ilocanos, additional subjects in English must be given by the school to lessen the difficulties in learning English. 3.5 Positive
8. Students from the province usually code-switch; unlike in urban places, most students are fluent in speaking English. 3.1 Sometimes Positive
Category Mean 3.3 Sometimes Positive

Habits of Students on Code-Switching

Table 10 unveils the habits of the respondents on code-switching. It can be noted from the data that they always code-switch when they can’t pick the right English words to say (4.3), to effectively express their thoughts (4.2), and to feel more comfortable when speaking (4.2). Respondents also disclosed that they often code-switch when it comes to supplementing information during recitation or reporting (4), might as well when they find a complex topic that is difficult to explain (4.0), and when they communicate with their classmates during group activities (3.9). Furthermore, they only code-switch sometimes for their intent to ask their teacher to explain something in another language (3.4), and to decrease their anxiety in speaking (3.4). In summary, respondents don’t always code-switch as reckoned in the overall category mean of 3.9 with a descriptive value of ‘often’, as they are English major students. The same findings can be inferred from the study of Castillejo et al. (2018) where it was emphasized that students habitually do code-switching during usual conversations with their classmates. Dela Cruz (2018) also highlighted that code-switching is frequently done by teachers to get lessons easily comprehended by students. When students don’t understand something in class, they ask their teachers to explain it in a language apprehended by everybody.

Table 10. Habits of Students on Code-Switching.

Statements Mean Descriptive Value
1. I switch to another language when I can’t pick the right English words to say. 4.3 Always
2. When I recite, I use both English and Tagalog to effectively express my thoughts. 4.2 Always
3. When I don’t understand something, I ask my teacher to explain it in another language such as Tagalog. 3.4 Sometimes
4. I use Tag-lish and even Iloco/Ibanag to communicate with my classmates during group activities. 3.9 Often
5. It has been my habit to code-switch as a way of supplementing information whenever I report or recite. 4 Often
6. I am forced to code-switch to decrease anxiety when speaking in English. 3.4 Sometimes
7. When I find it difficult to explain a complex topic, I code-switch. 4 Often
8. I feel more comfortable using more than one language when speaking. 4.2 Always
Category Mean 3.9 Often

Pedagogic Usage of Code-Switching

This portion deliberates the different pedagogical applications of code-switching inside the classroom as underscored by the respondents. From the pedagogical uses considered by the respondents, three themes have emerged namely: for discussion; for expression; and for clarification. They were asked to enumerate at least 10 uses, and recitation, having been mentioned 44 times among the 55 respondents, appeared to be the top most pedagogical application of code-switching under the theme for discussion along with discussion (37) and reporting (36). Teachers and researchers couldn’t agree more to this because what restricts students from being able to express themselves freely during recitation is the standard of good grammar, fluency, and command of the language, especially with English major students. However, it is also necessary to highlight communicative rather than linguistic competence alone. Poplack and Levey (2010) examined code-switching in discussions among speakers of Haitian Creole and English. The researchers found that speakers often used code-switching as a way to negotiate social identities and to signal group membership. Also, code-switching could be used to signal a shift in topic or to convey a particular emotion.

Another theme emerged was for expression which include expressing opinions/elaborating/explaining (30), group works/activities (18), class meetings/interactions (16) and class conversation (23). The importance of code-switching during class where teachers employ code-switching to improve the expression of affection, which encourages students to continue improving their communicative skill is aligned to the result of Sakaria et al. (2018) that code- switching keeps the discussion going in second language classes by translating new terminology or by repeating a complete sentence from the target language to the native tongue and vice versa for understanding. Code-switching can serve several functions in communication, including expressing identity, establishing solidarity, and highlighting emphasis (Auer & Schmidt, 2014). Speakers may utilize code-switching to highlight a specific idea or to express a sense of closeness with their interlocutors (Heller, 2011).

Lastly, for clarification also revealed from students, presented in the uses include debate (23), performance task (role playing /skit) (23), and asking questions/permissions (15). Toohey et al. (2018) presented how they use it as a resource for learning and identity formation. Code-switching is a common and valued practice in these classrooms, and that it is used for a variety of purposes, including clarification, socialization, and identity negotiation. However, code-switching can be a source of tension and anxiety for some students, particularly those who feel that their proficiency in one or more languages is lower than that of their peers.

The result confirms one of the findings made by Martin (2014) in her study that Filipino high school teachers often make conscious efforts to effectively connect to their students using the language the students are most comfortable with. Research has shown that code switching can enhance the learning experience by promoting cognitive flexibility, encouraging critical thinking, and fostering a more inclusive and culturally responsive classroom environment (García et al., 2014). Additionally, code switching can also assist in building a more positive classroom environment by encouraging students to actively engage in class discussions and activities, as well as allowing for more effective communication between students and teachers.

Table 11. Pedagogic Usage of Code-Switching.

Pedagogic Uses
Recitation 44
Discussion 37
Reporting 36
Expressing Opinions/Elaborating/Explaining 30
Debate 23
Performance Task (Role Playing/Skit) 23
Class Conversation 23
Group Works/Activities 18
Class Meetings/Interactions 16
Asking Questions/Permissions 15

Relationship between the profile of the students and their attitudes and habits towards code-switching

The table 12 reveals that sex and gender orientation significantly affect the student’s attitude on code-switching. As to sex, more positive attitude towards code-switching is associated among male and students whose gender orientation is different from their sex. This finding is strengthened by Schimdt (2014) and Panhwar (2018) where they indicated that language preference, social identification, participants’ gender, and age are all relevant factors in code-switching.

Furthermore, it was found that Native Language is the only variable that significantly influences their habits on code-switching. The results reveal that Non-Ilocanos (Tagalogs and Ybanags) have more frequent habits of using code-switching.

Table 12. Correlation test results between the profile of the students and their attitudes and habits towards code-switching

Variables Attitude Habits
Correl. Prob. Stat. Infer. Correl. Prob. Stat. Infer.
Profile
Age 0.049 0.725 Not significant -0.082 0.554 Not significant
Sex -0.379 0.004 Significant 0.144 0.294 Not significant
Gender orientation 0.298 0.027 Significant 0.123 0.372 Not significant
Native language 0.101 0.464 Not significant -0.268 0.048 Significant
Ethnicity 0.122 0.373 Not significant 0.070 0.610 Not significant
Religion -0.096 0.484 Not significant 0.081 0.558 Not significant

Tested at 0.05 level of significance

Relationship between the attitudes of the students and their habits towards code-switching

The table 13 exhibits that attitude and habits significantly influence code-switching. The correlation test results of this study oppose the findings of Valerio (2015) that they don’t have a significant relationship between the attitudes of students towards code switching and their academic performance. Meanwhile, the results of this study reveals that attitudes and habits of the students can improve their performance academically.

Table 13. Correlation test results between the attitudes of the students and their habits towards code-switching

Variables Correlations Probability Stat. Inference
Attitude 0.442 0.001 Significant
Habits

Tested at 0.05 level of significance

CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATIONS

Language is dynamic and evolving and the usage of code-switching has become popular among millennials, for this, code -switching dominates the classroom for social, instructional and pedagogical purposes. Numerous studies have discussed code-switching in which there is both positive and negative view towards it. Findings of this study revealed that teaching, particularly the BSED English program is female-dominated. Most respondents were Iloco/Ilocano, Roman Catholics and belonging to the age range of 20-below. As to the attitudes, results indicate that the students displayed a positive attitude towards code-switching. This means that code-switching has proven to be a valuable tool for students as it allows them to effectively communicate and share their ideas in both academic and social settings. As to the frequency of the use of code-switching, students don’t always code-switch, only when it’s necessary, as they are English major students. As to the pedagogic usage, there are pedagogical applications of code switching. This finding can be beneficial for both the teachers and the students for their understanding and retention of materials. The findings show that sex and gender orientation have a significant impact on students’ attitudes toward code-switching. In terms of gender, males and students whose gender orientation differs from their sex have a more positive attitude toward code-switching.

Furthermore, it was discovered that Native Language is the only variable that has a significant influence on their code-switching habits. The findings show that Non-Ilocanos (Tagalogs and Ybanags) use code-switching more frequently. Therefore, the findings of this study contribute to the positive impressions as regards to code-switching. The researchers’ work will help better understand when and how to use code switching in their own classes to increase learning and teaching effectively.

The scope of this study is limited because it only examines at students’ perceptions on code switching. The study should be expanded to include teachers’ attitudes, habits, and pedagogical use of code switching. As a result, the issue of code switching in bilingual education would be better understood generally. Additionally, a more thorough and generalizable analysis would be possible if the study had been carried out in other situations and with a bigger sample size. In conclusion, it is critical that scholars continue exploring the subtleties of language in bilingual settings since this information can influence and advance language teaching in multilingual cultures.

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Other References:

  1. Code-switching. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 29, 2022, from https://www.britannica.com/topic/code-switching Identity construction through code-switching practices at a university … (n.d.). Retrieved December 29, 2022, from http://journalarticle.ukm.my/16812/1/40391-143237-1-PB.pdf
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