Effect of Work  Experience on Marital Satisfaction and Marital Conflict among Normal and Shift Schedule Professionals  of Ekiti State, Nigeria

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 Effect of Work  Experience on Marital Satisfaction and Marital Conflict among Normal and Shift Schedule Professionals  of Ekiti State, Nigeria

  • Falegan  Temitope
  • 376-384
  • Mar 17, 2024
  • Education

Effect of Work  Experience on Marital Satisfaction and Marital Conflict among Normal and Shift Schedule Professionals  of Ekiti State, Nigeria

Falegan  Temitope

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Science. Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

DOI: https://doi.org/10.51244/IJRSI.2024.1102029

Received: 22 January 2024; Revised: 06 February 2024; Accepted: 11 February 2024; Published: 17 March 2024

ABSTRACT

Separation, single parenthood and divorce are all on the rise. The commotion of the work place mix with family obligation and expectation play a role in these  marital challenges. The study examined Marital satisfaction and marital conflict the comparative analysis of shift schedule and normal working hours employee in Ekiti-state, Nigeria. A total of 700 staff (389 normal working hours schedule and 381 shift schedules) were selected, Slovin formula was employed to get a sample of the population. Participants ages ranged between <18 ->55 years. These research instruments were used to generate data from participants, namely Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale(EMSC)by Blaire et al 1987 and Kansas Marital Conflict Scale(KMSC) by Eggerman et al 1985. Data were analyzed with the use of analysis of variance (Anova and independent t-test). The findings show that there is a significant difference in the level of marital conflict reported by the professionals (Nurses, Police officers, Correctional officers and Civil servants)F(3,766)=40.58.P<.01. Observation of the means  shows  correctional officer (x=75.83)  has  highest level of marital conflict  followed by police (x=72.86) then Nurses ( x= 66.34) and lastly civil servant. However  there is also a significant  difference in the  marital satisfaction of the professionals F(3,766)=6,67.P<.01.Nurses reported highest score on marital satisfaction followed by Civil servants then police officer  and  and lastly correctional officer..  Findings were discussed in relation to the existing literature on marital satisfaction and marital conflict

Keywords: Marital satisfaction, Marital conflict, Shift working schedule, Normal working schedule

INTRODUCTION

Marriage, as an institution, is intended to meet people’s physical/biological requirements in a legal, customary, and culturally determined manner. It also allows men and women to have families and establishes some rights and responsibilities for children born from their relationship (Babalola et al., 2020).The idea of marriage has many purposes, including meeting both the biological, social, psychological, and motivational demands of loving and being loved, creating a new generation, establishing oneself in society, feeling safe and protected, cooperating, being optimistic about the future, feeling proud of one another, and maintaining a healthy sexual life (Kocyigit 2017 in Canel, 2012). Marriage is seen in many civilisations as an institution in which closeness and fellowship exist, as well as being reared in safety, allowing persons to have sexual intercourse and providing a chance for emotional growth (Yavuser 2012) Marriage is regarded as a religious sacrament in certain societies, but a social compact in others. No difference applies to the case in Nigeria. Marriage is associated with several positive outcomes, including increased lifespan, less risky behaviour, more excellent sickness protection, higher income savings, higher social standing, healthier behaviours, and more satisfaction (Hemstrom 1996; Johnson, Backlund, Sorlie and Lovelees 2000, Roger, 1995 Wacte 1995).Married persons with stable lifestyles and sufficient marital satisfaction live longer and are more likely to survive cancer, have healthy and acceptable eating habits, and suffer from fewer diseases, depression, and mental health issues (Perman Pack 2013). In contrast, marital conflict leads to several aspect of complications in marital relationship such as lowering the cooperation, lowering the rate of sexual relationship, intensifying the excitement-related reactions, reducing the relationship of family with spouse’s relative and friends, increasing the personal relationship with ones and separating partners financial matters (Robert2018).  marital conflict often led to the emergence of stress and can predict the beginning of the course of depression, anxiety and many physical and psychological diseases (Seyedeh et al 2016). In addition, marital conflict is associated with worse health and specific conditions such as: cancer, heart disease, and chronic pains, perhaps as a result of alterations in immunological, endocrine, and cardiovascular functioning during conflict (Fincham, 2012).  Marital conflicts provide the ground for marital exhaustion (this is a bitter situation and dejects the ones who expect love to give them satisfaction to their life marital exhaustion emerges when two spouses realize that their relationship will not work, no matter how hard their try) which in turn distort the balance of life and affect marital satisfaction and compatibility (Seyedeh et al 2016). Marital conflict is a multifaceted aspect of human relationships. It encompasses a wide range of disagreements, disputes, or tensions that can occur within a marriage. These conflicts can emerge from various sources, including differences in values, expectations, communication styles, financial matters, and even external stressors such as work-related pressures. Marital conflicts can vary in intensity and nature, from relatively minor disagreements about household chores to more significant and emotionally charged disputes about fundamental issues like parenting, finances, or infidelity. These conflicts are a natural part of any relationship and can be both constructive, leading to growth and understanding, or destructive, if left unaddressed. Understanding the dynamics of marital conflict involves exploring how couples communicate during disagreements, their ability to resolve differences, and the impact of these conflicts on their emotional well-being and relationship satisfaction. Research has shown that a healthy approach to addressing conflicts is characterized by open communication, active listening, and compromise, can lead to constructive outcomes and enhance the overall quality of the marriage.

Bodily violence occurs in around 30% of married couples in the United States, leaving approximately 10% of married couples with substantial physical harm (Fincham, 2012). It is a known fact; that divorce may stem from marital discord. Studies of this nature need to provide some light on the global divorce rates so that an appropriate context would be provided for this study. For example, Denmark has the highest rate among the Nordic nations, with 3.4 divorces per 1000 residents. Sweden has the second highest divorce rate in the Nordic nations, with 2.6 divorces per 1000 people, followed by Finland (2.5), Norway (1.9), and Iceland (1.6 divorces per 1000 inhabitants) (Haagensen, 2017)

In Nigeria, the secondary data obtained from 2006 Nigeria national population census indicated that the crude rate of marital dissolution in Nigeria was 11% per 1000 population. Among ever married population, crude rate of marital dissolution was 29% per 1000.

Nigeria in recent years has witnessed a high rate of divorce as a result of urbanization and industrialization, the search for employment by family members in labour market, the nature of their work or their inability can be considered as a disruptive force in maintaining marital stability, (Adegoke (2010)

Work has been highlighted in the literature as one of the causes of divorce (which is a marital conflict) Rothman & Cilliers (2004). Although work is critical to human life, it is essential to achieving the human requirements described in Abraham Maslow’s (1959) hierarchy of needs. Work, according to Omolayo (2005), is of major significance to humans and has served as a motivator physically, morally, and philosophically.

The nature of labour is determined by the kind of work that people excel at. This may pertain to both the essential daily chores done as part of a job and any extra non-routine tasks that may be required. A vocation is characterized by the production, acquisition, and sale of commodities and services. It involves offering customized and specialized services. A teacher’s job includes creating lesson plans and instructing students at different levels. They are responsible for giving homework, grading tests, grading exams, and tracking progress. A nurse’s job includes being responsible for the care, safety, and recovery of persons who are severely or chronically sick or wounded. Their responsibilities include maintaining the health of others and treating life-threatening situations in a variety of health care settings.

The essence of police job is to preserve law and order, as well as to protect lives and property, controlling traffic and arresting lawbreakers, among other things. Prison officers’ duties include supervising convicts, instructing them, ensuring their safety and security, and trying to help them rehabilitate and prepare for the future. Their tasks include checking prison cells according to protocols and safety rules, overseeing convicts during meals and leisure time, settling inmates’ problems to assist preserve peace and order, and escorting offenders to employment locations, medical facilities, or anywhere else they need to go.

Civil servants are professionals who work in ministries, parastatals, local governments, and federal government agencies. They recruit people, manage staff, establish employee rules, advise and support the environment to carry out public sector initiatives.

Shift employment necessitates persons being awake during a time of behavioural inactivity when our circadian rhythms prepare our bodies for sleep. sleeplessness and various health issues such as menstruation dissection and psychological issues and so on have negative effect on family. Aside from the previously mentioned negative impact, various researches have shown that shift employment interferes with family relationships.

Finally, marital conflict is linked to negative family outcomes such as poor parenting, poor child adjustment, and an increased chance of parent-child conflict and sibling conflict (Grych and Fincham, 2007). Marital disagreement has a negative impact on emotional, physical, and family health (Finchan, 2001).

Marital satisfaction on the other hand is a broad assessment of one’s marriage or current long-term romantic relationship that brings fulfilment to the couple. Thus, a global assessment might be a reflection of how happy individuals are in their marriages in general, or it can be a composite of satisfaction with numerous particular marital impacts (Brockwood, 2007). The bigger the number of good behaviours or the lower the number of negative behaviours the better the marital satisfaction (Brandury, Finchan and Beach 2000). When spouses are happy in their marriage, their family strength is strong, and they can cope with challenges effectively (Mangsli, Ramezani and Mangeli 2009).

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 There has recently been a public outcry about the rising prevalence of divorce and marital instability among married individuals. It has been noted that the pace at which divorce cases are filed in customary courts, particularly in Ekiti State, is frightening. This was also supported by the headline of a report by the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) on July 20, 2021, which says: “Ekiti Residents voice concern over High Divorce Rate.” The increased desire for divorce by dissatisfied spouses is bad for society’s harmony and the future of children from such shattered homes.

Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were evaluated in the research based on the stated objectives and literature review:

  1. There will be a significant variation in the level of experience on marital conflict  among the professional (Nurses,police officers,correctional officers and civil servants)
  2. There will be a significant variation in the level of experience on marital satisfaction among the professional.

Aim and Objectives of the Study

Here, we aim to ascertain if individuals on regular work schedules vary considerably from their counterparts on work shifts in terms of marital conflict and satisfaction experiences. Specifically, the research intends to explore the following objective:

  1. Determine if professional(nurses, police, correctional and civil servants) have marital satisfaction and marital conflict experiences.
  2. Compare employees with normal working schedules( civil servants) to shift working schedule( nurses,police, correctional officers) to see whether their experinces with marital conflict and marital satisfaction vary.

METHODOLOGY

The study used and survey research design which employs multi-stage sampling techniques. The research participants in the study comprises of seven hundred and  seventy (770) Staff in Ekiti State. Normal working hour schedule participant were three hundred and eighty-one (381) while shift work schedule participants were three hundred and eighty-nine (389). The participants were within the age range of eighteen (18) and fifty five (55).

The instrument employed to measure marital satisfaction is Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale (EMSS) by Blaire  et al (1992) and while Marital Conflict is measured by Kamsas Marital Conflict Scale (KMCS) by Eggerman et al. (1985)

RESULTS

Table .1: Distribution of social-demographics by gender

Social-demographics n (%) n (%) N (%)
Shift work Normal work schedule Total

N= 770

n = 389 (50.5) n = 381 (49.5)
Sex
Male 254 (65.3) 208 (54.6) 462 (60)
Female 135  (34.7) 173 (45.4) 308 (40)
Age at marriage
25 years 37 (9.5) 33 (8.7) 70(9.1)
26-35 years 202 (51.9) 158 (41.5) 360 (46.8)
36-45 139 (35.7) 175 (45.9) 314 (40.8)
Years of marriage
1-10 years 166 (42.7) 131 (34.6) 297 (38.7)
11-20 years 190 (48.8) 192 (50.7) 382 (49.7)
21-30 years 33 (8.5) 56 (14.8) 89 (11.6)
Professions
Police 243 (62.5) 243 (31.6)
Nursing 100 (25.7) 100 (13)
Prison Wardens 46 (11.8) 46 (6)
Civil servants 381 (100) 381 (49.5)

Table 2: Descriptive table showing the level of marital satisfaction and marital satisfaction and marital conflict among the professions.

                    Marital Satisfaction Marital Conflict
Profession N Mean SD Mean SD
Police 243 51.07 7.52 72.86 11.23
Nursing 100 55.29 10.63 66.34 14.05
Correctional officers 46 50.39 6.38 75.83 12.45
Civil Servants 381 53.58 10.76 63.11 11.89

Table 3: one way showing the variation in the experience of marital conflict among the professions.

Variable SS Df Ms F P
Profession 17613.57 3 5871.19 40.58 .000
Error 110841.15 766 144.70
Total 128454.72 769

Table 3 shows significant diff in the level of marital conflict reported by the professionals. F(3,766) = 40.58, P <.01.

Observation of the means on table 2 also shows that correctional officers (x = 75.83) reported the highest level of marital conflict, followed by police (x = 72.86), then nurses (x = 66.34) and lastly civil servants (x = 63.11).

There is no significant mean difference in marital conflict between police and wardens, or nurses and civil servants.

Post hoc analysis further shows the direction of differences as indicted in table 5

There is a significant mean difference between police and nurses [MD = 6-52, P<.01] , between police and civil servants  [MD = 9.74, P<.01], between nurses and correctional officers [MD = 9.49 P<.01], and lastly between nurses and correctional officers [MD = 12.71, P<.01]

Table 4.: One way ANOVA table showing the variation in the level of marital satisfaction among the professions.

Variable SS Df Ms F P
Profession 1847.722 3 615.91 6.67 .00
Error 70687.46 766 92.28
Total 72535.18 769

Table 4 shows a significant variation in the level of marital satisfaction reported by the professionals (3,766) = 6.67 p<.01

Observation of the means on table 3 show that nurses reported the highest level of satisfaction, followed by the civil servants, then police and lastly correctional officers.

To know the direction of differences, the mean difference as show by the post hoc analysis on table 5 indicates there is a difference in the level of marital satisfaction between nurses and police [MD = .4.22, P<.01] between nurses and correctional officers [MD = 4.89, P<.05] and between civil servants and police [MD = 2.51, P<.05] but no significant difference between police and correctional officers, civil servants and correctional officers, and also civil servants and nurses.

Table 5:  Post hoc analysis table on mean difference in marital conflict among the professions

Police Nurses Warden Civil Service
1 Police —-
2 Nurses 6.52**
3 Warden -2.97 -9.49**
4 Civil Servants 9.74** 3.23 12.71*

** sig. at .01

Table 6: Post hoc analysis on mean difference in marital satisfaction among the professions

Police Nurses Warden
Police
Nurses .4.22**
Warden .67 4.89*
Civil Servants -2.51* 1.71 -3.19

** significant at .01

* significant at .05

Hypothesis one which proposed that there will be a significant variation in the level of marital conflict among the professionals (Nurses, police, correctional officers and civil servants) is confirmed. The result as shown in table 4.6 shows significant difference in the level of marital conflict reported by the professionals.

Table 3 shows significant difference in the level of marital conflict reported by the professionals. F(3,766) = 40.58, P <.01. Therefore, there is a significant variation in the level of marital conflict among the professional which are nurses, police, correctional officers and civil servants is hereby confirmed.

Post hoc analysis further shows the direction of differences as indicted in table 5

There is a significant mean difference between police and nurses [MD = 6.52, P<.01] , between police and civil servants  [MD = 9.74, P<.01], between nurses and correctional officers [MD = 9.49 P<.01], and lastly between nurses and correctional officers [MD = 12.71, P<.01]  .There is no significant mean difference  in marital conflict between police and correctional officers  or nurses and civil servant

Observation of the means on table 3 also show that correctional officers (x = 75.83)) reported the highest level of marital conflict, followed by police (x = 72.86), then nurses (x = 66.34), and lastly civil servants (x = 63.11).

There is no statistically significant difference in marital conflict ratings between police officers and correctional officers. This means that since they work in emotionally intense jobs, each of these occupations has its particular mix of spillover (i.e work can affect family and family can affect work). Another potential explanation for these results is that police officers and correctional personnel have a propensity to treat their families like criminals or convicts. According to Crawley 2002, the extent to which correctional officer bring jail home may be upsetting, irritating, and troublesome for their wives and families. This result was also reinforced by Hochschild 1983, who said that jail and police labour is emotionally hard, harmful to health, and the social and occupational norms necessary to carry out the task may be intense, adversely affecting family life. According to Crawley’s 2002 research, wives of jail officials and police felt uneasy without routine, norms, and a timetable, and for this reason. They attempted to impose them at home by ordering them about and expecting them to perform specific chores or duties, for example, they (police and prison officers) employed the same tone of voice and demeanor at home as they do at work which may cause marital strife at home.

Hypothesis two states that there will be a significant variation in the experience of marital satisfaction among the professional (nurses, police officers and correctional officers and civil servants)

Result on Table4  shows a significant variation in the level of marital satisfaction reported by the professionals (3,766) = 6.67 p<.01

Therefore, the hypothesis two which states that there will be a significant variation in the level of marital satisfaction among the professional is confirmed.

To know the direction of differences, the mean difference as show by the post hoc analysis on table 6 indicates there is a difference in the level of marital satisfaction between nurses and police [MD = .4.22, P<.01] between nurses and correctional officers [MD = 4.89, P<.05] and between civil servants and police [MD = 2.51, P<.05] but no significant difference between police and correctional officers, civil servants and correctional officers, and also civil servants and nurses. Observation of the means on table 4 show that nurses reported the highest level of satisfaction, followed by the civil servants, then police and lastly correctional officers.

Furthermore, the testing of two hypotheses revealed that nurses scored higher on marital satisfaction than civil servants, police officers and correctional officials. It might be because the nature of nurses’ employment includes caring for patients, offering emotional and psychological support, and educating patients about their medical illnesses and treatment plans, provide patients and family members with advice on illness prevention and health maintenance People consider nursing to be a ‘passionate’ career, that care, provide support and counseling to patients which can make a positive impact on home. There was no statistically significant difference in marital satisfaction between police officers and correctional officers Camerino et al. (2010) investigated work-family, by conflict among various work shift schedule groups and discovered that different work schedules had distinct impacts on work-family conflict.

CONCLUSION

 The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of work experience  on marital satisfaction and marital conflict among normal and shift schedule employees of Ekiti state, Nigeria. The study shows work experience does  have significant variation in the level  of  marital conflict and  marital satisfaction among the researched professionals.

RECCOMMENDATION

From the findings of this research study, it is recommended that adjustment between couples is important in mitigating the negative impact of work on marital conflict and  marital stability. Also,  to avoid  creating stress  and difficulties that lead to marital problem, professionals such as police  and correctional officers should practice psychological and emotional adjustment while transitions from work to home conduct,

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